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VICTORIAN 
914.2 
C251ke 
1846 



Joseph Earl and 
Genevieve Thornton 

Arrington 

Collection of 19th 
Century Americana 

Brigham Young University Library 



BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY 



3 1197 22902 7708 



< 



THE 



KING OF SAXONY'S JOURNEY 



THROUGH 



ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND 



IN THE YEAR 1844. 



By Dr. C. G. CARUS, 

PHYSICIAN TO HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF SAXONY, AND PRIVY COUNSELLOR OF 

THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 



TRANSLATED 

By S. C. DAVISON, B.A Dr. Ph., &c. 



INTKR KOLIA FRUCTL'S." 



LONDON: 
CHAPMAN AND HALL, 186, STRAND. 

1846, 



C. WHITING, BEAUFORT HOUSE, STRAND. 



THE FOLLOWING SHEETS 



ARE, BY HIS MAJESTY S GRACIOUS PERMISSION, DEDICATED TO 



KING FREDERICK AUGUSTUS, 



WITH FEELINGS OF THE MOST PROFOUND RESPECT AND DEEPEST GRATITUDE, 



BY 



C. G. CARUS. 



PREFACE. 



The journey of his Majesty the King of Saxony through England 
and Scotland was so well planned and executed, and is so admirably 
fitted to give a rapid but clear view of the most remarkable things 
of these remarkable countries, that it will serve as a model for 
future travellers who have similar objects in view. Even in this 
respect, it would have been a subject of regret, had not at least a 
short but accurate account of the nature and direction of the various 
excursions undertaken been given to the public. And this circum- 
stance, in addition to the very numerous and interesting occur- 
rences and observations, determined me not to withold from the press 
the contents of my journal, written during the rapidity of the jour- 
ney, and in a very brief style. 

The present volume, therefore, owes its origin to no premeditated 
plan of travelling in order to write a book, and still less is it written 
and published in order to travel again, but to the circumstances alone 
already mentioned, together with the permission and sanction given 
to its appearance. 

The reader is not in such a case to look for complete statistical 
notices, detailed geographical or historical descriptions, and still less 
for copious political reflections ; but he is here permitted in some 
measure to participate in a journey favoured in every respect, through 
an important country favoured in many respects, and among so 
many persons who exercise a remarkable influence upon the history 
of our times. 

Had time and leisure allowed, many of the hasty sketches and 



vi PREFACE. 

remarks in the journal might have been recast and extended, and 
made in many respects more complete, but they would thereby have 
certainly lost in freshness, precision, and reality. Even in this 
respect, therefore, I have preferred leaving them in their original, 
almost aphoristic form — with very few additions — and the more so 
as there can be, or is, no want of copious and accurate works on so 
civilised — nay, the most civilised — country in the world ; but it will 
be to me a subject of higher gratification, if the descriptions which 
I have given furnish the careful reader with what he often seeks in 
vain in works of the greatest detail — an unclouded feeling of true, 
lively, and real circumstantiality ; that is, the possibility of trans- 
porting one's self in mind into the midst of the things themselves. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

I. — Introduction 1 

II. — Journey to England— Leipzig — Magdeburg, The Cathedral — Brunswick 

— Cathedral — Ducal Palace 2 

III.— Hildesheim — Old Buildings — Cathedral — Convent of St. Michael— 
Porta Westphalica— Minden— Elberfeld— The Valley of the Rhine- 
Cologne — The Cathedral and the New Buildings 4 

IV.— Railroad from Cologne to Aix-la-Chapelle — Verviers — Brussels— Dinner 
at Court — Whitsunday— St. Gudule — The Townhouse — Institute of 
Vandermaelen — Botanic Garden— Hotel of the Prince of Orange — Paint- 
ings in the Royal Palace — Quetelet — Anemometer — Dinner at Lacken... 7 

V. — Palace of the Duke of Aremberg — Observatory — Dejeuner at Lacken — 
Ghent — Townhouse — University — Beguines — Cathedral — Van Eyck's 
Lamb— Bruges — Monument of Charles the Bold— Hospital of St. John, 
with Pictures by Memling — Palace of Justice — Townhouse — Appear- 
ance of the Town — Ostend . N . 12 

VI. — Introduction to England in general — Outline of the Country — Bays — 
Motion of the Sea— Effect of the Sea upon Climate — Relations of the 
Soil — Various Formations — Fossils — Plants —Southern Vegetation — No 
Forests— Animals — General Character of the English People explained, 
with Reference to Descent and Separation from the Rest of the World — 
Architecture — England has a peculiar Architectural Style — The Navy 
and Sea Affairs considered, in reference to Wealth and Character — 
Peculiarities of the English Constitution and Government 17 

VII. — Journey to London — Passage from Ostend to Dover — Different Style of 
the Buildings, and different Character of the Population — Dover Castle 
— Shakspeare's Cliff — South -Eastern Railway — Tunbridge — Drive to 
Buckhurst — Family of Lord Delawarr 37 

VIII. — Vie de Chateau of the English Nobility — Drive to Knowle House — Lord 
Amherst — Redleaf — Mr. Wells ; his Collection of Paintings — Penshurst 
— Fire-place in the Old Hall — Drive back to Buckhurst — May Feast — 
Dinner at Lord Delawarr's 41 

IX. — Departure from Buckhurst — Visit to Mr. West — Road to Brighton — 
Similarity between England and Italy — The Pavilion St .tue of George 
IV. — Pier — Sea-baths — Road to Arundel — The New Castle — Picturesque 
Ruins of the old One — Owls — Chichester— Cross and Cathedral — Arrival 
in Portsmouth — Admiralty — Supper there 46 

X. — Visit to the Dockyards in Portsmouth — Brunei s Machine — The " Arrow" — 
Visit to several Ships — Magazines — Biscuit-baking by Steam— Iron 
Water-tanks — Visit to the Victory — Nelson — Departure from Ports- 
mouth in the Fanny — Landing at the Isle of Wight— Drive to Shanklin 
— St. Boniface — Newport — Club-house in Cowes 51 

XL — London — From Cowes to the Needles —Lunch on board the Fanny — 
Yacht Club — Southampton — Departure on the Railway by Special Train 
— Eighty English Miles in Two Hours — Arrival in London — Prince Al- 
bert — Buckingham Palace — Her Majesty the Queen — Grand Dinner 55 

XII. — First Morning in London — Dr. Freund — Professor Owen — St. James's 
Park — Trafalgar Square— Monuments — College of Surgeons and Owen's 
Collection — Clyptodon, Mylodon, Dinornis, &c. — Cuvier's Daughter-in- 
law — Zoological Gardens — Regent's Park — Orang Utang, Giraffes, Siren 
Lacertina — English Sunday Walkers — Return through Bedford Square 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

and Regent Street — Appearance of the West-End of London — Project 
for Funerals by Rail 58 

XIII. — Practising Physicians in London — British Museum — Elgin Marbles — 
Friezes of the Temple of Phigalia — Egyptian Museum : Beauty of 
Motion, Beauty of Fixedness — Collection of Fossil Remains — Missurium 
changed into a Mastodon — To Windsor — Windsor — Grand Dinner — 
The Emperor of Russia 65 

XIV. — Eton — To London — Oxford Street Bazaar — Return — Stoppage at Han- 
well — Lunatic Asylum — Return to Windsor — Higliland Piper — Concert 
— Splendour of the Rooms 69 

XV. — Review in Windsor Park — Drive through the Park — Virginia Water — 
Ruins — Country-house of George IV. — Full Dress Dinner — Interesting 
Persons — Written Portraits — The Emperor — Sir Robert Peel — The 
Duke of Wellington 73 

XVI. — Terrace before Windsor Castle — Modern Silversmiths' Work — Ascot 

Heath Races — In the Evening new Faces — Admiral Codrington 78 

XVII. — Walk to Shapspeare's Oak — St. George's Chapel — Re turn to London... 81 

XVIII. — Palace of the Duke of Sutherland — The New Houses of Parliament — 
Westminster Hall — Westminster Abbey — Visit to the House of Lords — 
Full Dress Dinner 83 

XIX. — Visit to Lawrence — Bedlam — Phrenological Collection of Deville — Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital — Crowd in the City — Rout at the Duke of Devon- 
shire's, Chis wick House — Giraffes — Picture Gallery in Buckingham Palace 
Italian Opera — Grisi, Mario, Lablache — Ballet — Cerito 88 

XX. — Sunday — Work with Owen — The Marquis of Lansdowne's House — 
Walk through London — St. Paul's — The Monument — London Bridge — 
River Steamers — St. James's Park — Dinner at the Duke of Cambridge's. . . 93 

XXI. — New Bridewell, Westminster, a Prison on the System of strict Silence — 
Penitentiary, a Prison on the System of entire Isolation — Archbishop of 
Canterbury and his Palace in Lambeth — Surrey Zoological Gardens — 
Painting representing London in 1666 — The Tunnel — Mr. Brunei — 
Barclay and Perkins's Brewery — Philharmonic Concert 96 

XXH. — Owen's Head — Covent Garden Market — Baker Street Bazaar — Zoolo- 
gical Gardens* Regent's Park — Mr. Hope's House — United Service Club 
— British Museum — Egyptian Room — Portland Vase — Arts of the 
Middle Ages — Fossil Remains — Meteoric Stones — Zoological Collection 
— Remarkable Nest of a New Holland Bird — Robert Brown and the 
Botanical Collection — Whitehall — Italian Opera and Cerito's Moonlight 
Dance (Shadow Dance) 102 

XXHI. — Gould, the Ornithologist — Remarkable Bird of New Holland — St. 
George's Hospital — Anatomical School of Mr. Lane — Faraday — Lying- 
in-Hospital, City Road — Refusal of Admittance into St. Luke's — Dinner 
and Soiree at Lord Wilton's 110 

XXIV. — Prince Albert's interest in Natural History — Drive to Richmond and 
Visit to the Duke of Cambridge at Kew — Professor Hooker and Son — 
Sion House — Collection of Orchidea belonging to Mrs. Lawrence — Hyde 
Park — Dinner at Lord Aberdeen's — Comedy at the Haymarket: Mar- 
ried Life 113 

XXV. — Drive to Hampton Court — Raphael's Cartoons — Celebrated Vine — 
Picture Gallery — Hall and Chapel of Hampton Court — Drive to Clare- 
mont 118 

XXVI. — Morning in Claremont — Exhibition of the Horticultural Society at 
Chiswick— Large Turtle in London — The Tower — London Docks — 
Dinner at Sir R. Peel's — Soiree of Learned and Celebrated Men 123 

XXVII. — A Quaker Meeting on Sunday — Mrs. Austin — Lord Ashburton's 
Picture Gallery — Marquis of Westminster's Gallery in Grosvenor House 
— After Dinner, Visit to the Times Printing Office 127 

XXVIII.— Trials at the Old Bailey— West Smithfield— Christ's Hospital- 
East India House — Guy's Hospital— St. Thomas's Hospital — Antiques in 
the British Museum — Mrs. Austin and the Exhibition — British Gallery 
— Mr. Rogers' Pictures — Dinner and Concert 131 

XXIX.— The New Pentonville Model Prison— The Post Office— Goldsmith's 
Hall — Visit to the Lord Mayor— Old Bailey — Inauguration of the Wei- 



CONTENTS. IX 

PAGE. 

lington Statue — The Temple and the. Temple Church — The British 

Gallery — Dinner — Captain Meynell — Opera — Ballet — Fanny Elsler 136 

XXX. — Preparations for Departure — Tom Thumb— The Chinese Exhibition... 144 

XXXI.— Departure 146 

XXXII. — Journey through England — Departure— Hatfield— The Marquis of 
Salisbury — Cambridge— Trinity College— Dr. W he well — Soiree of Pro- 
fessors 148 

XXXIII. — Early Prayer — St. John's College — University Library — St. Mary's 
Church — Collection of Fossils — Botanic Gardens — Anatomy — St. Peter's 

College — Journey by Bedford to Woburn Abbey — Woburn 153 

XXXIV. — By Railway from Wolverton to Chesterfield— Colossal Station in 

Derby — Warwick Castle — Journey from Chesterfield to Bakewell 156 

XXXV. — Sunday Morning in Bakewell —Drive to Chatsworth — Castle, Park, 

and Greenhouses there — Haddon Hall — Back to Bakewell 160 

XXXVI. — Drive to the Peak and to Castleton— The Celebrated Peak Cavern — 
Second smaller Cavern — Thunder Storm — Arrival in Buxton — Drive 
by Bakewell to Matlock 165 

XXXVII. — Marble Works in Matlock — Arrival in Birmingham — Ashton Hall 
— Steam Engine Manufactory of Watt — Dull Impression produced by 
Birmingham — Papier Mache Manufactory — Button Manufactory — Chil- 
dren in Manufactories 169 

XXXVIIL— Nail Manufactory— Manufactory of Plated Goods — Great Gun 
Factory — Pin Manufactory— Coventry — Cathedral — St. Mary's Hall — 
Old Womens' Almshouses — Kenilworth — Splendid Character of the 
Ruin — Guy's Cliff— Warwick Castle — Park — Warwick Vase — Drive to 
Leamington 172 

XXXIX. — Early Walk in Leamington — Warwick and St. Mary's Chapel — 
Stratford-on-Avon — Shakspeare's House and Grave — Blenheim— The 
Duke of Marlborough — Gallery in Blenheim— The Raphael of the An- 
sidei Family — Drive to Oxford 178 

XL. — Dr. Wynter — The several Colleges — Botanic Garden — Bodleian Library 
— Radcliff Library — Professor Kidd — Ashmolean Museum — Walk in 
Oxford 184 

XLI. — Morning Walk in Oxford — Radcliff Library — Usbury Forest — Wild 
Rabbits — Waste Country — Stonehenge — Amesbury— Salisbury — The 
Cathedral by Moonlight 189 

XLH. — Visit to the Cathedral in the Morning — Monument to Lord Malms- 
bury — Drive to Milton House — Arrival at the Sea-baths of Weymouth. 193 

XLIII. — A Morning on the Sea-shore — Drive to Lyme Regis — Fossils — Land- 
slip — Sidmouth — Exmouth 196 

XLIV.— Dawlish — Teignmouth — Kingswear and Dartmouth — Pleasant Excur- 
sion on the Dart — Sea-life on a small Scale — Continuation of the Excur-, 
sion as far as Totness — Arrival in Plymouth 200 

XLV. — The Relation of Man to Nature and his Fellow Creatures — Plymouth — 
Examination of its Harbour — Admiral Sir David Milne — Docks at De- 
vonport — Luncheon at the Admiral's House — Excursion to the Break- 
water — Light-house — The Caledonia, 120 guns — Mount Edgecombe — 
Drive to Liskeard 205 

XL VI. — Quakers — Bodmin— Copper Mines near Redruth — Mount Bay — Mara- 

zion — Mount St. Michael — Penzance 212 

XLVH. — Excursion to the Logan Rock and Land's End — Copper and Tin Mines 

of Bottallak — Drive by Truro and Bodmin to Launceston 215 

XLVIH.— Oakhampton — Exeter — Railroad Journey to Bristol — Railway 

Station — Clifton 219 

XLIX. — Rocky Valley of the Avon — Drive to Bath — The Lady Ninety-two 

Years old — Landsdowne Tower — Prior College — Baths 22 1 

L. — Large Iron Steamer, the Great Britain— Leidcourt Park — Crossing the 
Bristol Channel— Height of the Tides — Chepstow — Tintern Cottage — 
Tintern Abbey 224 

LI. — Old Castle of Chepstow — Newport — Merthyr Tydvil — Immense Iron- 
works 230 

LII. — Brecon — Devil's Bridge — Aberystwith 234 

b 



X CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

LIII. — A Morning on the Sea Shore — Dolgelley — Drive among the Welsh 

Mountains — Bethgelert 235 

LIV. — Ascent of Snowdon — Caernarvon — Menai Straits and Bridge — Anglesea 

—Bangor 238 

LV.— Slate Quarries at Penryhn — Penryhn Castle— Aber-Conway — Chester.... 245 

LVI. — Peculiarities in the Architecture of Chester— Church of St. John — 
Euton Hall — Iron Bridge in the Park — Large Stud — The Celebrated 
Horses, Pantaloon and Touchstone — Arrival in Birkenhead and Liverpool. 248 

LVII. — Bazaars in Liverpool — The Docks — The New Prince Albert's Docks — 
Excursion on the Mersey in the Steamboat Medina — An Iron Church — 
Visit to the Theatre— The Love-chase 252 

LVIII. — Railroad Journey to Manchester — Engine Manufactory — Manufactory 
of Ingenious Carding Machines — Embroidery Machine — Large Cotton 
Spinning Manufactory — Manufactory of Mackintoshes — Manufactory 
of Printed and Coloured Woollen Stuffs — The Royal Institution — Its 
Exhibition of Pictures and Geological Collection— Arrival in York 255 

LIX. — Character of York — The Cathedral — House and Family of the Dean, 
Dr. Cockburn — Yorkshire Museum — Castle and Clifford Tower — De- 
parture for Leeds — English Tavern — Large Flax Spinning Manufactory 
— Large Woollen Manufactory — General Character of the Manufac- 
tories — Return to Liverpool 260 

LX. — Journey by Railway through Preston to Lancaster — The Castle — Leven's 

Hall — Arrival in Bowness, near the Cumberland Lakes 2G6 

LXI. — A Morning in Bowness and on Windermere — Ambleside, Keswick — 
Ascent of Skiddaw — Lead-pencil Manufactory in Keswick — Arrival in 
Patterdale 268 

LXII. — Boating excursion on Ulleswater — Lyulph's Tower — Lowther Castle — 

Penrith— Carlisle — Cathedral and Castle of Carlisle 272 

LXIII. — Scotland — Borders — Gretna Green — Scotch Physiognomy — Free- 
church Party — Hamilton 276 

LXIV. — Morning in Hamilton Palace — Paintings — Ruin of Cadzaw — White 
Cattle— Income of the Duke — Bothwell Castle — Iron Works near 
Glasgow — Arrival in Glasgow — University — Hunterian Museum — Ex- 
change—Increasing Prosperity of Glasgow — Dumbarton — Loch Lomond 
— Balloch 278 

LXV. — Voyage to and upon Loch Lomond — The "Two Maidens' Island" — 

Heads of the Clans — Luss Mountain Pass — Inverary 284 

LXVL— Herring Fishery— The Duke of Argyle's Castle— Loch Etive — Cha- 
racteristics of the Country — Brown Waterfalls — Arrival in Oban 289 

LXVIL— Excursion to Staffa — Dunolly Castle — Duart Castle — Tobermory — 
Airdnamurchan — Scotch Fiddler— Staffa — Fingal's Cave — Iona — St. 
Oban's Abbey — Sea-mists — Island of Mull — Return to Oban — Voyage 
by Night to Fort William, and Arrival at Bannavie 292 

LXVIII. — Repairs of the Caledonian Canal — Drive to Loch Shiell, to see the 

Monument to Prince Charles Stuart — Whiskey 301 

LXIX. — Ben Nevis — Drive to Loch Lochy — A Scene from the Clan-feuds — 
Loch Oich — Loch Ness — Fort Augustus— Another scene from the Clan- 
feuds — Waterfall of the Foyer— Urquhart Castle — Arrival in Inverness 303 

LXX. — Vitrified Fort of Craig Phaedric — Gloomy Aspect of the Country — Drive 
to the Battle Field of Culloden — Kilravock Castle — Lady Campbell — 
Cawdor Castle — Park— Drive back to Inverness 310 

LXXL — The Direction of the Journey turned Southwards — Miserable Huts — 
Visit to one of them— Grampian Chain — Waterfall of the Bruar — 
Hunting Life in the Highlands — Arrival in Blair 315 

LXXIL — Pass of Killecrankie — Loch Tummel — Park and Castle of Taymouth, 
the Property of the Marquis of Breadalbane — Professor Brewster — Drive 
to the Waterfall of Moness — Great Banquet — National Dance 317 

LXXIII. — Departure from Taymouth — Amiable Family of Lord Breadalbane — 
The Valley of the Tay— Dunkeld— Birnam Wood— Perth— Castle of 
Kinfauns — Clan Fights in Perth — Allan Bridge — Stirling — Citadel — 
Palace of James V. — Geological Observations 321 

LXXIV. — Agricultural Museum in Stirling — High Standing of Scotch Agri- 



CONTENTS. XI 

PAGE. 

culture— Linlithgow — Ruins of thePalace of the Scotch Kings — Dalmahoy, 
the Property of Lord Morton — Drive to Hopetoun House — Cedar in the 
Park — Dinner and Soiree at Dalmahoy 326 

LXXV. — Situation of the Castle — Scotch Breakfast— Grouse — Drive to Edin- 
burgh — Imposing Aspect of the City — Heriot's Hospital — The Castle — 
Royal Desmesnes, in Scotland — Barracks of the Garrison — Riches of a 
Regiment— Parliament Houses — Letters of Mary Stuart — The College — 
Skeleton of the Giant Stag of the Early Ages — Library — Botanic 
Garden — Calton Hill — Nelson's Monument — Work-place for Calotype — 
Holyrood House — Ruins of the Abbey — Mary Stuart's Apartment — 
Ascent of Arthur's Seat — The Duel by Moonlight — Return over Calton 
Hill 331 

LXXVI. — Second drive to Edinburgh — Anatomical Collection at the College — 
Professor Thomson — Dr. Goodsir — Dr. Abercrombie — Anatomical 
Museum of the University — Town Hospital — Dr. Simpson — Plan of 
Edinburgh — Collection of the Phrenological Society— Musical Soiree at 
Dalm ahoy 341 

LXXVH. — Return Home — Departure from Dalmahoy — Strictness with which 
Sunday is kept in Scotland — Visit to a Presbyterian Church — Drive to 
Granton — Embarkation on board the Lightning — Departure, and Last 
View of Edinburgh — The Bass-rock, a Bird Island — Earewell to the 
Coasts of England 344 

LXXVIIL— The Wilderness of the Sea— Ship Life 349 

LXXIX. — Sunset — Awaking in a Storm — Calmer Noon — Rising of a Thunder 
Storm — The Powder Magazine — Pictures at Sea — Signal Light at Heli- 
goland — Anchoring — Lightning — Brilliancy of the Sea 350 

LXXX. — Entrance into the Elbe — Suspicious Piece of Water near Stade — Ap- 
proach to Altona — Landing at Hamburg — Old and New Hamburg — 
Excursion through Hamburg — The Exchange — Altona — Klopstock's 
Grave — The Nursery Gardener, Book — Raflesia — Jenisch's Country- 
house — Statuettes by Tenerani — Shore Scenery — The Theatre — Anti- 
gone — Festive Dinner, and Illuminations on the Basin of the Alster — 
The Officers of the Lightning 354 

Conclusion. — Early Walk in Hamburg — Ruins of St. Peter's Church— School- 
houses — Basin of the Alster — Departure — Zollenspieker and Eerry over 
the Elbe — Character of Vierland — Liineburg Heath — Luneburg — Bruns- 
wick — Departure by Railway for Magdeburg — Special Train from 
Magdeburg to Leipzig — Reception in Dresden — Departure of his Majesty 
for Pillnitz — My return with my Family to " Villa Cara" 360 

Four^ Appendices , 367 



ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND 

IN THE YEAR 1844. 



I. 

ITALY, FRANCE, AND ENGLAND. 

These constitute the great triad, whose influence and investiga- 
tion have produced such great effects upon Germany. To examine 
and clearly to represent the relations of these remarkable countries to 
one another and to us, must therefore always continue to be one of 
the most difficult and important problems for every reflecting German 
to solve. It has long appeared so to me, and was, in fact, the motive 
which determined me to take a journey to Paris, now nine years 
ago. Notwithstanding this, I still laboured under the disadvantage 
of never yet having personally visited the most difficult of these 
countries to be thoroughly understood ; and, after all, without per- 
sonal review and observation, none of the great phenomena of the 
world, and least of all the development of national peculiarities, can 
ever be thoroughly comprehended or really understood. 

In the course of time — though often late — our projects ripen; and 
the intended journey of his majesty the king very unexpectedly afforded 
me the long- wished for opportunity of being all at once transported 
into the very midst of this Albion, to me hitherto unknown. 

In a comparatively short time I have been able to obtain a view 
of the capitals and rural districts of England and Scotland ; nume- 
rous and interesting persons have come under my observation ; and I 
feel myself impelled, from all that I have seen, to deduce a result, to 
which I am far from venturing to ascribe objective perfection, but 
which must be of decided importance for the completion of my own 
views of the world, and may at least serve to furnish many useful 
indications to others. In truth, however, no efforts at obtaining 
a full and perfect comprehension of such immense subjects can ever 
be any thing but approximative. 

According to my notes, daily made, I shall first briefly follow the 
way which conducted me in the suite of his majesty to this rcmark- 

B 



ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 



able island, and then anticipate the relation of particulars, by endea- 
vouring to sketch a general view of the peculiarities of the nation 
and people, of the correctness of which the subsequent details of 
what I have seen and described in the country itself may be regarded 
as an appropriate proof. 



II. 

THE JOURNEY. 



Hildesheim, May 22nd, 1844— -Midnight. 

From Dresden to Hildesheim in a day ! — about 260 miles ! The 
old fables of seven-league boots are being realised. Would that many 
of our other pleasant dreams could be realised in a similar manner ! 

We arrived in Leipzig at half-past nine o'clock. The authorities 
received his majesty. I met my second son, having previously 
taken leave of the eldest at the railroad-station in Dresden. 

At a quarter past two we reached Magdeburg. On leaving the 
train, we found carriages drawn up for our use, and the Prince of 
Hesse having been presented to the king, we immediately drove to 
the cathedral. The outside of the cathedral manifests its Gothic 
origin in the peculiarly sharp and strict style of its architecture. 
This is almost still more the case in the interior. I have seen many 
churches more richly ornamented, but none of such a peculiarly 
severe beauty. 

The period of the erection of the church extends from the thir- 
teenth to the fifteenth century. Traces of Otto I., and of the Saxon 
Prince Ernest — Prince Bishop of Magdeburg and Halberstadt — are 
everywhere visible in the first foundation, alterations, and progress 
of the building. The church contains the large bronze tomb of 
Archbishop Ernest, by Peter Fischer. Had sculpture been deve- 
loped independently from that source, without the influence of the 
Greeks, it might have become what Shakspeare is in reference to 
Sophocles. A germ fitted for the development of a beauty of a 
peculiar description unquestionably lies in the works of Peter 
Fischer and his contemporaries. The study of such works may be 
of the greatest advantage to those who embarrass themselves with the 
supposition that there is only one ideal of beauty. 

In the porch, where this monument stands, there are, besides, 
some very admirable old sculptural ornaments. 

The enemies of Christianity and their prominent sins are symbo- 
lically expressed by figures of animals : murder is represented by an 
eagle killing a bird ; an ape singing spells of enchantment is said to 
represent the pleasures of the world, &c, &c. 

Within, the cathedral presents to the eye a delightful architectural 
picture; and the style, which almost reminds one of fortifications, 
affords an opportunity for the most splendid effects of light and shade. 
Among the numerous tombs, inscriptions, and ancient pictures of 
all kinds, I was most struck with a large oil-painting, which repre- 



THE JOURNEY. 3 

sents a lady of Asseburg, who, having been buried while still alive, 
again came forth, and walked into the midst of her relations and 
family — whether for joy or new sorrows is not added. 

We drove down again from the cathedral. A hasty dinner — and 
as early as a quarter past three the steam-carriage bore us forth past 
the fortress called the Star — and the star of misfortune it was to 
Herr von Trenk, who was long confined a prisoner in its casemates. 

The afternoon was splendid — as the early morning fog announced 
— the company cheerful. At Aschersleben the Halberstadt and Bruns- 
wick lines separate ; and upon the latter the ducal carriage was pre- 
pared for our reception. This carriage is constructed so as to repre- 
sent a small drawing-room richly adorned with velvet, and provided 
with two small antechambers ; the whole arranged in the most conve- 
nient manner both for motion and occupation. The country, too, 
becomes much more interesting than the dull plains of Leipzig and 
Magdeburg, through which we had previously passed. The Harz 
appears on the left, stretching away into the distance with its flat, 
sloping blue summits ; patches of snow still lie on the Brocken ; the 
larger hills are all green, with a beautiful foliage, and every thing 
breathes of the cheerful spring. 

At seven w r e arrived in Brunswick. Whilst the carriages were 
being removed from the train and provided with post-horses, the 
king wished to see the cathedral and the palace. The way leads 
through narrow streets — the houses, for the most part, with their 
gable-ends to the street, are built of w r ood, and of the most singular 
construction, rising in projecting stories one above another. We 
came to the market-place, and then to the cathedral, before which 
stands the old bronze lion. The church itself is old — simple — stiff, 
almost in the character of that ancient rigid lion. Behind, an im- 
mense lime-tree. The church contains the tomb of Henry the Lion, 
and his wife. Before the choir there stands a remarkable colossal 
candlestick with seven branches. In the ducal vault is shown 
the coffin of the humane Duke Leopold, who was drowned in an 
attempt to save life. On the whole, the interior of this cathedral 
makes no memorable impression. 

Finally, the new ducal palace built by Ottmer. It is erected on the 
site occupied by the old one, which w r as burnt down, and is in the usual 
palace style, with a projecting portico supported by pillars — perfectly 
modern and elegant, as well as new — but inspires no thought of genius. 
We passed through the interior ; the large vaulted entrance-hall is 
too low, and the stairs, made of cast iron, are, indeed, strong enough, 
but in a large building appear too light and fragile; and every art 
— even the art of life — demands attention to appearance as well as 
to reality. The ball-room is spacious and handsomely ornamented; 
• the finest room in the palace, however, is a round dining-room 
inlaid with mahogany, and adorned with mirrors and gilded orna- 
ments. Evening now began to approach, the carriages had driven 
up, and, at a quarter-past eight, we rolled away in a most glorious 

B 2 



ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 



evening. The moon and Venus shone forth in all their splendour; 
a warm and glowing sun-set appeared to presage a continuance of 
fine weather; and towards midnight we arrived in Hildesheim, 
where every thing already assumes somewhat of a foreign air and 
dialect. — A very late supper — and, at last — repose. 



III. 

Cologne, May 24th — Evening. 
For the first time since the commencement of our journey, I 
have enjoyed a feeling of rest, retirement, and quiet recollection — 
and that in a walk on the Rhine bridge, late in the twilight, and by 
the light of Venus and the moon. Nothing less than vehement travel- 
ling can bring one from Dresden to Cologne in two days and a half. 

Early yesterday morning in Hildesheim, the sky, after a splendid 
evening, was gray, misty, and cold. I proceeded a very little 
way into the ancient city, and strange and wonderful buildings 
forced themselves peculiarly on my notice. The second story pro- 
jects over the first, the third over the second, and so upwards. In 
all directions wooden houses, with the gables mostly towards the 
streets, the timbers grown brown by time, and covered with 
multifarious carvings; almost every house, too, presented its single 
or double bay windows, with highly-ornamented gables and roofs, 
full of windows, pilasters, and architectural ornaments. It would 
not be easy to find richer subjects for the scene-painter than these 
edifices and streets afford. I would especially recommend for such 
studies the open place round St. Andrew's church, in whose tower 
a large carved figure, covered with sheet iron painted in the bright- 
est colours, keeps watch and ward. From hence we were conducted 
to the cathedral — externally, old Byzantine; within, modern, and in 
the worst taste. The most interesting part is the old cloisters ad- 
joining, enclosing a species of campo santo } in which there is a very 
old chapel. This suggests to the mind " the tomb of all the Capu- 
lets." Opposite to this is a projecting buttress of the church, up 
which a very old wild-rose tree twines and clambers to the height 
of twenty-five feet. Its stem is strong and gray; according to the 
account of the sacristan, it numbers above 800 years, and traditions 
arc connected with its branches. The veil of an empress is said to 
have been caught by its thorns, and thus the sign was given her 
respecting the place which a dream had indicated to her for building 
a church. All this, joined with the ancient masonry and the green 
earth planted with shrubs, presented a noble picture to the mind. 

In front of the cathedral there stands an old bronze column of 
the twelfth century, ornamented with historical reliefs, the work of 
Archbishop Bernard (a large and clumsy chandelier in the church is 
also said to have owed its existence to his handiwork). Undoubt- 
edly, the efforts of this man, however weak in themselves, deserve 
a more extended notice in the history of German art. 



THE JOURNEY. 5 

From the church we drove to what was formerly the convent of 
St. Michael, now a lunatic asylum, where I met with Dr. Bergmann, 
privy councillor of the medical department {Geheimer medicinal 
Rath) who is at present at the head of the establishment. I 
remembered that the Countess Julia EglofTstein of Hildesheim, 
which is her usual residence, had spoken of the ruins of the church, 
and the cloisters of St. Michael's convent, as something very 
interesting and picturesque. After a very hasty visit to the asylum, 
the gates leading to these ruins were also opened to us, and I can 
well believe that under favourable lights, those arches and walls, 
with their elder-bushes and plants, must present a most interesting 
picture, and furnish very favourable opportunities for the study of 
the picturesque. Our visit took place on a gloomy day, and it 
made no particularly lively impression on our minds. Whilst con- 
versing with Dr. Bergmann on his views respecting the physiology 
of the brain and cranioscopy, we wandered back to the carriage, 
which was ready to receive us, and at eight o'clock took our depar- 
ture for Buckeburg. 

The wind blew cold, the heavens looked dark and lowering, 
the fields had suffered from a violent storm, which had burst here 
two days before, and the grain was partly covered with earth, in 
short, every thing Avore a gloomy and joyless appearance. About 
ten o'clock a few chance sunbeams began to shed their radiance on 
the country — the old peasants' houses in the villages, prettily orna- 
mented with wood carvings, made a singular impression on my 
mind — one bore the date of 1518. How many events have passed 
silently over this old wood-work ! 

The country now becomes mountainous ; on the left the Siintel, 
where Charlemagne defeated Wittekind. The Leine flows on in its 
course, here and there an old castle amongst beautiful oaks; at 
length the Weser comes in view, and the Porta Westphalica, and we 
arrive at the small fortress of Minden. 

We dined here at five o'clock, and I was not a little astonished to 
find in the glass cupboard of a neighbouring room in the inn, among 
many old and insignificant images and Roman remains, chiefly of clay, 
Zahn's interesting casts of the silver vessels of Herculaneum. The 
riddle was solved by the host most unexpectedly proving to be the 
brother of Professor Zahn. When, by the side of his majesty the king, 
I left Minden, the weather had become delightful, and indulging in 
singular reflections on the times of ancient Germany, and the 
geological phenomena of the neighbourhood, we passed the Porta 
Westphalica, through which the broad stream of the Weser flows 
towards the sea. A large exposure of the strata of the mountain, 
which forms the right of the pass, presents a broad obliquely ascending 
stratum of the limestone of the Alps, which appears here consi- 
derably elevated, and slopes downwards in a northerly direction. 

The country towards Bielefeld is agreeably hilly, meadows in- 
terspersed with corn-fields, and instead of villages, separate houses 



6 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

scattered over the country, like the dwellings of colonists. The old 
German dislike to compulsory restrictions, and a firm attachment to 
personal independence, appears here, in this retired mode of living, 
more than in any other part of Germany. 

From Bielefeld we continued our journey by night, and as I 
enjoyed a very comfortable carriage to myself, I was free to indulge 
in repose. I fell into a deep sleep, and first awoke in the clear but 
cold morning. Fogs soon came on, and continued till behind 
Unna, when the sun broke forth, and under his warm and cheering 
beams, we passed through the beautiful and extraordinarily populous 
districts of Hagen and Elberfeld. The latter place, especially, 
appeared very ornamental and full of life. It stretches along the 
valley, and is built on the banks of the river — its flourishing 
manufactories and trade appear in the active bustle of its market, 
streets, and railway; and the handsome aspect of the people, which 
had altogether disappeared on leaving Brunswick, here again pre- 
sents itself. Our carriage and four, with the well-dressed postilions 
and their cracking whips, rattling through the town, brought the 
greater part of the population to the windows and into the streets, 
and we were thus afforded a sort of general review of the people as 
we' passed, suilicient to form the foundation of a casual judgment 
on the appearance of the inhabitants. 

At length, the valley of the Rhine begins to appear, like a blue 
stripe in the horizon, and further in the distance, the cathedral of 
Cologne, whilst to the south the tops of the Siebengebirge are 
dimly seen in the blue air. At four o'clock we arrived here, and 
alighted at the Rhine hotel; already I hear of invitations for his 
majesty to Brussels, and to meet Lord Delawarr on the coast of 
England. After a dinner elegantly served, we drove to the 
cathedral. Zwirner, the chief architect, conducted us over this 
immense work, carried on with new and increasing vigour. The 
back part of the choir is already freed from houses, and produces a 
great and noble impression upon the spectator. The plan of the 
nave and of the right-hand tower is now also become clearer. In 
the choir itself, much that was offensive to taste has been removed, 
but variegated colouring and gilded capitals and figures, not less 
offensive, are added. The most interesting part of the structure, 
to me, was the way up to the gallery, which first goes round the 
whole circuit of the choir within, between the highest arches, then 
passes to the outside of the building, wdiere it pursues its course 
round the whole external wall behind the buttresses, arches, and 
turrets of the choir. Before us was stretched out the extensive 
country. Beneath us flowed the majestic Rhine, rolling onwards 
to the sea. Then in the evening light the gray towers of St. 
Martin's and of the town-house, reflected the rays of the evening 
sun upon the ancient city, as it appeared through the vistas formed 
by the dark columns, arches, and turrets of this forest of stone. 
The most charming pictures were thus presented to the eye, which 



THE JOURNEY. 7 

I longed to transfer to paper, but a few hasty sketches were all that 
time suffered me to make. 

Much has been already effected by the new works on the 
cathedral, for this outer gallery itself was previously altogether 
inaccessible. May more and more means be added for the com- 
pletion of the grand design! The church, it is said, will still 
require 2,000,000 of dollars, and the erection of the two towers 
3,000,000 more! It was impossible to leave without casting 
another glance on the old solid tower, so splendidly adorned, and 
stretching to half its height — after which, the declining sun com- 
pelled us to hasten over the old square-shaped Giirzenich to the hotel, 
from whence I then completed my solitary walk on the bridge of 
boats, which here stretches across the mighty flowing Rhine. 



IV. 

Brussels, May 26th— Early. 
This sunny, but still somewhat cold Whitsun morning in Brus- 
sels, gives me a peculiar feeling. Hurried all at once from a long 
accustomed circle of existence, and in four short days transported 
into quite a new and foreign element. There is, after all, no other 
or better counsel than that of Goethe : — 

-Drum schaue, froh verstandig, 



Dem Augenblick in's Auge! kein Verschieben ! 
Begegn' ihm schnell, wohlwollend wie lebendig!'' 

At six o'clock yesterday morning we left Cologne. Our car- 
riages, with the baggage and servants, were sent off to the railroad 
as early as five ; we followed shortly after, in two light 
open carriages, and as for a drive of pleasure, rolled out through 
the high and beautiful gate of the fortress of the ancient Colonia 
Agrippina, defended by large towers upon its walls. The station, 
as well as the royal carriage, fitted-up like a chamber, and richly 
adorned with velvet, was gaily decorated with flags, and all being 
ready, we started punctually with the large early train, which 
leaves daily at six o'clock. The various tunnels on the way, neces- 
sarily engaged our attention, as they deserved, as well as the 
magnificent viaduct which spans a deep valley before entering 
Aix-la-Chapelle, and exhibits two lofty rows of arches, one above 
another. The train was stopped in order to allow us to descend 
into the valley, that we might have a just idea of this splendid 
work, which alone cost 260,000 dollars. 

A considerable number of spectators was assembled at the station, 
where we remained for more than half an hour ; amongst the number 
I recognised one of my old patients, the Frau von P***, who has- 
tened to meet me, scarcely able to suppress her strong emotions of 
grateful remembrance and attachment. The train again proceeded 



8 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

on its way to Venders, and there, before we arrived at this frontier 
town, we inspected all the machinery for the removal of the car- 
riages, which is worked by steam and notified by an electric tele- 
graph. The country now became much more interesting. Valleys 
of various and characteristic forms, singular ravines, and rifts in the 
rocks, indicative of the violent commotions which had taken place 
during the formation of the strata, and old castles, such as Schloss 
Merode, with its numerous turrets, and an antiquated manor-house 
adorned with four round towers, furnished copious subjects for con- 
versation. 

In Verviers, on Belgian soil, the king was met by Herr von 
Konneritz, the Saxon ambassador, and Count d'Hann de Steenhuyze, 
the latter of whom was deputed by the King of Belgium to conduct 
his majesty to Brussels by a special train. Here, as well as in Liege, 
and at all the successive stations, a guard of honour, with military 
music, was placed to receive the king, and give him a festive greet- 
ing. On the other side of Liege we had an opportunity of ex- 
amining the powerful engine which is employed to draw the train 
to the summit of the line, which here reaches a height of from 
500 to 600 feet above the level of the sea. From this station the 
carriages rolled forward across a plain with a continuous but gentle 
declivity towards the sea, passing through Lou vain, Tirlemont, 
and Marines, to Brussels, where we arrived at five o'clock in the 
afternoon. 

Great masses of people were assembled at the station, a magnifi- 
cent regiment of horse-guards was drawn up to salute the king — 
the royal carriages in waiting. Having quickly descended from the 
railroad carriages, and passed over a path covered with carpets to 
the court equipages, we proceeded through the crowded streets to 
the Hotel Belle-vuc, surrounded by a troop of cavalry, and amidst 
the joyful peals of the church bells. At the hotel, again, a guard 
of honour was stationed, and soon after, the King of the Belgians 
paid a visit to our most gracious sovereign. In the meantime our 
carriages and servants also arrived from the railroad, and forthwith 
all the uniforms and court dresses were to be unpacked, to dress for 
a state dinner at the palace at half-past six. 

AVe were presented to their gracious majesties. The dinner was 
splendid (some fifty covers), and the entertainment was opened by 
the performance of the overture to ' Oberon,' by the royal band. I 
was most agreeably placed beside a M. Couet, directeur de la liste civile. 
He appeared to me to be a young and interesting man. I was in- 
debted to him for many useful and agreeable explanations. After 
dinner, the king entered into a long conversation with me. His 
majesty, by whom we were all invited to Laeken, expressed 
himself very favourably respecting the state of science in Ger- 
many, and added the expression of his desire to facilitate and pro- 
mote, by every means in his power, the cultivation of the physical 
sciences in his own states. The king gives the impression of a re- 



THE JOURNEY. 9 

fined, cautious, and experienced man of the world. He is in his 
fifty-fifth year, of healthy and vigorous appearance, and, like almost 
the whole of the Coburg race, possesses a good figure, rather above 
the middle stature. Her majesty the queen is small in stature, but of 
very agreeable exterior, and her features strongly resemble those 
of her father, Louis Philippe. It was about ten o'clock yesterday 
evening when we came home from dinner — a dinner which as far 
anticipated the season as it prolonged the clay, for there were 
ortolans and other similar rarities, strawberries, grapes, and peaches, 
of the richest description, together with all the choicest productions 
of the spring. 

This morning being clear, but somewhat cold, induced the king 
to indulge in a walk through the city, in company with Herr von 
Konneritz, whom I joined. We traversed the park, with its beau- 
tiful tall lime-trees, and then a part of the new boulevards, all 
covered with new and elegant buildings, chiefly erected on specu- 
lation, but for the most part waste, and uninhabited. Having 
turned from thence into the old town, my steps were irresistibly 
attracted towards St. Gudule, and we entered the cathedral, where, 
fortunately, the service had not yet commenced. I again made 
my way to the magnificent pulpit, the recollection of whose splen- 
did wood carvings had been ever fresh in my memory since I had 
seen them nine years before, and the poetical conception of the 
work again filled my mind with admiration. It is true I felt that 
the first impression had, in the mean time, insensibly strengthened 
in my mind, and that the reality no longer corresponded fully to the 
ideal. The idea of employing the whole materials from the wide- 
spreading tree of knowledge, whose stem constitutes the pedestal, to 
the desk, borders, and canopy of the pulpit, for depicting the history 
from the loss of Paradise to the triumph of faith, had formerly 
appeared to me as an extremely remarkable Christian myth, founded 
upon a deep view of human development and transitions, and it still 
made a powerful impression; but, on the other hand, I now per- 
ceived that the execution, although admirable and beautiful in all 
its parts, was altogether deficient in that peculiar beauty which 
belongs to the plastic arts. The inward fancy had, indeed, richly 
supplied all these deficiencies, and lent the captivating forms of a 
higher and nobler art to the figures of Adam and Eve, as well as to 
that of the Virgin above, enthroned upon the crescent moon, and 
killing the snake ; the reality, however, fell far short of the beauties 
which fancy had idealised — everywhere progress ! 

The lofty arches of the church still continued to produce a de- 
lightful impression, notwithstanding the new white colouring, which 
had better been omitted ; and the magnificent painted glass in the choir, 
with its historical delineations, charmed me as much as ever. We 
would willingly have delayed, in order to examine many of these 
beauties more in detail, but the pious congregation began to as- 
semble, and great care is here taken to prevent every species of 



10 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

interruption. On leaving the church, it was just the proper time 
to visit the market, and to take a survey of the splendid old town 
house. In proceeding thither, we passed directly into the heart of 
this city, where the Parisian luxuries exhibited for sale in the cellars 
and on the stalls, all open, even on this Whitsunday morning, the 
multitude of buyers and sellers pursuing their busy occupation, 
the nationality of the dress, the women with the huge, bright brass 
pitchers, in which water is here carried, the large and singular two- 
wheeled cars, with one horse — all this for the first time realised the 
lively impression of a foreign populous capital. The town house 
is a truly magnificent edifice. The tower was in the course of re- 
paration, and the lower part still surrounded with scaffolding ; the 
ornamental spire, with its beautiful filigree work, was already 
finished. On this occasion I was particularly struck with the forti- 
fication style of the cornices, windows, and turrets of the building, 
which arc, as it were, sublimed and elevated to the ornamental; so 
that the combination and result of the whole, and the peculiar deli- 
cacy and execution of the whole structure, were sufficient to engage 
long consideration. Time, however, pressed, and we returned to 
the hotel. 

The same day — Evening. 

After breakfast the royal carriages sent for our use were in waiting, 
and the whole party again drove to the town house, when the king 
was this time formally received by the city guards and the authorities, 
and conducted through the interior. A variety of stairs, passages, 
and chambers were ascended and passed through, but the interior 
disappointed the expectations of interest awakened by the exterior : — 
council-chamber — old tapestry — pictures of no value — nothing more. 
We next proceeded to the Geographical Institute of M. Vandermaelen, 
a private individual of great wealth, who, in connexion with his 
brother and brother-in-law, has got together a very large collection. 
The series of maps, especially of Belgium, appeared to be very re- 
markable. His collections in mineralogy, ornithology, and ento- 
mology were by no means small, to which may be added a number of 
sculls belonging to persons of foreign nations, and a variety of ana- 
tomical preparations ; and finally, his magnificent forcing-houses and 
beautiful garden were shown to his illustrious visiter. M. Vander- 
maelen is at present engaged in publishing a number of new, exten- 
sive, and beautifully engraved maps of Belgium, which, to judge by the 
rich materials at his disposal, must be possessed of the highest merit. 

On taking leave of our host, we next drove to the public Botanic 
Garden, whose hot and green-houses I had seen with pleasure nine 
years before. It still contained magnificent specimens of palms, a 
tall caryota livens, a splendid borassus flabelliformis, a large panda- 
nus, beautiful bamboos, an agave, which had produced a flower- 
stalk more than ten ells high, as well as a small ananas, from Manilla 
(holicnbergia strobilacea), which bears small edible fruit, about the 
size of the cones of a pine tree, on very slender stems. These and 



THE JOURNEY. 11 

many others richly rewarded our visit. The situation of the garden 
and its houses is one of great beauty and magnificence. 

We next proceeded to the beautiful palace formerly belonging to 
the Prince of Orange, and which, with all its treasures displayed, I 
had seen nine years before. It is now empty, become the property 
of the city, and used as a place for exhibiting the productions of 
native industry (Magazin d^ Industrie). There was an exhibition 
in the palace, consisting of the most various objects, and embracing 
the whole range of Belgian manufactures and arts : pictures, musi- 
cal instruments, dolls, porcelain, jewellery, &c, &c. Every one 
contributed something, and things of little value to the owner, or 
supplied by the benevolent, are presented in order to form materials 
for a lottery, and the produce of the tickets is applied to the support 
of the poor. We, as may be supposed, bought some tickets — I, in 
the hope — of winning nothing. 

Our last visit was to the royal palace, where we had dined on the 
previous day, in order to examine the pictures : — In the saloons and 
chambers in the front of the house, there was nothing of importance 
— a few good pictures were found in those looking to the gardens. — 
Among the landscapes, a large Alpine landscape, by Schirmer, 
(1839) was the most distinguished. Among the historical subjects, 
a very recent work by Ary SchefFer (1844) most fixed our atten- 
tion. The subject is the Harper and Mignon. The whole is 
admirably handled, and the effect imposing; — the wasted body, but 
mental vigour of the old man, and the poor but wonderous child, 
with the fire of genius in her look. A picture by Gallait did not 
correspond to my expectations, and quite as little two large pieces 
by Verboekhoven (one representing horses attacked by wolves, and 
the second a tiger). There was also a picture, by Braekeleer, of the 
citadel of Antwerp, after the siege, on a very large scale; another of 
similar size, by Cormans, of a subject taken from the Crusades; and 
many others. As I have just said, the only pictures which appeared to 
me to possess any real interest, were those of Schirmer and Scheffer, 
and particularly the latter. 

An hour was still at our disposal, and I availed myself of it to visit 
one of the most distinguished literary men whom Brussels possesses — 
Professor Quetelet. He resides in the observatory, of which he is the 
director, and appears to be very agreeably circumstanced, both in his 
house and garden. Two spirits, besides the spirit of science, soon made 
us at home with each other — Gbthe and Lindenau — with both of 
whom, especially the latter, Quetelet had been very intimate. It was a 
great pleasure to me to be here made acquainted with the latest la- 
bours of the Academy of Brussels. I was shown the very recent prize 
essay of a young man of the name of " Verloren" (Lost), in 
which the circulation of the blood in insects, my discovery, is treated 
at length, and illustrated by beautiful drawings. I trust his efforts 
will not be " Lost" ( Verloren) to the cause of science. We then 
considered the beautiful astronomical instruments, the admirable 



12 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

apparatus for measuring the power of the magnetism of the earth, 
the delicate electrometers for ascertaining the electric tension of the 
atmosphere, the thermometers and barometers in all their various 
forms, &c. Osier's anemometer was quite new to me, which deter- 
mines not merely the direction and strength of the wind, and the 
quantity of the rain which falls, but is self-registering; and by means 
of a very subtle piece of mechanism, graphically records the results 
on a metal plate marked with lines for that purpose. 

Quetelet was also invited to dinner at Laeken, from whom I was 
now obliged to part, but only to meet again at the palace ; and to-day, 
between him and the Countess Beaufort (lady of the director of the 
Academy of Arts), I had a still more agreeable place than yesterday. 
After dinner there was a long conversation: I made the acquaintance 
of Count Beaufort also, and was introduced to Major Borrmann, from 
Saxony, who at present is in service in the Artillery, either here or 
in Antwerp. He had come to'Belgium for no other reason than to 
be present and take part in the bombardment of the citadel of 
Antwerp. 

It was drawing near ten o'clock before we reached our hotel. 



V. 

Ostend, May 28th, 1844, Half-past Five o'Clock— Morning. 

Early yesterday morning, in Brussels, for the first time since the 
commencement of our journey, or for a longtime previously, I felt 
myself indisposed. The night had been past almost wholly without 
sleep, and I only recovered on reading Timoleon in Plutarch. How 
powerfully does the conscious life of the soul work upon the uncon- 
scious ! During the tedium of the night, I longed for my Plutarch ; 
but, unfortunately, there was nothing at hand except Kolifs " Travels 
in England;" and it is impossible to state how much worse I became 
on reading the accounts which the book contains of Manchester and 
the treadmill of its prison. Early in the morning, Plutarch breathed 
around me the fragrance of balsam, and soon after I was actually well 
again. 

About nine o'clock we went to see the Duke of Aremberg's palace. 
The duke himself, this high and mighty noble, whom even the 
king treats as his equal, was not at home; and we were therefore 
the better able, without interruption, to visit the splendid apartments 
and galleries of his house. There were to be seen in all directions, 
stairs, galleries, drawing-rooms, and chambers; richly adorned fur- 
niture of the most costly description, especially splendidly inlaid work 
of various kinds and materials ; vases of all sorts and of great value, 
from Herculaneum and Japan : in short, all that wealth could com- 
mand, but not always equally remarkable forchasteness and refinement 
of taste. The whole was completed by a riding course adorned with 



THE JOURNEY. 13 

variegated beds of camellas. To us the paintings were the most at- 
tractive, of which the house contains a very considerable number ; 
many of these I had examined nine years before with attention and 
pleasure. Many alterations, however, have been made within that 
time. The house was not then so splendid ; and from the gallery 
itself many pictures have been taken away, and many added to its 
collection. The most valuable is a small but splendid cattle piece by 
Potter — a little gem — admirable for the great simplicity, faithfulness, 
and care with which nature is portrayed, as well as for the fine taste 
displayed in its execution. A broad Waterfall, by Everdinger, is very 
beautiful — the composition spirited and clear. Then the head of Sir 
Thomas More, by Rubens, a small but very masterly painting. 
Along with these must be mentioned the Cure of Tobias, by Rem- 
brandt; and a piece with figures, by Ostade. A small bust of 
Marie Antoinette, by Corzaki, made a sombre impression on our 
minds. She is represented in the simple and dark dress which 
she wore in her last hours previous to her execution. 

At ten o'clock this morning, before leaving Brussels, I conducted 
the king to Quetelet, at the observatory, where his majesty was 
afforded an opportunity of becoming acquainted with the new and 
important instruments connected with meteorology, and from thence 
we drove to Laeken. On our arrival the offer of a promenade with 
the royal family in the park was cheerfully accepted, and we enjoyed 
the pleasures of its shady walks, agreeable fountains, delicious flower- 
beds, and interesting forcing-houses. A rich dejeuner dinatoire was 
at length served, and immediately afterwards his majesty took his 
leave ; we expressed our gratitude, and the carriages conveyed us to 
the railroad station at three o'clock. The train arrived, and with it 
our travelling-carriages and servants; we entered, and in a short 
time reached Malines. Here we visited the great store-houses at 
the station, the immense stores of rails, wheels, steam-boilers, &c. 
Every thing connected with the railroad is here the absolute pro- 
perty of the government, and not of a society of shareholders. 
Shortly afterwards we proceeded on our journey, and found our- 
selves in Ghent at five o'clock. 

Ghent is a place which, together with Louvain, I would willingly 
have been able to see for a longer time, and to know more thoroughly. 
These towns are the seats of the two universities of Belgium, which 
have many able professors in the departments of natural history and 
medicine, and are said to exhibit a decisively antagonistic character in 
their spirit and tendency. Ghent is said to be more under ecclesiastical 
influence, whilst Louvain adopts a more independent and freethinking 
course. On a railroad journey of this description it was impossible 
to think of a very minute inspection. True, there were in Ghent 
not merely a guard of honour in waiting, but carriages also, which 
were ready to convey us through the city, and to afford us an oppor- 
tunity of taking a hasty view of the things best worthy of attention ; 
but even so, it was not possible to realise my wish. The first object 



14 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

of attraction was the city palace, to which at the same time a theatre 
is attached. The whole arrangement is splendid — in the style of 
the time of Louis XIV.; the large saloon of the palace, with its 
rich gildings, ornamented ceilings, and purple draperies, seemed 
to be especially adapted for grand festive occasions and balls. Not 
far from hence the new law courts were pointed out to us, the build- 
ing of which is just commenced. We next proceeded to the univer- 
sity; the building is large, adorned with a noble portico, and 
contains very considerable collections in the departments of natural 
history, anatomy, and the physical sciences. The faculties received 
his majesty the king, the professors of comparative and human ana- 
tomy greeted me kindly, and would gladly have opened to me their 
treasures ; but our visit was only for a moment — circumstances 
were imperative. 

From thence we drove to the beguinage, a remarkable demi-conven- 
tual corporation of women, which has come down from the thirteenth 
century to the present times, like one of those old melancholy-looking 
gable-houses among the elegant buildings of recent days. This de- 
scription of society was by no means rare even in Germany from 
the twelfth century; they were called Beguines (also Begutten, or 
Soul-women), and probably took their origin in those times of war 
and disturbances when so many women were deprived of male pro- 
tection, and because the religious tendencies of the age demanded 
and promoted the formation of such congregations. The foundation 
in Ghent may be the largest and most complete existing. The 
number of small houses, which are surrounded by an old enclosure 
usually shut, is very considerable, and in each of these houses, fur- 
nished with large glass windows, five, or six, or more sisters live 
together. Their dress consists of a simple blue-gray gown, with a 
large white head-dress. The most of them appeared already ad- 
vanced in life ; the one who conducted us round was very loquacious. 
We saw the arrangement of their dwellings, which is simple enough. 
They dress their food in the kitchen of each house in common, but 
each eats apart before and on the falling leaf of a sort of 
small cupboard, and with the face towards the wall. The produce of 
their work, whatever it may be, goes to the benefit of the commu- 
nity, and they are also ready to attend and nurse the sick when 
applied to for that purpose. The first year after entrance is a novi- 
ciate, and during this period they are allowed to leave the society at 
any time; and even at a later period, when fully admitted, they 
may depart from the institution, under certain conditions. After 
having taken a hasty view of the whole, it leaves behind a weak and 
strange impression. We passed, too, for a moment into the old 
church, which stands opposite the dwellings of the sisters, and be- 
longs to the foundation. The beguines appeared there like spectres, 
with their large white head coverings — what means their devotion? 

From the beguinage we drove to the large, richly adorned, but 
by no means beautiful cathedral, where the high clergy received his 



THE JOURNEY. 15 

majesty at the door, and, preceded by two of the officers of the 
cathedral carrying heavy silver maces, conducted the king through 
the multitude pressing around on all sides to gratify their curiosity. 
The interior of the church is overloaded with marble decorations of 
a heavy, tasteless description — white statues and balustrades upon a 
gray ground — a monotonous, melancholy aspect ! The statues of Du- 
quesnay, and others too, and many of the old pictures, possess very 
little interest or value. All at once, however, the folding doors of 
a side chapel are thrown open, and then in all its splendour beams 
forth the glorious picture of John von Eyck — that mysterious lamb 
— the well-spring of life : the wings of the picture I had seen and 
admired in Berlin years ago. This is a picture of which no copy 
can ever give an idea in any degree adequate, the depth of this mys- 
tery is so entirely peculiar and spiritual in its execution. What se- 
renity, tenderness, and love in the figures ! and what richness and 
perfection in the accessory objects ! — the city in the distance is a 
new Jerusalem ; the vines and the lowly vegetation which clothe 
the ground, &c, &c. I had formed great anticipations^ but the re- 
ality far exceeded them all. 

There is another picture attributed to Hemling, which, however, 
is unworthy of mention along with this. We were shown, besides, 
the massive but coarse font in which Charles V. was baptised, and 
then returned to the railroad, which brought us to Bruges in an 
hour. 

Here the crowds and thronging of the people were still greater 
than in Ghent, for a splendid regiment of cuirassiers was drawn up 
at the station, and sent forward an advanced party to clear the way, 
as we were conducted into the city in open carriages drawn by horses 
splendidly caparisoned. Some sort of protection was on this occa- 
sion not superfluous, for an immense throng collected around the 
carriages, and often barred the possibility either of corning out or 
going forward. 

We first visited the splendid monuments of Charles the Bold and 
his daughter, Mary of Burgundy, which stand in a side chapel of 
the Church of Notre Dame. The large figures of gilt and bronze on 
the dark stone ground of the sarcophagus have a majestic appearance. 
How rich does the magnificent armour appear, how elegant the 
bright escutcheons around ! One naturally reflects, during the visit 
to his tomb, of the haughtiness and vain-glory of this prince, who 
was at last defeated by the poor Swiss ! 

Directly opposite the church stands the very ancient Hospital of 
St. John, where Memling* the painter was once nursed during 
a dangerous illness, and where, from a feeling of gratitude, he 

* This celebrated painter is usually called Hemling ; but in the " Notice des 
tableaux qui composent la musee de Ihopital civil de St. Jean," it is conclusively 
proved that his name was really Memling, and that the change took place in 
consequence of the M being written in a form which was afterwards mistaken 
for an H. 



16 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

painted and left behind several valuable pictures. We were con- 
ducted to a small room in the basement, which contains a considerable 
number of paintings by other artists, as well as some of Memling's ; 
but we there saw works of this old master which opened up to me his 
inmost being and the finest feelings of his soul, in such a way as 
I never could have learned them from his pictures in the Boissiere 
collection. The great mystical painting of St. Catherine, an altar- 
piece with wings, is especially splendid. The figure of St. John in 
Patmos, which forms the subject of the left wing, is enchanting. 
The prophet, clothed in a reddish-white garment, is sitting in an 
attitude of repose, his thoughts full of heavenly things, his hands 
resting quietly upon one another, and his fervent eyes uplifted to God. 
The other wing represents the martyrdom of St. John the Evan- 
gelist. The inside too, particularly of the right wing, presents 
something beautiful and grand in the figures of the beneficiaries. 

It would be impossible to pass without notice a very remarkable 
box, made in the form of a house, containing relics of St. Ursula. On 
all sides it is adorned by the hand of the great and pious master, 
Memling, and tells the history of the saint and the 11,000 virgins, 
in several pictures, as rich as they are ornamental. There is the 
beautiful picture of the landing of the virgins at Cologne, in which 
that old city itself is admirably depicted. The gate of St. Martin 
and the cathedral are clearly before the eye. Next, the ships in 
which the virgins are suffering martyrdom, shot down by soldiers 
armed with cross-bows, the whole inviting and deserving of long 
and careful examination, which press of time did not, unfortunately, 
allow me to bestow on these beautiful treasures. 

From St John's we drove to the Palais de Justice, which con- 
tains the remarkable chimney-piece, magnificently adorned with 
large wood-carvings. It is of the date of the sixteenth century, 
and is said to have been the work of a prisoner. The name of the 
man is forgotten and unknown, but the King of the French has 
now given orders to take casts of his works, and to transfer the 
models to Versailles. Every spectator is delighted with the silent 
language of his mind. 

Unfortunately, the evening light began to fade as we entered the 
room, which, independently of that, is not well lighted; nevertheless, 
the figures stood splendidly out in all the originality of a species 
of art to the development of which, the study of Grecian models 
can have contributed nothing. To the right appear Maximilian 
and Margaret of Burgundy; over the centre of the chimney-piece, 
Charles V. Below the chief figures arc some charming relievos 
in marble, and numerous architectural ornaments of various de- 
scriptions. 

Last of all, in the neighbouring town house, we visited the grand 
hall with its splendid roof of lofty pointed arches, and gilded capitals ! 
The lower part of the walls, indeed, do not at all correspond to the 
admirable conception and beautiful execution of the roof! Thus it 



ARRIVAL AT OSTEND. 17 

is universally both in architecture and life. There are few things to 
be found in which all the parts harmonise as they properly should. 

How many objects were there still in Bruges worthy of study, in 
the exterior of its ancient churches, palaces, and council-house, and 
in the peculiar physiognomy of the whole city ! Even as we drove 
rapidly through the streets and squares, many interesting pictures 
presented themselves, in which the old stone gables of the houses 
with their Gothic arches, lofty churches, and occasional trees in the 
streets combined to form the delightful and the picturesque; but all 
passed away from our eyes in a moment. 

The population also was before us, for the noise of our carriages 
and cuirassiers brought the whole town to the windows and doors. 
The countenances of the people are full and oval, and the figures of 
the women fine. Our cortege, however, drove rapidly to the railroad ; 
the regiment saluted the king, and at nine o'clock we were at Ostend, 
in the Hotel des Bains, near the harbour. A full-dress dinner, at 
which the officers of the steamboats awaiting his majesty's arrival 
were present, served to keep us cheerful till late in the night, and 
in the mean time our three travelling carriages were put on board. 

During the night I was more than once aroused by the roaring of 
the wind, and the heavy beating of the sea ; and the weather, which 
was yesterday fine and sunny, appears to-day to have become cold 
and windy ; notwithstanding, we propose to be on board before seven 
o'clock ; and I shall now discover whether the wish for a favourable 
voyage be realised or not, which friend Regis sent me a few days 
ago in the words of Horace : — 

" Sic te diva potens Cypri 

Sic fratres Helena?, lucida sidera 
Ventorumque regat pater, 
Navis, 6 CARUM mihi 
Quse fers." 



VI. 

ENGLAND. 

Before proceeding, in the following pages, to give a written ac- 
count of my daily observations and experience, according to time and 
place, in various excursions through the length and breadth of the 
island, I consider it highly important to a clear understanding by 
others, and for my own satisfaction, to sketch a general view of the 
whole ; that it may appear as distinctly as possible what that properly 
speaking is, from which this remarkable country obtains and receives 
its peculiar character — wherein its individuality conspicuously ap- 
pears; and, finally, on what local and historical causes this individu- 
ality is founded. 

In such a sketch I cannot by any means aim at a complete scien- 

c 



18 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

tific description — an investigation exhausting the depth of the sub- 
ject ; for this would demand very different studies, journeys, and 
circumstances : all that I have in view is, to convey a general con- 
ception and a faithful representation of my idea of the country, as 
presented to me in real life; in a word, views of men and society 
fortunately obtained; or, more exactly, general remarks characteristic 
of the physiognomy and physiology of England. 

I acknowledge that, although well acquainted with much already 
written respecting England, I was by no means satisfied in reference 
to those high demands, which seem to me necessary to a proper un- 
derstanding of the country as a whole; and this is the reason why 
I found England so very different from all my previous conceptions. 
May what is here offered, although still very imperfect, produce a 
concentrating influence on the minds of those who have already 
visited the country, serve as an expanding preparation for those 
who may hereafter travel thither, and by all others be received as a 
general view drawn after nature, and find favour and acceptance. 

I commence after the old Hippocratic method, with some observa- 
tions on the soil, air, and water of great Britain. — The history of a 
people and of its peculiarities, can, after all, be only truly compre- 
hended, when we have gained a true idea of the johysical character- 
istics of their country. I had already learned much on this subject 
from the works of others; but in such things, personal observation, 
accompanied by the enlightened and enlightening remarks of well- 
informed men, is of infinitely more value than any thing which can 
be derived from the communications of others. I have had this ob- 
servation variously and repeatedly confirmed by many circumstances 
connected with these considerations. This was the case, for example, 
in reference to the nature of the whole outline of this island, which is 
daily growing in power and importance. Each new and well-exe- 
cuted map appears to present the most careful and accurate repre- 
sentation of the country, and yet a very different idea of this " sea- 
girt isle" arises in the mind of the reflecting spectator, on his per- 
sonal examination of the real boundaries and relations between land 
and sea. 

Where has that immense influence been ever duly weighed or 
clearly explained, which the general outline of a continent or of 
a country in its relation to the sea has produced, and will always 
continue to produce upon its historical development? Since the 
example given by Ritter, geography has been treated in this 
respect with greater intelligence. It is certain, however, that 
Europe never would have become the centre of human civilisation, 
had it not been for the peculiarity of its figure and situation, so 
remarkably surrounded by seas, and stretching almost like the out- 
line of a human form, between the northern and southern waters. 
There are elements enough of a similar description in its outlines 
by land and sea, which again abundantly prove in how far England, 
of all European states, is by far the best adapted to attain the greatest 



THE COASTS AND RIVERS. 19 

possible development in naval power and in the arts of navigation. 
One of the most important elements of this progress, and one which 
has not hitherto been treated with that degree of care which it 
deserves, and to which my attention has never been directed either 
by maps or descriptions, consists in the number and variety of those 
bays and arms of the sea, which, like deep rivers, penetrate far into 
the interior of the country. 

It is only when one has made the circuit of the English coasts by 
land or sea, and has had daily opportunities of observing what sharp 
and decisive limits are drawn between sea and land, and how few 
opportunities are offered for such free transition from one to the other 
as might naturally be supposed would exist from their absolute 
contact; it is only when one has seen that no ship can come to land, 
and sometimes not even a boat touch the coast, and that no one can 
pass from land to sea without the greatest danger, that any idea can 
be formed of the vast importance and immense naval value of those 
bays and inlets which constitute, as it were, the connecting link, 
and facilitate reciprocal communication. The coasts are often inac- 
cessible in consequence of dangerous sand-banks; the restless surge 
at other places beating on the rocky shore under the influence of 
the smallest breeze, prevents the possibility of passing either from 
land to sea or from sea to land, whilst in other places again, steep or 
precipitous rocks, or a strand strewed with pieces of rock, make all 
approach impossible. It is only when all these obstructions to in- 
tercourse between land and sea, even on the ordinary coast, have 
been personally seen and examined in nature, that the importance 
and advantage of such ameliorating, intermediate instrumentality 
can be fully and clearly understood. Within these bays the 
raging w r aves become gradually calm, by means of them even 
the largest ships are able to ascend so far into the country that the 
productions of the remotest quarters of the world are conveyed into 
the very heart of the national industry, and the manufactures of the 
looms and forges of Great Britain are received and carried to the 
extremities of the earth; on their banks it is that sites are chosen 
for the foundation of great and flourishing cities, and the most 
admirable situations afforded for the building and repairs of ships. 

Let us lay before us the map of England and Scotland and 
reckon the multitude of bays — which, like vast rivers of salt water, 
stretch far into the land ; these inlets, sometimes short, and some- 
times long, known by the names of rivers, friths or mouths, which 
indent the country ; let us also have the opportunity of personal in- 
spection and observe how gradually their sea nature passes over, and 
changes into, that of the interior, and much will be gained towards 
an understanding of the original destination and calling of England 
to be a country of naval power and mistress of the seas. It will then 
be seen how often the wild and stormy sea which beats against 
precipitous rocks, as at Dartmouth, becomes at last as still as a pond, 
and terminates among rich meadows and woody hills, or how that 

C2 



20 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

which rushes on between dangerous sand-banks, further on its course, 
becomes a deep and safe harbour, and laves the docks of im- 
mense trading cities, as at Liverpool and London, and the convic- 
tion will always become stronger that it is only a people to whom 
nature has offered so many facilities for intercourse between sea and 
land, that can have obtained the call, to struggle with all their 
might and all their skill to obtain and secure naval pre-eminence. 
I must further add, as a particular element in the formation of these 
bays, that they only receive the waters of very small rivers, and 
often nothing more than large brooks, and that they are therefore far 
more permanent in their form, and better calculated for havens and 
harbours of refuge for ships, as such small streams are incapa- 
ble of choking up or even sensibly lessening the depth of such bays 
by any quantity of sand which they can convey, whilst in the case 
of great rivers, the processes of accumulation, of deposit, and the for- 
mation of deltas at their mouths, are continually going forward. 

Having thus, by personal observation of the coasts and bays, 
obtained an important element for the proper understanding of 
England and the English people in particular, I must now further 
remark, that these coasts are better fitted than most others to 
afford the most complete view of the great phenomena of the ocean 
in general, as exhibited in the whole crust of the earth. The 
perpetual motion of the sea, the rhythmical beat of its waves, 
the vast power of its surge, and the wondrous relations of its ebb 
and flow, are things which have here first become thoroughly 
intelligible to me, and I reckon all this as a real and substantial 
contribution to the means of comprehending the life of the earth in 
general. 

In order to form some idea of the violence of the waves, how 
much better than any description or study of drawings is it, to 
stand upon a precipitous rock a few hundred feet above the sea, and 
to be made aware of the traces which, during storms, the breakers 
have left behind, even at such an elevation above the surface of 
the water — or to stand upon the huge breakwater in Plymouth 
Sound, and to see the places where immense blocks of stone, from 
sixty to eighty tons weight, or even the hull of a stranded ship, 
have been thrown completely over the breakwater by the violence 
of the sea. Here, also, I first acquired a clear idea of the word 
tide, which is for ever in the mouths of English sailors, of currents, 
of the ebb and flow, which sometimes obstructs and sometimes 
favours the voyage, and exhibits so great a variety on the 
English coasts that, even deep in the bays, it usually causes an 
alternating difference of twelve to fifteen feet in the water level 
— while, in other places, the difference is as great as thirty, or 
sometimes more than thirty feet; nay, in the Bristol Channel, by 
a combination of peculiar circumstances, the tides rise to a height 
such as occurs in no other place upon the earth, and cause a differ- 
ence of sixty feet between the highest and the lowest level — the 



THE CLIMATE. 21 

highest flood and the lowest ebb — to which I shall hereafter more 
particularly advert in my journal. These constitute a series of 
phenomena which, in all their reality, may be said to have been new 
to me, although I had read much on these and similar subjects, and 
had seen some of them, but on a very small scale, in the inland seas. 
To the eye of the observing traveller, another effect of the sea 
will soon be visible, to which, travellers in general have paid but 
little, if any attention. I refer to its operation upon the climate. 
It is no doubt surprising, on arriving from the continent, to observe 
a mildness of climate in England, such as to allow no snow in 
winter to lie upon the plains, and little frost, in a degree of latitude, 
in which we have snow upon the ground for months on the main- 
land, and often enough experience cold of 20° (Reaumur). This 
peculiarity of England, and even of Scotland, by which vegetation, 
agriculture, the structure of houses, and the mode of life are so 
materially affected, arises from the influence of the surrounding sea 
alone; from the restless motion of this blood of the earth, which 
constantly sends its warm streams into cold regions, and cold 
streams into warm. In the Atlantic Ocean a warm current con- 
stantly sets from the equator in a westerly direction, meets the 
coast of South America, traverses the Gulf of Mexico, coasts the 
shores of North America, at about 50° of north latitude again 
takes an easterly direction towards the Azores, and in the most 
northerly part of its course preserves a degree of heat from 4° to 
5° (Reaumur) warmer than the surrounding ocean. From this ocean 
stream, and the influence of the great North Sea in general, which 
never freezes, and therefore never falls below Zero (Reaumur), the 
British Isles receive a greater proportion of heat than the sloping- 
rays of the sun of themselves would bestow. Intense cold, and 
long-continued snow are comparatively rare ; but the atmosphere is 
pregnant with innumerable particles of water, and unburdens 
itself in tedious fogs and continuous rain, in fogs which, moreover, 
often assume in England a very peculiar form. In the neighbour- 
hood of the Isle of Mull, I had an opportunity of witnessing a 
fog of this description on a fine July afternoon, a period when fogs 
with us are wholly unknown. This mist came suddenly on, spread 
over the sea, continued for more than an hour, and then assumed 
the form of clouds. When these fos^s are thick and of long con- 
tmuance, they are extremely dangerous to ships; and I may add, 
that they are clearly distinguishable from what in our climate we 
are accustomed to call fogs, by their smoky appearance and their 
whitish-gray colour. 

The land of this island, however, presents objects still more 
worthy of consideration and admiration than even the sea. This 
is especially the case in reference to tiie earth's structure, and the 
history of her revolutions, so legibly written in the stratification of 
her rocks; and, finally, the examination and review of the 
mineral and coal beds present opportunities for the most varied 



22 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

investigations. I had previously made myself acquainted with 
many facts connected with this subject. I was aware what won- 
derful changes the convulsions of the earth in this country had 
worked, and how often, in one and the same place, conclusive 
proofs might be seen, that the surface of the earth had been the 
habitation of the most peculiar races of plants and animals, which 
were all now buried and become parts of its substance; that the 
elevation of the original mountains was, in fact, confined to the 
south-west of England and Scotland; that trapp formations 
occupied the north-east and west, whilst the great chalk strata 
extended over the south-east, and that among all these, there were 
mighty districts of old and recent chalk mountains, as well as great 
deposits of red conglomerate sandstone; but I had no idea how 
clearly and how convincingly all these different stratifications could 
be exhibited and examined on the coasts, in the precipitious faces of 
the rocks towards the sea. 

True, I had not an opportunity of seeing the Isle of Man, which 
is one of the most remarkable places in this respect, on whose coasts 
the most various formations are said to be displayed; but I was for- 
tunate enough, on other parts of the coasts, to have had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing four large and essentially different formations of this 
description clearly exhibited, of which I proceed to speak some- 
what more in detail. The first of these is that which is so charac- 
teristic of England, from which it derives its well-deserved name of 
Albion, that of the chalk strata, which presents itself in such a mag- 
nificent form in the cliffs at Dover, and in the Isle of Wight. These 
beds consist of milliards of milliards of the habitations of perished 
microscopic Polythalamia, heaped together, and formed into a mass. 
The manner in which these masses, mixed with flint, formed a pre- 
cipitous sea-wall, I had previously seen exemplified to a small extent 
in the island of Rugen; but the whole was exhibited here upon such 
an immense scale, in the enormous pyramidal masses standing out of 
the water, as the Needles in the Isle of Wight, and seen from such 
a variety of points of view, as for the first time to furnish a full and 
complete representation of the subject. The second formation was 
that of the conglomerate red sand-stone, which either presents, in the 
form of reddish brown rocks, a splendid and picturesque contrast with 
the green colour of the sea, and stretches out in bold promontories, 
forming conical rocks, hollowed out by the action of the sea, and im- 
mense caves formed by the violent and ceaseless dashing of the surge, 
as at Exmouth, Dawlish, and Teignmouth, or alternates with strata 
of marl or nagelflue, which break down as easily, or even more so, 
and on the giving way or the removal of which, as at Lyme Regis, 
are discovered the huge Ichthyosauri of the primitive world, whose 
remains are imbedded in the strata. 

The third formation comprehends the large, massive, towering 
peaks of primitive granite, as it presents itself in the high, steep, 
sloping precipices in Cornwall ; or on the western coasts of Mull and 



FOSSIL EEMAINS. 23 

at Iona, projects boldly into the sea, in the form of rounded masses, 
as if formed by a swelling of the rock. 

The fourth formation consists of the Plutonian trapps, which 
are either driven up in thick masses, as in the neighbourhood of 
Edinburgh and the Firth of Forth, or, like magnificent basaltic 
columns springing from the bosom of the sea, exhibit the fantastic 
pillars and caves of StafTa. 

It may be regarded as a distinction of England, that it contains 
four such peculiar formations of the earth's surface, and in such 
magnitude and beauty, comprised within so limited a space. They 
are not to be found in such a union in any other portion of Europe. 

It is impossible to turn our attention to the nature of the surface 
of England, without bestowing particular consideration upon its 
history, as it is partly legible in the innumerable fossil remains of 
organic creatures, and the riches which the country produces in 
this respect, also necessarily demand especial mention. 

That all the great chalk mountains of the island, as well as 
its chalk beds, not merely contain fossil remains, but abso- 
lutely consist of the remains of organic life, that pieces broken 
out of the very middle of the rocks of the Peak, and ground to 
dust, present the most delicate structure of beautifully articu- 
lated corals, that rocks appear, which are nothing but an aggre- 
gate of shells (as at Bake well), and that the smallest portion of 
chalk, when made transparent by means of the balsam of copaiva, 
displays under the microscope hundreds of Polythalamia, most inge- 
niously combined, are conditions and facts which occur elsewhere; 
but nothing in the world presents any parallel to the immense 
coal-beds, consisting entirely of masses of compressed or lique- 
fied vegetable productions, exhibiting, in the coal slate by which 
they are accompanied, the most splendid impressions of leaves and 
ferns belonging to warmer latitudes, and often, as at Manchester, 
whole stems of trees, sometimes still standing upright on their 
original roots; or to the large trees converted into sand-stone, one of 
which, with a stem about thirty feet long, is to be seen lying in a 
quarry near Edinburgh; and in addition to these, the beds of 
remarkable fossil Sepia, and of the immense Amphibia, found 
only in such perfection in England ; all these furnish a wonderful, 
and, in their near proximity, unparalleled example of the relations 
of this portion of the earth's surface in the earlier periods of its 
existence. It was, therefore, in England alone that it was possible 
to decipher the proper value of the Belemnites, to be found in thou- 
sands in so many different places, and to show that they are, in 
reality, the point of the shell, and the remains of the habitation of a 
particular kind of Sepia. It was only in England that any accurate 
knowledge could be obtained of the whole structure and modes of 
life of those Iguanodons, which often far exceeded the crocodile in 
size; of the Ichthyosauri, and of the rare Plesiosauri, which are the 
very models of the myths of the dragon ; and the British Museum 



24 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

contains treasures of this description which must serve as a study to 
philosophers and naturalists of all countries, an acquaintance with 
which is more and more diffused by means of correct models. 

It is universally known that there are none of all the contents of 
English ground, which can be at all compared in value with that 
of its coal-beds (the Scotch mosses are mere auxiliaries to supply 
the deficiency of coal), for these form the element and foundation of 
almost the whole extent of English industry. This, however, ap- 
pears a thousand times more clearly in the country itself ; one need 
only see the great iron-works in Wales, and how the immense 
masses of coal and iron-stone are brought up at the same time 
from one and the same shaft, or read the calculations, according 
to which the value of the coal raised in Great Britain and Ireland 
in one year, amounts to 147,000,000 of our dollars, in order to have 
a full conception of the vast importance of the structure and con- 
tents of the surface of the country. It is no less deserving of re- 
mark that the richness of the English mountains in iron, copper, 
and tin, is not less a real peculiarity of this island, and that the iron- 
works and copper smelting establishments in Wales, and the tin mines 
in Cornwall, furnish materials of the greatest interest and instruc- 
tion to the traveller. 

The soil of England is less productive in the nobler metals, and 
silver-mines are worked in only a few districts (as in Cumberland). 
There is also less variety in the mineral springs than in most parts 
of the continent. There is nothing which can be compared with 
our springs at Carlsbad, Aix-la-Chapelle, Wiesbaden, Gastein, 
Teplitz, and many other places, and those which do exist, are 
chiefly confined within the circle of stronger or weaker saline 
waters (as Leamington and Buxton), or weak and saline chalybeates 
(as Bath), and rarely reach a particularly warm temperature. Even 
the pure spring-water is in many parts of England far from being 
perfectly good ; this is the case in the great chalk districts, for 
example, as near London itself ; and this fact has undoubtedly pro- 
duced the effect of making boiled water in the form of tea, so general 
and favourite a beverage in England. 

Before concluding my observations on the country, I must make 
a remark upon a peculiar and surprising circumstance connected 
with the English and Scotch mountains, of which I have not before 
seen any notice, and respecting which I have never received any 
written or verbal communication. It is well known that all the moun- 
tains in England are of a very moderate elevation, two, three, 
four, or something above four thousand feet is the highest point 
to which these masses rise above the level of the sea. Notwith- 
standing this, their physiognomy, even at such heights, is not only 
frequently Alpine, but their surface, even at very moderate elevations, 
presents peculiarities both in weather and vegetation, which are 
only perceived on the continent at elevations of from 5000 to 
6000 feet. In passing over ridges in the mountain passes, which 



MOUNTAINS — BOTANY. 25 

scarcely rise above 1000 to 1500 feet above the sea level, it 
is quite common to find the waste declivities of the 'mountains 
merely covered with heath, or thin Alpine pasture scattered 
among huge stones and disjected rocks, such as are only found on 
the continent in the valleys of the High Alps. Human dwellings 
disappear, or merely consist of solitary huts built with coarse loose 
stones, and badly covered with turf and heath ; a few solitary sheep 
find meagre pasture on the slopes; damp fogs draw through the 
ravines, and even the clouds descend further, and hang lower on 
the mountain tops. There is no doubt that these phenomena 
are in part owing to the northern latitude, but still more to 
the moisture of the atmosphere, and the prevalence of winds, 
both of which depend on proximity to the ocean. When, how- 
ever, all these things are considered, there is still something very 
surprising in the phenomenon, for it must often excite surprise, 
when half an hour's drive, on an ascending road, suddenly trans- 
ports the traveller from a fruitful and well-cultivated plain into a 
wild and solitary valley, and in still less space of time, exchanges 
it for a warm and cheerful district. The fact of our having met 
with snow on the Scotch mountains in July, at the elevation of 
4000 feet, must no doubt be ascribed to their northern latitude alone 
(56° to 57°). In reference to the botany of England, my expectations 
were most false; I had conceived the general idea of a northern 
country, but I found, on the contrary, a peculiar, and, in many 
respects, a southern vegetation, occasionally reminding me of Italy. 
With the exception of the Highlands, the ivy grows everywhere 
most luxuriantly, winding itself around walls, sometimes covering 
whole houses, and climbing up immense oaks with Italian luxu- 
riance. The holly (ilex), which reaches the height of a tree, the 
masses of Portugal laurels, which are planted around the poorest 
dwellings, and grow with great luxuriance, the climbing and mag- 
nificent roses which adorn the walls and gates, the chesnuts, the 
multitudes of rhododendrons, and, finally, the mighty cedars, 
which, with stems of from four to five feet diameter, grow so vi- 
gorously in many parks, that finer ones can scarcely be found in 
Lebanon; and even the wild tamarisk (tamarix Gallicd) which 
here and there occurs, all these, together with the noble meadows, 
give to well-situated valleys, well-watered plains, and to the dis- 
tricts on the southern coast, a richness of vegetation, with which 
Germany must be very disadvantageously compared, and which 
never ceased to engage and fix my attention, even after I had 
formed a clear conception of all the advantages and peculiarities of 
the climate on which I have already observed. On the commons of 
the level country, and on the mountains, the vegetation assumes 
somewhat of a foreign character ; on the former, chiefly from the 
prevalence of a weed almost universal in England and Scotland, 
the prickly ulex Europceus and nanus ; on the latter, from the im- 
mense quantity of the erica cinerea and other heaths which cover 



26 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

whole mountains with their carmine blossoms. On the other hand, 
it appears immeasurably behind Germany in forests. In England 
there are of what are properly called forests, none, and in Scotland 
they are very rare. It is true, indeed, that many of the noble 
parks may serve partly to point out the places where the ancient 
forests were, and may be regarded as their descendants ; but still, 
what in Germany we call a forest, in all its wildness, with all the 
beauty of its trees, with its branches multifariously interlaced, its 
gnarled and knotted roots, and the plants which luxuriate in the 
depths of the wood — in a word — with that forest solitude, for which 
we are indebted to Tieck for the proper expression ( Wald-einsamkeit), 
you will seek in vain throughout the whole island of Great Britain. 
The parks are magnificent — they are noble in extent — and the 
forest trees are so judiciously planted and carefully guarded, that 
you everywhere meet with the noblest beech and oak, lime and 
elm. They are in general so laid out, that it may be truly 
said that no one can form an idea of what a park is, until he has 
seen England. Woods, however, there are none. Appearance is 
universally considered, and most of all in the shorn and rolled 
velvet lawns ; and in a country possessing such great political 
freedom, there is in these, as well as in many other human things, 
no freedom at all. The yew-tree also, with its dark and needle 
foliage, and the white-thorn (eratcegus oxyacanthd), which so often 
grows to the size of a tree, furnish peculiar traits in the picture of 
an English landscape. The number of fruit-trees, too, in England, 
is relatively very small compared with Germany, where they sur- 
round our villages, adorn the way-sides, and fill our gardens — and 
in this, as well as in the total absence of the culture of the vine, the 
influence of the climate with its fogs and rain again appears, and 
though free from severe cold and snow, England never enjoys pro- 
longed and constant summer weather. 

The vegetation of the moors and meadow-lands is, relatively 
speaking, not much more luxuriant than that of Germany, and 
although a few rare ornamental plants occur which are either alto- 
gether or for the most part unknown among us, as the anthericum 
ossifragum, lobelia dortmanna, and the papaver Cambricum, which 
belongs exclusively to England, or, more properly speaking, to 
Wales and Cumberland, yet the usual plants that are met with 
are precisely the same as with us, with the exception of the fragrant 
myrica gale, which is to be found growing luxuriously every- 
where on the moors in Scotland. 

The same observation may be made respecting the animal king- 
dom. However foreign may have been the Fauna of the primitive 
world, with its thousands of Ichthyosauri and Plesiosauri, its ammo- 
nites and fish (such as the pterichthys Mulleri, to be found in Scotland) 
up to the giant stag (cervus megaceros), found in the inundated 
country of the Isle of Man, the present races of animals existing in 
England present no real peculiarities. 



BIRDS AND ANIMALS. 27 

The greatest differences no doubt exist in the winged kingdom, 
but this is not so easy of observation to the rapid and hasty tra- 
veller. The greatest surprise is excited on the coasts at the sight 
of the multitude of northern birds, which belong exclusively to 
high latitudes. At the Land's End I saw for the first time the 
lestris parasiticus, mixed with the common gulls (larus ma~ 
rinus and ridibundus), screeching around the rocks; and at the 
islands of Mull and StafTa divers of all descriptions were swim- 
ming about upon the sea in flocks. The most remarkable sight of 
this description, however, was presented on leaving the Firth of 
Forth, and passing close by the Bass Rock. This, in fact, may be 
called a northern bird-island ; it consists of a mass of trapp rock 
rising almost perpendicularly from the sea, and is completely covered 
with sitting and chiefly brooding birds of the storm, such as the pro- 
ccllaria glacialis, uria troila, alca torda and arctica, surrounded and, as 
it were, guarded by flights of gulls. Here also the sea contributes the 
most important additions to the Fauna of the country. Asa great 
number of particular genera and species are added to the vege- 
table kingdom by the multitude of the most various descriptions 
of tangle and wrack (Jucus, laminaria, &c.) which are thrown on 
the coasts, so the inhabitants of the deep contribute the greatest, 
nay, inexhaustible and continually increasing additions to the animal 
kingdom of England. During our stay in Great Britain, as we 
learned from the newspapers, a whole herd of whales (probably large 
dolphins, as the delphinus orca, which frequently grows to twenty-five 
feet long), were wrecked on the extreme northern coast of Scotland, 
and became a valuable booty to the fishermen of the district. Among 
the peculiar birds of the country, I must not omit to mention the 
favourite Scotch grouse (tetrao Scoticus), which affords so much 
gratification to the sportsmen of Great Britain. These beautiful 
brown-speckled birds, with red wattles above the eyes, are found in 
such quantities on the Scotch Highland moors, that a good shot will 
bring down from forty to fifty birds in a day ; they live wholly upon 
the seeds and flowers of the heather, which gives their flesh a sin- 
gularly rich game flavour. The cock-of-the-wood also {tetrao uro- 
g alius) frequently occurs. In addition to these, the animals for the 
chase are hares, rabbits — which are found wild in great numbers on 
the woody hills near Salisbury — foxes, red deer, roes, and especially the 
fallow-deer (cervus dama), which are kept by hundreds in the parks. 

Finally, it would necessarily lead to a variety of considerations 
were I to proceed to speak of the modes of breeding and the treat- 
ment of the domestic quadrupeds, especially of the sheep, oxen, and, 
above all, the horse, so important in England. On this subject I 
can only allow myself to indulge in a very few words. Of sheep 
there occur about six different varieties ; all of which present pecu- 
liarities in form, from the small white sheep of Sussex to the black- 
headed sheep of Wiltshire, and the particularly high-flavoured sheep 
of Wales. With respect to them all, however, it is to be remarked, 



28 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

that they are not usually to be seen in large close-thronging flocks 
upon the pastures, but for the most part separate, although multi- 
tudes of them are scattered about on the slopes of the mountains 
and upon the commons; and also, that they are less valued for the 
excellence of their fleece than for the delicacy and richness of the 
mutton. In the same manner, very different breeds of oxen are 
found spread over the island, among which the following are most 
worthy of remark: the small breed of Scotch cows, called black 
cattle, famous for the abundance of its milk ; and the white cattle , which 
are very rare, and exist only in a single small herd of about seventy 
head, in a half wild condition, in the Duke of Hamilton's parks, and 
which, according to tradition, have descended from the times of 
Julius Caesar. If we would speak of the breeding, races, and train- 
ing of the horse in England, where are we to begin, and where to 
end, in order to reduce the subject within the limits of a general 
view? — in England, where such a multitude of horses are used for 
the saddle — where boys and women ride on horseback as well as 
men, and old men of from seventy to eighty years of age do not 
give up this favourite exercise. Next to the Arab, the Englishman 
is unquestionably the best horse-breeder — nay, the latter probably 
excels the former in obtaining a nobler and more perfect form of the 
animal; and certainly does so in the great variety of horses which he 
procures, all of a useful kind. ' The extremes may be represented by 
the vast elephantine horse of Lincolnshire, and the diminutive Shet- 
land pony. Between these extremes lie an immense variety of ani- 
mals, for use and luxury, for the plough, the carriage, the race- 
course, and the saddle. A more detailed examination of this sub- 
ject would in this place be wholly impossible. I shall therefore 
merely advert to two points which struck me with particular sur- 
prise : First, the intelligent training of the nobler breed of horses, 
and their progress to greater intelligence ; secondly, the vigour 
imparted to them by living in the open air. With respect to the 
former of these points, I acknowledge that I was strongly reminded 
of the interesting descriptions of horse-breeding among the Arabs, 
when standing in the midst of a whole herd of one and two-year-old 
colts at Eaton Hall ; and the beautiful, round, young animals looked 
at me with such confidence in their intelligent bright eyes, and 
snuffed me all round with expanded nostrils, to see if some agree- 
able food was not to be found projecting from the coat-pocket 
of their visiter. It is obvious, from the very look of these creatures, 
that they are trained without the exercise of any severity, and by 
the most tender and the kindest treatment — that they are influenced 
by the reason, and not the harshness, of man; and that the intelli- 
gence of their own nature is thereby developed and promoted — an 
intelligence which is displayed in so many traits of the noble English 
horse, in the rare tractableness of his dispositions, and his great cou- 
rage. As to the second point — their life in the open air — the 
mildness of the winter is, of course, the cause that great studs 



THE PEOPLE. 29 

of these beautiful animals not only live from year to year in the open 
air, but that, besides this, a multitude of horses not in use are turned 
out for a much longer period on enclosed mountain pastures or 
heaths, as it were, in a wild condition. Here it is that, by galloping 
and leaping over stock and stone, over hedge and ditch on the moun- 
tain slopes, they gain such strength in their muscles and sinews, 
as to be not only capable of undergoing the greatest fatigue, but also 
of bearing their desperate riders in safety over trench and wall, 
ditch and stone. I have often looked with delight, on passing by 
one of these mountain enclosures, at the young horses, full of curio- 
sity as they are, galloping down the steepest declivities of the hills, 
and standing, with pricked-up ears and clear eyes, to look over the 
enclosure after our carriages as we rolled on our way. 

Having now given a hasty view of sea and land, of the vegetable and 
animal kingdom, I have come to that which is — the most difficult 
task of all ! To present to my readers some thoughts and observa- 
tions upon the remarkable and highly inventive race of men which 
inhabits this island. First, I would lay down the following principle : 
There can be nothing more favourable to, and promotive of, the de- 
velopment of a man, who is intended to rise to an important, able, and 
highly intellectual elevation in the scale of life, than, first of all, to 
be sprung from the healthy union of vigorous, fine, and intellectual 
natures; and secondly, to enjoy in. the earliest period of his youth 
and development, the benefits of that retirement and quiet, which 
is essentially necessary to the laying and consolidation of the 
foundation of such a physical individuality, as will be afterwards vi- 
gorously developed to a great and important character, as soon as he 
comes in contact with real life, its impulses and motives, and when the 
mind is called to act and struggle on the great theatre of the world. 
This observation is as truly applicable to whole races and nations 
as to the individual man. The peculiarities and high importance of 
the people of England are mainly to be sought in the descent of the 
English from the mixture of so many different races, all of a vigo- 
rous character; the intermarriage of the original inhabitants of 
England, the Cymri or Britons, with the Romans, Norwegians, 
Danes, Normans, and Germans, from whence the new British, or, 
properly speaking, English people sprang; and moreover, in this 
people being confined to the limits of an island, and thus almost 
wholly withdrawn from the direct influences and disturbing 
causes resulting from contact with other nations, and having full 
time for the invigoration and consolidation of their powers, as dis- 
tinct from, and in opposition to, those of all other nations in the world. 
When we look at the subject from this point of view, it is remarkable 
to perceive that those districts of Great Britain in which the ori- 
ginal races exist, witli the least admixture of foreign nations, and 
have still preserved the use of their original Celtic or Gallic lan- 
guage, as in Wales and the Highlands of Scotland, are those, the in- 
habitants of which cannot in any respect be compared in mental 



30 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

energy and development with those who, properly speaking, belong 
to the new British race, and are constrained to yield to the genuine 
English, whose language is a compound derived from Roman, Nor- 
man, Scandinavian, and German roots. It is this little England, 
this England containing about 15,000,000 of inhabitants, which 
has made itself the centre of a kingdom, greater than any in the 
civilised world, whose provinces surround our globe, and, even 
excluding the shifting but still numerous population of Hudson's 
Bay, reckons a population of above 200,000,000 ; whilst Russia, the 
most powerful empire on the continent, only reckons about 64,000,000 
of subjects. 

In short, the further our inquiries are pushed into the charac- 
teristic peculiarities of the English people, the more obvious will it 
become that the two elements just mentioned are of the greatest 
importance. As to the race, the German and Scandinavian elements 
are clearly discernible in the physical constitution, in the strongly 
built frame, above the middle size, the oval form of the skull, the fair 
skin, and the great preponderance of brown and light hair over 
black. These elements are even more obvious in the public institu- 
tions of the people. On examining this point more carefully, the old 
German customs and the old German laws will still be seen not only 
to exist, but to flourish in a multitude of institutions, which have been 
completely lost in Germany itself, either through the constant and va- 
rying influences of other nations, or sometimes through indolence of 
character in the people themselves. The various forms of administration 
throughout the country afford proofs of this remark; every district, 
every town, every parish, possesses a species of independence, elects 
its own parish, local, or municipal officers, and, by means of its repre- 
sentatives, enjoys and exercises a great share in the general adminis- 
tration of the whole country ; in a word, it possesses those great rights 
which belong to a free constitution. Then the public administration 
of justice and trial by jury, the great preponderance of open and 
verbal modes of transacting business overwritten, the unlimited, free, 
and public expression of individual opinion upon all subjects; the 
performance of administrative duties in many cases without salary, 
and the holding of offices which are mere signs of public confidence, 
and of a prominent position, all enter into this inquiry. 

It would, indeed, require a long and careful examination, accom- 
panied and supported by strict historical research, to be able to declare 
what of all this has passed from the Scandinavian, what from the 
Roman, what from the German stock, into the life of the English peo- 
ple. It would then unquestionably appear, that the Roman forms by 
far the smallest element in the composition, and the German incom- 
parably the greatest. 

The second element, the greater degree of retirement and of un- 
disturbed progress to maturity, before the occurrence of any very 
active intercourse or exercise of reciprocal influence from foreign 
nations, has been productive of this result, that a multitude of sin- 



ANGLO-GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. 31 

gularities, of customs, usages, institutions, and manners, both in 
public and private life, have taken such deep root in England, as to 
become immoveable : and this might seem the more astonishing in a 
nation which carries on the most active intercourse with all parts 
of the world, and with nations of the most different habits, customs, 
and laws, did we not bear in mind, that almost all these characteristic 
singularities date from a period when the people were absolutely iso- 
lated, and their forms of life were developed to full maturity from 
within themselves, and that therefore there is an universal inclina- 
tion to hold firmly by that which, in other countries, is subject 
to continual change from the influences of neighbouring nations, 
and sometimes changes of itself. In recent times, it is true, com- 
forts and luxuries, in all their various relations, have enormously 
grown and increased in England, but the basis of all these usages 
and customs may be clearly shown to rest upon others, handed down 
from time immemorial. These very developments, therefore, always 
assume a peculiar historical character, and make obvious the reason 
why the English themselves have such intense pleasure in thinking 
of and designating their country as Old England; this tendency is 
also obvious in the architecture of the country. England possesses 
a style of architecture which is, in fact, strictly national and peculiar; 
in other countries of Europe such nationality has altogether disap- 
peared, whilst here it continues to maintain its ground — though not 
exclusively — and will probably long continue so to do. I can find 
no other word by which to characterise this peculiarity than Anglo- 
Gothic, as it is exhibited in the castles, public buildings, churches, 
and private dwellings, and may be said in some measure to have be- 
come the national style. In recent times in Germany we see exam- 
ples of the occasional adoption of the Gothic style, but it gives the 
same foreign impression as if it were Grecian or Egyptian, and is 
treated also with the greatest licence, inasmuch as among the great 
variety of Gothic styles, sometimes this is adopted, and sometimes 
that — and one with as little reason or propriety as the other. It is 
quite otherwise in England. From the date of the twelfth century 
this style — properly speaking, German — has completely replaced the 
older heavy Norman style, and assumed a national peculiarity in con- 
sequence of some admixture of elements not purely German. It has 
especially lost that high and constant aspiration of the pure German 
style, which aims at a still increased development of refined and deli- 
cate articulations in the filigree work of the free and lofty spire, and, 
on the contrary, has assumed the square and firmer form, resembling 
a fortress; the form, namely, of flat towers with turrets at the four 
corners, thicker columns and solid spires of hewn stone. In this 
form, their architectural structures still continue from century to 
century, and castles are to be seen which, though only lately 
completed in all their exterior arrangements (as Windsor itself), yet 
appear in no respect different from what they would have done, had 
they been finished immediately after their commencement in the 



32 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

fifteenth or sixteenth century. It is true, that in recent times there 
have been various applications of the antique and old Italian style of 
building, and instances of the pure Norman have again occasionally 
appeared, as in the magnificent modern edifice of Penrhyn Castle, 
in Wales. The dwelling-houses are erected in a simple modern 
style, such as is best suited to the conveniences and comforts of life. 
But the combination of these numerous modern buildings, with the 
churches and public edifices built after the old national style, always 
gives a peculiar character to English towns and country mansions ; 
and in the most recent times, whilst in Germany a Walhalla has been 
built in pure Grecian style, the English nation has given an indelible 
impression of its feelings and character, by determining that the 
building, which may be called the head and heart of the life of the 
English people — their houses of parliament — must necessarily be exe- 
cuted in a strict Anglo-Gothic style. 

I cannot take leave of the subject without a remark on English 
dwelling-houses, which stands also in close connexion with that 
long- cherished principle of separation and retirement, lying at the 
very foundation of the national character. It appears to me, to be 
this principle which has given to the people that fixity of national 
character, and strict adherence to the historical usages of their 
country, by which they are so much distinguished; and up to the 
present moment, the Englishman still perseveres in striving after a 
certain individuality and personal independence, a certain separation 
of himself from others, which constitutes the foundation of his 
freedom. This, too, was completely an ancient German tendency, 
which led our remote ancestors to prefer the rudest and most incon- 
venient, but isolated homesteads, to the more convenient and refined 
method of life in aggregation; it is this that gives the Englishman 
that proud feeling of personal independence, which is stereotyped 
in the phrase: " Every mans house is his castle" This is a feeling 
which cannot be entertained, and an expression which cannot be 
used, in Germany or France, in which countries, ten or fifteen 
families often live together in the same large house. The expres- 
sion, however, receives a true value, when, by the mere closing of 
the house-door, the family is able, to a certain extent, to cut itself off 
from all communication with the outward world, even in the midst 
of great cities. In English towns or villages, therefore, one always 
meets either with small detached houses merely suited to one family, 
or apparently large buildings extending to the length of half a 
street, sometimes adorned like palaces on the exterior, but separated 
by partition walls internally, and thus divided into a great number 
of small high houses, for the most part three windows broad, within 
which, and on the various stories, the rooms are divided according 
to the wants or convenience of the family; in short, therefore, it 
may be properly said, that the English divide their edifices perpen- 
dicularly into houses — whilst we Germans divide them horizontally 
into floors. In England, every man is master of his hall, stairs, 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENGLISH. 33 

and chambers — whilst we are obliged to use the two first in com- 
mon with others, and are scarcely able to secure ourselves the 
privacy of our own chamber, if we are not fortunate enough to be 
able to obtain a secure and convenient house for ourselves alone. 

Besides the race and the external circumstances, there is yet 
another element, which has always appeared to me of great im- 
portance in every attempt to illustrate the nature either of indi- 
vidual man or of whole nations ; and this is indicated by the ques- 
tion — only to be answered after mature inquiry and reflection — to 
what age does the person or the people, as a whole, correspond? 
By what age can it be regarded as, in some measure, represented? 
There are men who, from their very childhood, are endowed with 
the wisdom and sobriety of age, who have, properly speaking, no 
youth; who are always characterised by the anxieties, doubts, want 
of vigour, avarice, ceremony, and other signs of advanced age. 
There are others who never, at any age, lose the characteristics of 
childhood, never grasp a weighty or important idea, and always in- 
dulge in, and amuse themselves with, trivial pleasures, and are inte- 
rested in what is trifling and new. There are some, again, who, by 
the prevalence of headstrong passions, may be regarded as the re- 
presentative of adolescence; and others as the type of mature age, 
by the strength of their resolution and the vigour of their minds, 
even from their earliest years. With their necessary modifications, 
such comparisons, by which objects are gradually made clearer, 
may be applied to whole nations also. If we ask now, adopting 
this method, how are the English people to be characterised? There 
can be no doubt, that after a very short observation of their whole 
mode of action and conduct, they must be characterised by the 
mature, late, but still vigorous age of man. A firm adherence to 
principles once adopted, a quiet, historical foundation and develop- 
ment, a decisiveness and vigour, a Catonian severity of morals, but, 
together with these, a great measure of pedantry, and, even as a 
j)eople, conspicuous and unconcealed egotism are precisely the very 
circumstances and conditions which must soon impress themselves 
upon the mind of the observer, and become consolidated into a 
firm and decisive judgment, such as that already expressed. It is, 
undoubtedly, something beautiful to see a man, as well as a nation, 
still in a full state of manly vigour, still grandly following out the 
development of his destiny, or, properly speaking, creating his own 
destiny; and it is, therefore, easy to perceive the reason why per- 
sonal observation and contemplation of the English people, with all 
their manly consistency, their tenacious firmness, their clear per- 
ceptions, their contempt for all prolixity, and their decisive prac- 
tical nature, is so peculiarly interesting, and calculated to produce 
such a powerful influence on the mind. The most important aid 
to the full understanding of this sketch of character, which we have 
compared to that of vigorous manhood after the middle age of life, 
is to be derived from a consideration of the naval power of England, 

D 



34 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

■which results, as I have already shown, from the nature of the 
country, and its capacities. The Navy, as it is called, the de- 
velopment of an immense sea force, in whose proficiency and might 
the highest as well as the lowest take interest and delight — which 
even engages the very spirit of dilettantism displayed in the 
numerous yacht clubs — it is this which represents the first condi- 
tion of the trade and manufactures of England, and forms the 
strongest support of her universal dominion. It is only by reference 
to this, that it becomes possible to solve the problem, how 26,000,000 
of Englishmen are able to rule 200,000,000 of foreigners. And the 
navy continues to be the source and instrument of her continually 
increasing wealth, of which some idea may be formed, when I state 
that, according to Mr. Porter's reports, the saving banks of England 
alone, in the year 1841, contained above 24,000, 0007. sterling; that 
the number of ships was above 30,000, of which 900 were steam- 
boats; and that more than 80,000,000/. sterling were invested in 
railroads alone.* The Navy, therefore, which works all these 
v/onders, which engages men in a continual struggle with a dreadful 
and unruly element of nature, which accustoms them to live in their 
frail houses on the rolling main, and to be always ready, for life or for 
death — it is this, especially, which imparts cool and manly courage 
to the people as a whole, and elevates them in every practical relation 
far above all other nations of the earth. But as has been already 
said, this vigour, courage, and decisiveness of character, as usually 
happens in the advanced age of man, are accompanied by a stiff- 
ness, pedantry, and egotism, which repel all that may be called the 
poetic element in the spirit of a nation. When brought into com- 
petition with life and action, this poetical element must still more 
and more recede, in proportion as the age of the nation advances 
and increases in its puritanical and pedantic severity. On these 
grounds it often appears to me impossible to believe, that Shak- 
speare could have been an Englishman ; and his really being so, 
only becomes intelligible by remembering that, in the time of Shak- 
speare, a real merry England actually existed. It is, moreover, for 
this very reason, too, that there is at present such poverty in the 
really active pursuit and cultivation of all that deserves the name of 
the higher arts. England has never produced a single great his- 
torical painter, and will scarcely ever produce one. The same is 
true of sculpture and music. 

As to poetry, England, like other countries, possesses even now, 
it is true, a great many poets, and men of distinguished talents 
appear from time to time in the field of events, but the tendency 
towards the gloomy side, the melancholy, or the sentimental, and 
often even the bitter element of life, is constantly gaining the 
ascendent, and this fact of itself proves that poetry, properly so 
called, is a stranger to the country at present. True, indeed, I 

* See Appendix, No. I 



POETRY AND THE SCIENCES. 35 

will not venture to say that the Englishmen of the present day 
are destitute of the spirit and feeling of poetry, for what people 
are completely in this condition? But these are limited to an 
earlier period of life, and are regarded as a disease incidental to the 
development of the mind, rather than as a great poetical view of 
life pervading the whole existence, harmonising with the deep 
poetry of life, and exercising a most important influence upon the 
whole moral and intellectual character. The prevailing English 
character is, therefore, by no means destitute of passion and poetry; 
but all this appears like the early eruption of a volcano, which 
is speedily exhausted, and then the crater only remains, covered 
with ashes, hard and dry. 

Every thing pertaining to the theatrical arts is almost in a worse 
condition in England, at present, than even the structural arts and 
music; and although we can make no particular boast of the state 
of the drama amongst ourselves, it would not be easy to exagge- 
rate its superiority over the miserable and soulless drama of Eng- 
land. It is something repugnant to one's feelings to see that the 
people, who formerly produced the greatest of all dramatic poets, 
should now be almost wholly destitute of dramatists, and that the 
art should share so little genuine sympathy ; but a moment's 
consideration of the whole circumstances of the country, and it no 
longer remains a riddle. Industry absorbs all the energies of life; 
with the progress and application of steam power, not only are 
thousands and thousands of new productions developed, but the 
population itself; the number of large towns, with 30,000 or 40,000 
inhabitants, whose names are yet scarcely known in foreign coun- 
tries, increases with enormous rapidity, and the regulation, occu- 
pation, and supply of all these demand continual and progressive 
activity; how is it possible that, in the midst of such a tendency 
of public life, any time should be allotted to the artistical gratifica- 
tion of the finer and more intellectual wants of the human mind ? 

For these reasons even the sciences, considered by themselves, are 
not objects of pursuit; and least of all, in the higher departments 
of mental philosophy, but they are cultivated zealously and effectually 
in as far as they are useful, and promote the immediate advantages 
of life. In England, natural philosophy by no means corresponds 
with the Natur-Philosophie of the Germans, but consists of a com- 
bination of mathematics and physics, and is endured only as such, 
whilst every truth is decidedly repulsed, which is calculated to 
promote such a free spirit of inquiry or mental development, as 
might in the most remote degree interfere with, or trench upon, any 
traditional, political, or orthodox ecclesiastical dogma. By and by, 
the spirit of inquiry now awakening even in England, and the 
application of a more philosophical mode of thinking and investiga- 
tion to physiology and comparative anatomy, will pave the way 
for a more general and true consideration of the philosophy of 

D2 



36 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

nature; although, no doubt a long time will still elapse before this 
goal is attained. 

We must, therefore, always return to the enumeration of what 
appears to be so worthy of admiration in England: — its noble 
public institutions and active life, the energy of its technical arts, 
and of its politics, the perfection and power of its Navy. — All this 
greatness, however, would be inconceivable, were it not that, in the 
general administration of the country, a certain elevated tone of 
simplicity prevails, which is as far remote as possible from what 
may be called the dilettantism of governing, which seeks for its 
renown in a multitude of petty regulations, and in a peculiarly 
artistical structure of the state machine. It strikes a stranger with 
astonishment when he hears how small a number of individuals 
compose the efficient force of the executive; with what simpli- 
city and brevity the communications between the respective mi- 
nisterial departments are made; how little verbal communication 
takes place, and how limited the number of the whole official staffis, 
which in Germany is so inordinately increased. There is, perhaps, 
no country in which, relatively speaking, the number of paid officials 
is so small as in England,* and where the direction of the public 
affairs is conducted on so elevated a scale ; and in this respect in 
particular, it must undoubtedly furnish an interesting object of 
study for the diplomatists and statesmen of all nations. I must 
still add, that it is this very elevated mode of conducting public 
affairs, which opens up the widest and richest field for the appear- 
ance of men of the highest talents and character. What is high 
and great, can only be performed by great and able men, and this 
principle finds in England its full recognition ; every man of 
talent, whatever be his family or condition, provided he is an 
Englishman, may not only aspire, but raise himself to the very 
highest and most dignified offices in the country. As the states- 
man must necessarily show himself as he really is, as he is not 
suffered to intrench himself behind rescripts and documents, but 
must come forth personally into the collisions of politics, and bear 
his share in the discussion of great political questions, his per- 
sonal qualities are put to the test, and every insignificant pre- 
tender is as sure to fall into contempt, as every man of abilities 
and power is of securing for himself a large circle of influence. 
How true, therefore, and especially in England, is the remark in 
King Lear, and how pertinent to the case of the great statesmen 
of Britain are the words of Edgar : 

" Ripeness is all." 

* In Appendix No/1 1, 1 have given a short sketch of the high political offices, 
and named the individuals by whom they were filled at the time of our visit to 
England. 



( 37 ) 



VII. 

JOURNEY THROUGH ENGLAND. 

Buckhurst, May 29th— Early. 
Yesterday morning, at twelve o'clock, our small but well-built 
iron steam-boat, the Princess Alice, cast anchor off Dover, and at 
half-past twelve a boat landed us through the surge on the beach, 
composed of rolling flints and chalk debris. Notwithstanding a 
strong west wind and a high sea, the passage, which often occupies 
from nine to ten hours, was quickly effected in five. The double 
motion of the ship, caused by her rolling and heaving, produced a 
peculiarly disagreeable feeling; but still, the pleasure which I felt 
in contemplating the magnificent, high rolling, and foaming waves, 
and the mental excitement connected with the idea of this com- 
pletely novel and deeply interesting voyage, enabled me to re- 
sist the tendency to sea-sickness, and to continue to enjoy the 
sight of the wonderfully beautiful and splendid picture of the ever- 
agitated sea. His majesty also was able to remain on deck, and 
escaped the disagreeable penalty which landsmen usually pay, 
whilst several of our fellow- voyagers, stretched upon the deck, were 
obliged to offer sacrifice to Neptune, and pay toll for their passage. 
The whole of this ship-life w T as something very new to me ; the neat 
and rapid steamer cleaving her way through the mighty waves, 
driven by her foaming paddles; the transition in the colour of the 
water from the muddy gray in the neighbourhood of the coast, to 
the dark green of the deep sea ; a few fishing-boats here and there on 
the horizon — two rapid steam-boats careering past us on their course 
— a few solitary gulls driven out by the wind, and the covering of 
gray clouds, with numerous deep strata rent by the wind, every thing 
was completely new and strange, and the attention and interest 
were constantly kept alive. The French coast from Dunkirk to 
Calais lay stretched like a dark strip along the southern horizon. 
At eleven o'clock the English coast appeared in the distance; and 
after a brief period, Shakspeare's cliff at Dover became distinguish- 
able. The sky continued dark and cloudy, but the white chalk 
cliffs soon revealed themselves distinctly, and we were presently 
able to discern the old tower of the castle, whilst far to the right, 
with their light ships, lay the Goodwin sands, the scene of so many 
terrible disasters. As we approached the coast the sea fell, and the 
houses in Dover became visible, painted of a singular brown or 
olive colour, with their gray slate roofs. 

We had no sooner landed, than carriages were in readiness to 
convey us rapidly to the hotel, whilst a salute was fired from the 
castle and the heights; and we were scarcely arrived, when some 



38 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

gentlemen belonging to the authorities of the town and the harbour 
were announced, who came to welcome his majesty and to offer 
their services. 

On our drive from the beach to the hotel the feeling was over- 
powering, and we were obliged to exclaim — we are in a very 
different country. In passing from Germany into Italy, the customs 
and style of architecture, as well as the build of the people, are 
strikingly different; but the contrast is still sharper between going 
on board in Belgium and landing in England. The small houses, the 
different construction of the windows (only made to push up), the 
closed doors, the strange names over the doors and shops, the lofty 
and numerous chimneys, even the totally different arrangement of 
the hotel, every thing, as well as the people themselves, furnishes 
indications of a peculiar character. A dejeuner dinatoire, which the 
English call lunch, was served, and the commander of the garrison 
as well as Captain Smithet, of the Princess Alice, was of our party. 
The richness and abundance of the plate surprised us Germans, 
unaccustomed to such displays in our inns; and many national 
peculiarities in the viands were immediately observable; the rich 
ox-tail soup, the massive piece of admirable beef, fish of every 
description, and together with sherry and port, common at all 
English tables, genuine porter, which in consequence of its aromatic 
bitter was peculiarly well calculated to repair the discomforts of 
sea-sickness, from which some of our party had suffered. 

Lunch was scarcely finished, when carriages arrived to conduct us 
through the town to the old castle, whilst the servants were busied 
in conveying the most necessary portions of our baggage to the rail- 
road. (The carriages were still on board the steamboat, which 
could not enter the harbour till the evening, and were to be sent 
after us by another train.) 

Dover Castle is situated to the north of the town, on a chalk cliff 
about 500 feet high. The road thither leads through a great part 
of the town, which now contains about 14,000 inhabitants. On all 
sides small gray or brown houses with slate roofs. We passed the 
harbour, which contains a great number of ships; and, as we ap- 
proached the cliff, were surprised at a certain Italian appearance 
displayed in the vegetation ; the gardens being adorned with high 
boxwood, large Portugal laurels, and long covered walks thickly and 
luxuriously overgrown with ivy. The castle itself is very old — 
partly in ruins. The oldest parts are built in the round, arched, 
heavy Norman style, and some beautiful vistas, as well as romantic 
remains of old chapels, and the like, present themselves. The white 
chalk, with its innumerable flints, thrusts itself out in all directions 
from the scanty grass. Many of the walls are built wholly of flint, 
and on the walls and slopes the beautiful yellow Smirnium olusa- 
trum (common Alexanders) grows in great abundance. The garrison 
of the castle was composed of a battalion of infantry, afterwards des- 



FROM DOVER TO BUCKHURST. 39 

tined for Ireland, who, in their elegant scarlet uniforms, received his 
majesty with royal honours. We were then conducted to the point 
from which the most extensive view is to be obtained; it is situated 
on a rampart looking towards the sea; and truly the view from this 
point, embracing the town, with its roadstead and ships, the new 
port and the Shakspeare cliff opposite, is splendid. Among 
the numerous pieces mounted on the ramparts, an old and enor- 
mously long gun was shown us, of the year 1514, for which an ele- 
gant new iron carriage had just been made. This modern mounting, 
adorned with cast-iron foliage, made somewhat the same figure under 
the powerful flre-vomiter as one of these red uniforms would do 
under the steel harness of an ancient knight. 

The modern fort of Dover, lying to the south-west, was still to be 
visited. We therefore drove back to the town, and from thence up 
again to the fort. Here was the residence of the commander, who 
had lunched with us at the hotel. He took great pains to show us the 
batteries and casemates, as well as his own small but elegant dwelling 
in one part of the works. How beautiful again was the view from 
the fort ! Under the chalky walls lay the town and the roads, where 
we still saw our steamer at anchor opposite to the old castle, and on 
one side of us Shakspeare's cliff. Here we were again obliged to 
take some sherry and ships' biscuit, and then the commander con- 
ducted us by a dark vaulted passage, under one of the batteries, in 
which a stair led directly down to the point where the course of the 
railroad is about to enter the tunnel under Shakspeare's cliff. The train 
started — arrived — stopped, — and we entered an elegant coupe de- 
corated with red velvet, and which was reserved for the use of his 
majesty. This railroad is called the South Ea stern, and leads through 
Folkstone and Ashford to London. We availed ourselves of it only 
as far as Tunbridge, where carriages with post-horses were in wait- 
ing, in order to convey us through Tunbridge Wells, and rich dis- 
tricts in Sussex, to this place. 

During the course of our drive the appearance of the country was 
mild and beautiful, notwithstanding the dark, cloudy sky. The road 
was chiefly skirted by pasture or meadow-land ; the country diversi- 
fied with neat farm-houses, cottages, fields, all prettily enclosed — 
occasionally large parks, numerous oaks of a roundish form, and 
great quantities of ivy hanging thick and luxuriant on the walls and 
trees. We met none but well-dressed people on the road, which, 
though only a cross-road, was in all respects kept like a highway. 
We had frequent views of long lines of hills covered with wood, and 
then again wide green plains traversed by brooks, at one of which, 
too, we saw a gentleman employed in the favourite English amuse- 
ment of angling. 

On the whole I am well pleased to have commenced with some in- 
sight into the country, and not to have been all at once launched into 
the endless turmoil of London. A creative course, too, is that which is 



40 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

in all cases to be recommended; and London is only capable of 
being explained after the stranger has obtained some idea of the 
country. Even on so short a drive as we had made, our surprise 
was already excited by the want of what may properly be called vil- 
lages. The county is divided into large estates, which are let out 
in portions of greater or less extent to farmers, and the scattered 
farm-houses and the cottages of the labourers, together with occa- 
sional small country-houses, occupy the place of villages. Here and 
there stand solitary churches, and form a kind of nucleus, around 
which every thing is more concentrated. Some idea may be formed 
of the relation of the farmers to the proprietors, by supposing that 
the produce of the ground in such cases is divided into three parts, 
one of which falls to the landowner, a second is applied to the im- 
provement of the farm, and the third belongs to the farmer, as a 
return for his capital and labour. From the cultivator of the soil 
upwards, every one feels himself to be a part of one great whole, 
and the higher we ascend in the scale, the individual more and more 
sacrifices his individuality to the state. The question, what a man 
should do for himself, and what for the state, can scarcely, I think, 
occur with such frequency in any country as in England. This, 
moreover, is manifest from a variety of other circumstances. Who- 
ever is constantly compelled to sacrifice a great part of his indivi- 
duality, and of his own intellectual efforts and pursuits to the well- 
being of the state, necessarily finds his individuality, as it were, en- 
dangered, and in that part of self which remains he readily adopts 
or falls into a species of rough, eccentric originality, in order thus, 
in some measure, to compensate for the other deficiency or loss. 
And this, perhaps, is in fact the best means of accounting for many 
of the peculiarities, and much of the coarseness of the Englishman. 

At seven o'clock we arrived at Buckhurst, the seat of Lord Dela- 
ware Our road lay for a considerable distance through a park — 
properly speaking, a kind of wood of oak and beech ; and at length 
the small country-seat began to glimmer through the boughs of a 
wide-spreading oak. The house itself is built in an ornamented 
Anglo-Gothic style. On our arrival, servants in rich liveries, and with 
powdered hair, conducted us immediately to our respective apartments, 
which were cheerful and replete with comforts. The whole charac- 
ter of the house breathes of simplicity, combined with the highest 
degree of convenience. Towards half-past seven o'clock, we assem- 
bled in the drawing-room, and I gladly renewed the acquaintance 
which I had formerly made with this amiable family, whom I had 
attended as a physician in Dresden, and with whom I was on the 
most friendly footing. A rich and cheerful dinner soon followed, 
and afterwards all returned to the drawing-room and the neighbour- 
ing library, in order to take tea near the blazing fire, and to hear 
some music from the ladies of the family. I walked into the library, 
and looked through a splendidly illustrated work on one of the late 



ENGLISH VIE DE CHATEAU. 41 

court balls, at which the company were all dressed in ancient cos- 
tume, and then turned over the catalogue, in which I looked in vain 
for the works of Gothe and Schiller among the foreign books which 
it contained. 



VIII. 

Buckhurst, same day — Evening, 
It is very interesting to me to have got immediately a circumstan- 
tial idea of this English vie de chateau by means of this short sojourn. 
It is, properly speaking, the mixture of a certain unrestricted free- 
dom with a species of pedantic etiquette. The family and their 
visitors meet for breakfast or luncheon in the breakfast or dining- 
room, in morning dresses, the gentlemen in frock coats, the ladies 
neatly but simply dressed; during the remainder of the morning 
each pursues his own amusements or employs his time as he pleases, 
and in the evening the company again assemble in the drawing-room 
in full dress, go to dinner, and afterwards return and spend the 
evening together in the drawing-room and library, where tea and 
other refreshments are served. The order of living is highly agree- 
able, the real enjoyment or profit which results, depends here, as 
it does everywhere, on the individuals who compose the circle. 

Family breakfast was served this morning unusually early — at 
nine o'clock, and afterwards we enjoyed a walk in the park. The air 
gray and damp — the temperature mild — thoroughly English weather. 
The beautiful lawns of closely-mown grass, the magnificent oaks, 
the views of wooded hills, and the splendid flower-beds close to the 
house, it was quite charming! At ten o'clock the company, among 
whom was a Prince of Weimar (son of Duke Bernard), met for 
the purpose of a long drive; the whole occupied seven carriages. 
We returned some part of the way by which we yesterday came, 
and at length reached Knowle, near the small town of Seven- 
Oaks, about eleven miles from Buckhurst. The castle, in the 
thirteenth century, was the property of the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, seized upon in the reign of Henry VIII. , presented by Eliza- 
beth to the Earl of Leicester, and on his death fell to the family of 
Porset. Two daughters were the last descendants of this house, one 
of whom brought this seat to Lord Amherst, the present owner; 
and the other is Lady Delawarr. On entering the town of Seven- 
Oaks we witnessed a very singular custom ; there were a number of 
persons assembled with bells of various sizes in their hands, on 
which they played a peal as the carriages drove past, precisely re- 
sembling the peals in the church towers which are such great 
favourites in the Netherlands, England, and Northern Italy. The 
approach to Knowle is, in like manner, through a park planted 
with magnificent trees, and adorned with beautiful glades; and 
then comes the old castle itself, with its towers, and turrets, and walls 



42 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

covered with luxurious ivy. As we alighted flowers were strewn on 
the way, and, preceded by numerous servants in rich liveries, we 
ascended the steps and entered the ancient family hall, hung with 
ancestral portraits, and adorned with a huge chimney-piece; — 
the members of the house and their guests, who had arrived before 
his majesty the king, were already assembled. Lord Amherst, 
known as a former governor of India and ambassador to China, is 
a middle-sized, thin, and lively old man, and here with his lady, in 
cheerful retirement, he spends the declining years of his active life. 
Among the strangers was Lord Stanhope, known in Germany by 
the interest which he took in Caspar Hauser. He spoke good 
German, and asked me after many of his old acquaintances in 
Dresden, and particularly Tieck. 

We were next shown over the spacious rooms of this remarkable 
old seat. The objects of interest which it contains are very 
numerous; galleries with beautiful old woodwork, richly ornamented 
chimney-pieces, and ancient furniture, among which were some 
pieces of great splendour, tables covered with plates of silver, and 
moreover a whole table together with a looking-glass and two small 
side-tables of solid silver, and adorned with rich arabesques; there 
were besides, a vast number of portraits, and other pictures of no 
particular value. In addition to this, we must mention the orna- 
mental old Gothic bay-windows, the beautiful vistas into the park, 
and then again collections of Chinese birds and other rarities brought 
home by Lord Amherst from China, &c. The most interesting of all, 
however, in my estimation, was the air of antiquity which breathed 
throughout the whole, recalling the great romantic times of Eng- 
land, and giving the deep impression of a long historical existence. 

At two o'clock the whole party met for lunch in the grand draw- 
ing-room on the ground floor, and I can truly say, that as I sat 
down at the rich table adorned with massive plate, and decked with 
flowers, and around me the members of the same family which had 
enjoyed all the pomp of nobility before the reign of Elizabeth, and 
in a room hung with the portraits of a long line of ancestors, whose 
arms were emblazoned on glass in the tall Gothic windows, I felt 
as if I were in a dream, and found myself transported into a scene 
before the age of Shakspeare; and times and things long gone by 
flitted before my mind. At the conclusion of the entertainment 
Lord Amherst rose, and commencing " Ladies and Gentlemen," 
made a short speech in which, in very neat and complimentary 
language, he expressed his pleasure at the arrival of the king in 
England, his best wishes for his majesty, and proposed his health; to 
which the king replied by proposing as a toast the health of the 
Queen of England. The whole was done in a dignified manner, 
and in the highest degree peculiar. 

We then went out into the garden and park. Magnificent mag- 
nolias, together with the ivy, were trained upon the walls, as high as 
the second story; and close by were open houses for oranges and le- 



REDLEAF. 43 

moiis; beautiful flower-beds scattered about through the well-kept 
lawns ; and single trees of noble dimensions, like those of Paradise, 
old and mighty larch trees thickly interwoven with ivy, oaks, and 
sweet chesnuts of immense girth, and magnificent spreading boughs ; 
and, finally, a large plantation of lime-trees from 500 to 600 years old. 

We were at length compelled to depart. As we drove out of the 
court of the castle, his majesty was a second time saluted by the peals 
of hand-bells. Our road led across the meadows, and through the 
midst of the magnificent trees in the park to Redleaf, another man- 
sion, smaller, but not less interesting than Knowle. 

The former was a type of ancient historical and aristocratic mag- 
nificence ; whilst the latter bore evidence of being the work of a man 
who belonged wholly to the present, and owed every thing to himself. 
The name of the gentleman who owns the mansion is Wells. He 
has made an immense fortune in India, by ship building, and now 
lives in this beautiful place alone, in dignified retirement, surrounded 
by a tasteful collection of choice trees, plants, and pictures. He is 
a friend of Landseer, the painter ; and his collection contains many 
admirable pieces by that artist. Immediately at the entrance I was 
struck with the picture of two large dogs; one a yellow-coloured dog, 
lying down and being licked by a large grayish-brown greyhound. 
They were represented as if lying in an empty chimney, and the 
picture was placed on a level with the ground, in a flat blind chim- 
ney-piece The effect was admirable; the treatment of the subject 
extraordinarily able and bold. Then followed a whole series of pic- 
tures by the same skilful hand — "The Dog at the Shepherd's Grave," 
and others, already so generally known from the engravings. Hav- 
ing previously seen so many engravings and copies of his pictures, 
I here for the first time saw the originals. In a true conception of 
nature, Landseer is undoubtedly the first of all painters of animals. I 
know of none who has so thoroughly conceived, and so faithfully 
portrayed as he has done, the fine shadings of the human intelli- 
gence and disposition, so remarkably embodied in an animal. 
His "Jack in Office," his " Fireside Party," and his " Honourable 
Member of the Humane Society," what fine striking characteristics 
do they contain ! 

Now to other rooms, in which remarkable treasures are literally 
heaped, in agreeable apartments, whose large -windows everywhere 
look upon the magnificent park. I can merely name the beau- 
tiful pictures of Wouvermann, Du Jardin, Vander Velde, Net- 
scher, Mieris, Terbourg, Gerard Dow, and others, which it would 
require much time to describe. Besides these, there is a St. Cecilia, 
by Domenichino, engraved by Sharp, and a (somewhat doubtful) 
Guido Reni. Then again, a beautiful piece by Ruysdael — dark and 
deep standing water, with large oaks. Further, two excellent pic- 
tures by Hobbema, a large poetical landscape, by Claude, with a cer- 
tain noble and clear severity, which almost reminds one of the tone 



44 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

adopted in the u Coasts of the Cyclops" in our Dresden gallery. In 
another apartment, we saw a large portrait of Walter Scott, by 
Landseer. The poet is represented as a sportsman, with a gun and 
some dead grouse at his side. A picture by Webster, was almost still 
more remarkable than this. It delineates two rows of children at 
school, one placed above the other. In one case the poor little ones 
are terrified, half weeping and trembling — their tyrant, the school- 
master, is ill-humoured and morose; in the other, the children are 
happy and delighted, and diligent withal, for the teacher is full of 
kindness and affection. It is impossible to avoid making many use- 
ful applications on looking at the picture, so admirable and impressive 
are its characteristics. 

At length, in this magnificent collection, I found among many 
other modern pictures, some of Wilkie's. The largest among them 
was his " Distraint for Rent." A farmer's family in the utmost dis- 
tress and anxiety how to pay their rent. The execution is very 
careful; the colouring weak and cold in tone; and the whole con- 
ception of the picture inferior in depth and in details to that of the 
" Rent-Day." Next to Landseer, Wilkie was the most original 
painter in England ; he had a very deep and firm conception of life, 
and the art of fixing its moving scenes upon the canvass. How sin- 
gular is it that, at a later period, as if weary of the prose of English 
family life, he threw himself headlong into the forced French ro- 
mance, as in his " Maid of Saragossa." 

Now out into the garden ! A luxuriance of vegetation such as I 
here saw, I had not yet beheld. The magnificent oaks, undisturbed 
for ages, the large beech trees, the luxurious ivy, the Gothic 
green-houses for orange and lemon trees, concealed by shrubs and 
climbers; the masses of rhododendrons, the clumps of beautiful 
white-flowering broom, and red Alpine roses; then, again, a couple 
of young wide-spreading cedars of Lebanon, azaleas in full bloom, 
such as I had never anywhere seen, a leafy alley of psorallea; hot- 
houses with grapes already nearly ripe, and with shaddocks {citrus de- 
cumanus) trained on the walls, interspersed with the splendid clematis 
grandiflora.) calceolaria in hundreds of varieties, in the richest bloom. 
The sight of all these magnificent plants made me long to spend days 
in the contemplation of their beauties, and inspired me with an inno- 
cent desire to become the adopted heir of the childless Mr. Wells, 
of that small and aged man, whose years, and short gray mantle, 
formed a striking contrast to all this splendid foliage and richness of 
bloom with which he was surrounded. The circumstances sug- 
gested to me the fable of Tithon and Aurora ! Here, too, beloved 
nature, ever new, displayed her charms in all the splendour of youth 
and beauty ; whilst, on the other hand, her lover became hoary and 
withered ! Do we not everywhere read the history of unenduring 
happiness ? 

We extended our drive still further, and came to the old Castle of 



PENSHURST CASTLE — SPRING FESTIVAL. 45 

Penshurst, founded in the year 1350, now in possession of the family 
of the Sydneys, and already, in many respects, remodelled. The 
castle at present belongs to Lord De Lisle, who is engaged in re- 
building and adorning the edifice. The entrance to the house is 
particularly striking. On passing the door, we found ourselves in 
an ancient hall, with an elevated roof, and within completely free 
up to the very ridge ; high Gothic windows, with stone mullions, 
but open and without glass. In the middle of the hall stood 
a round hearth on the floor, surrounded with high stone pillars. 
It was so constructed, that billets of wood and faggots could be 
conveniently placed within, so as to make a quick and blazing 
fire. This was not unattended to on the present occasion, and as 
we entered, a fire made of straw and dry faggots sent up a flame 
fixe or six ells high into the open hall, and at once, in the damp 
weather, we experienced an agreeable warmth diffused far around ! 
This gave to the whole a fresh, pleasant, and hospitable impression ! 
I thought of the olden times, when the knights and their squires 
dismounted from their horses, entered the noble hall, where they 
stood around the mounting flame, which was reflected from their 
brilliant armour, and imparted heat to their frozen limbs ; — a com- 
plete picture of the knightly days of merry England passed before 
my mind ! The illusion was prolonged, and the spirit of my dream was 
provided with new elements, as we mounted the stairs, and entered 
a large room, full of old helmets and casques, halberds, and swords, 
together with a mass of old family portraits, carpets, and other 
relics. Moreover, the approach to the stairs was beautiful, as a 
piece of architecture, and the small chapel, with its large Gothic 
windows, produced a most agreeable effect. Here, too, the walls 
were covered with ivy, and the trees in the park were beautiful, 
though not equal to those we had already seen at Knowle and 
Redleaf. 

We now returned to Buckhurst, and found the roads, in all di- 
rections, filled with lively groups of holiday people. We were met 
by a whole procession of young and active-looking people, carrying 
flags, and decked out with green ribbons and oak-boughs. It was a 
species of spring festival, celebrated at this period of the year, and 
observed, also, as a memorial of the preservation of Charles II. 
in the oak. It was about this season of the year (1650) that 
Charles, having been acknowledged in Ireland and Scotland, had 
again forced his way into England, in order to renew the struggle 
for his kingdom, which appeared to be lost to him after the execu- 
tion of his father, Charles I. He was defeated at the battle of 
Worcester; Cromwell's soldiers were in hot pursuit of the fugi- 
tive, when he saved himself by taking refuge in an oak, whose 
young foliage concealed him whilst two of his pursuers con- 
versed together at the foot of the tree, concerning the reward which 
would fill to the lot of him who should be fortunate enough to cap- 



46 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

ture bis person. Down till the present day, tlie custom of wearing 
oak leaves is preserved as a memorial of the king's deliverance. 
At Lord Delawarr's too, in the evening, every body was adorned 
with oak, and leaves with gall-nuts are by preference sought out for 
the occasion. Thus it is that historical recollections are everywhere 
preserved among the people. 

The weather continued, throughout the day, such as it had been 
early in the morning, without sun, damp, gray, foggy, but still 
mild, and seldom raining hard, — always the characteristics of the 
climate. 

In the evening a splendid entertainment awaited us, to which, 
also, Lords Amherst and De Lisle were invited. I sat next to the 
former, and enjoyed the pleasure of a long conversation with this 
experienced nobleman. Fifty years ago he had been in Dresden as 
a young man. En passant, fortunately for me, on the previous 
evening the travelling carriages had all arrived in safety and good 
order from Dover with our luggage, for the English, on such 
occasions, are pleased to see their guests dressed in rich and elegant 
costume. 



IX. 

Portsmouth, May 30th — Evening. 
Anothee remarkable, peculiar day. We set out from the hospi- 
table Buckhurst early in the morning; the travelling carriages were 
sent forward, and after an eight o'clock breakfast we followed with 
the family, as if for a walk, and traversed a portion of the park, in 
which a species of pretty wood hyacinth abounded. Thus we 
strolled to the parsonage of the parish, which lies at somewhat more 
than a quarter of an hour's distance from the mansion, to pay a 
visit to Mr. West, the second son of Lord Delawarr, who is the 
rector. This sort of relation too, was something to me new and 
peculiar. I was previously acquainted with Mr. West, whom I had 
formerly met as a young man in Dresden, where he devoted much 
time and attention to the study of German literature. Here, too, I 
had the pleasure of finding him in his study, surrounded not only 
with the ancient classics, but with the best literary works of his 
own and other modern countries, particularly German. How 
charming is the situation of his parsonage, a small but neat building 
in the Anglo-Gothic style, surrounded with clumps of magnificent 
rhododendrons, beautiful meadows, and splendid yews — the old clas- 
sical tree of England — from which the stalwart yeomen cut their bows. 
We next visited the neighbouring church, of ancient foundation, 
although recently rebuilt in the broad, firm, but neat style of 
Anglo- Gothic ecclesiastical edifices. It contains the simple monu- 



BRIGHTON — THE PAVILION. 47 

ments of several members of the houses of Dorset and Delawarr; 
these consisted chiefly of marble tablets in relief, placed in the 
walls, one by Flaxman and another by Chantrey, the former of 
which, in particular, is admirably conceived and most carefully 
executed. This whole country, besides, possesses a particular 
interest. It was formerly covered with an extensive forest, men- 
tioned by Julius Cassar. Buckhurst itself was built before the 
time of Elizabeth, by whom it was bestowed upon Leicester, so 
that it came into the possession of the Dorset family, at the same 
time and in the same manner as Knowle, and by Lady Delawarr 
to its present owner. 

We now pursued the road to Brighton, which ascends through 
the park, then winds over a wide heath, afterwards enters a woody 
district abounding in chalk pits and quarries, and as we approached 
the sea, the chalk hills again appeared, stretching along the coast. 
In the clear sky and bright sun, these low chalk hills in the back 
ground afforded a peculiar picture, with large fields in the fore- 
ground, traversed by rows of black oxen drawing the plough ! 
Then again, barren slopes, on which the scattered sheep w r ere 
spread about in the most various directions, as they gathered their 
pasture. The whole presents a singular physiognomy. 

The new town of Brighton — little more than one hundred years 
old — and which at one time increased with such wonderful 
rapidity, gave me the first impression of a considerable English 
town. This effect was produced by the great number of small but 
elegant houses, with their pretty arrangements and ornamental bow- 
windows on the ground floor, the well-kept squares with iron 
railings and shrubberies, the numbers of people moving about, and 
the rich shops. 

Even on the way to Brighton, I must observe, that there was 
much in England which recalled Italy to my mind. This recollec- 
tion was suggested: first, by the nobler form of the buildings; 
secondly, a luxuriant vegetation, even fig-trees, ever-green oaks, then 
the yew, which seems to occupy the place of the cypress, the holly 
and masses of ivy; thirdly, the mild air; fourthly, the sea; fifthly, 
the manner in which the people in the smaller places followed their 
occupations out of doors; sixthly, the numerous large two- wheeled 
cars upon the roads; and seventhly, the whole build of the people, 
very different, it is true, from the Italian, but still with a more intel- 
lectual appearance. 

On entering Brighton we drove straight to the Pavilion, a large 
paradoxical Indo-Chinese fancy building of George IV., which 
cost millions. It is the most wonderful building that it is possible 
to conceive, partaking of the characters of a pagoda, a kiosk, and 
an odd Chinese stone cupolated edifice; and although the w T hole, 
properly speaking, can deserve no other character than that of a 
mere w r him, still it is a magnificent fancy, and consequently carried 



48 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

out. On the outside, it is surrounded by beautiful green lawns, 
plantations, and shrubberies, and within, divided into a number 
of apartments and state rooms, (which are completely Chinese, but 
decorated with the richest ornaments and looking-glasses of immense 
size; in the principal richly-gilded drawing-room, a chandelier is 
suspended from a palm tree, wonderfully spread out on the ceiling, 
the walls hung with large Chinese pictures on a gold ground, and 
around the room porcelain vases and towers, girandoles, and such 
articles in the greatest possible variety. For a splendid court ball 
in Eastern costume, it would be impossible to conceive any thing 
more admirably suited, or so tasteful, but at the same time, the 
plae is so extraordinary, that a company of persons dressed in 
modern costume, can only serve to give prominence to its absurdi- 
ties, and to render the whole ridiculous and intolerable. 

The palace is at present empty and forsaken, visited perhaps by 
the royal family once or twice in the year. Opposite the palace are 
the stables, with a large rotunda in the middle of them, covered 
over with a glass roof, whose sides are decorated with numerous 
wooden ornaments in the Gothic style, and running water in the 
centre, merely intended for watering the horses ; even the kitchen 
is splendid, and adorned with lofty metal palm trees. 

After having inspected the palace, we proceeded towards the 
sea, which stretches away with its deep clear blue to the most 
distant horizon. On our way, we saw the somewhat exaggerated 
bronze statue of George IV., by Chantrey. When Prince of 
Wales he lived very much at Brighton, in the ninth decennium of 
the past century, and to him Brighton chiefly owes its rise and 
importance. Our attention was first directed to the magnificent 
pier, which stretches out into the sea, composing a series of chain 
bridges extending from one support to another, and at its ex- 
tremity a number of steps, by which one may go on board ships 
lying alongside. This pier was completed in 1822, and cost above 
£30,000. We proceeded along this magnificent structure to its 
termination, contemplated the ships and small pleasure-boats rock- 
ing about as if the sport of the blue sea which rolled beneath: sur- 
veyed with astonishment the immense sea wall, completed in 1838, 
and which stretches two miles along the coast. 

Ornamental bathing-machines in numbers were standing on the 
beach below ; and the attendant nymphs invited us with loud voices, 
to enjoy the pleasure of a sea bath; time, however, pressed us to 
pursue our course, and after a hasty lunch in one of the most elegant 
hotels, the postilions drove our large travelling carriages at a rapid 
pace out of the town. We drove along the beach, and on our way 
passed numbers of Brighton visiters, walking, driving, and riding, 
who, full of curiosity, followed our carriages with their eyes. Our 
road lay along the sea, which pushed its numerous arms far into 
the land among marshy plains, overgrown with reeds, so that only 



ARUNDEL CASTLE. 49 

flat lines of coast in the distance approached the sea. At last we ar- 
rived at the old Castle of Arundel, which was in existence in the 
reign of Alfred. 

The small town is insignificant; but the large and ancient castle, 
seated upon a rocky eminence, and surrounded by green foliage, pre- 
sented a magnificent spectacle as we drove up and passed into the 
spacious court-yard. Here we immediately perceived that the castle 
was again divided into two parts, the lower castle, of great extent, 
and built in the modern Anglo-Gothic style, and the old keep 
perched upon the summit of the rock, now fallen into ruins, covered 
with a luxurious growth of ivy, and surrounded by trees. We di- 
rected our attention, first, to the lower building. The castle belongs 
to the Duke of Norfolk, who was absent. The whole interior ar- 
rangements are princely. The apartments and state-rooms afford 
splendid views through their lofty windows, and are partly adorned 
with interesting pictures, especially portraits. There are here some 
fine paintings of Van Dyck and Holbein, and among those of the 
latter, the portrait of that charming Princess of Milan, wooed by 
Henry VIII. after the execution of Anna Boleyn, who caused the 
quick answer to be returned to his solicitations — that if she had two 
heads, she would accept his proffered hand ! The spacious library, 
fitted up with cedar- wood, is a magnificent room, and is said to con- 
tain many treasures. Not less splendid is the large hall, with its 
singular and beautiful wooden roof, with which probably the walls 
formerly harmonised, from the latter, however, the wood- work has 
been long removed, on account of some repairs or reconstruction. 
The large modern stained glass windows in this magnificent hall 
are, unhappily, in the worst flat English historical style. 

To me, however, the ancient castle, with its venerable ruins covered 
with vegetation, was by far the most attractive object. Narrow wind- 
ing staircases and towers sprang up from the midst of the ivy; small 
and low-roofed chambers, here and there visible, were pointed out 
as being formerly the apartments of queens. The view was most ex- 
tensive and charming, stretching far and wide over forest, and hill, 
and sea; and from the summit of one of the ivy-mantled towers, there 
is to be seen half the wall of the fallen corner rooms, with its Gothic 
windows, as if so disposed to form the materials of a picture. There 
is also something mysterious connected with the ruined castle, ac- 
cording to the old traditions ; owls must always be preserved in the 
edifice; and there, indeed, at the bottom of the ancient tower, 
sat several horned and screech owls, which, disturbed by the intru- 
sion, bristled up their feathers, and caused their eyes to sparkle. 
A net stretched across the tower served to keep them in their do- 
micile, where they are constantly fed, and, when necessary, re- 
newed. With how much pleasure could I have remained in these 
ruins, to carry away some sketches of their beauty. I warmly re- 
commend these rich romantic materials to every lover of the pencil. 

E 



50 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

On leaving Arundel, we proceeded to the old city of Chichester. 
This is the seat of a bishop, and distinguished by a beautiful cathe- 
dral, and a splendid ancient octagonal Gothic cross with a clock. 
These crosses are a sort of tabernacle adorned with small turrets and 
arches; they served as central places of assembling, and are to be met 
with in the market-places of many English towns. This is said to 
be one of the most beautiful, and has a very pleasing and pictur- 
esque effect as a foreground to the cathedral. The cathedral itself is 
very old — built in the thirteenth century, but often destroyed (par- 
ticularly in 1642, by Cromwell's soldiers), and as often rebuilt or 
repaired. It is still surrounded by a kind of campo santo, cloisters 
with open Gothic arches, seen through which the cathedral has a 
magnificent appearance. The style of the church is genuine Nor- 
man-Gothic, and still presents remains of the ancient castellated 
and fortress style. The tower rests upon the centre of the cross of 
the church, and from which rises a solid stone spire. 

Only a part of the interior is at present fitted up as a church. It 
contains a great many old pictures, of kings of England, and bishops, 
and also a great number of ancient, curiously carved and ornamented 
stalls. Here, for the first time, on retiring from the church, there 
was a violent crowding of the people, curious to see the King of 
Saxony, and to welcome him with a loud hurrah ! 

The sun was now sinking, and we hastened on our journey in 
order to reach Portsmouth. The road thither again approaches the 
sea, and partly passes through a low marshy district. Still, how- 
ever, we contrived to pass the outworks of this strong fortress and 
great naval harbour before sunset. The whole town was in com- 
motion, and crowds were collected around the admiralty buildings, 
whither his majesty was invited to proceed. A military guard was, 
however, on duty, and prevented the throng from pressing forward 
into the large court of the admiralty house. I soon found myself 
alone in the apartment to which I was shown, and enjoyed from my 
window the view of this magnificent harbour, in which all the ships 
were covered with flags, and Admiral Nelson's ship, the Victory, 
was especially adorned with long rows of flags on all her masts. 
Before me stretched out the vast dock-yards, magazines, and 
workshops, and in the distance the Isle of Wight, which shelters 
Spithead from the south winds, so celebrated as a safe anchorage 
for ships of Avar. Nothing but the necessity of a quick preparation 
for dinner could have forced me from the window. At dinner, the 
whole of the distinguished officers of the Admiralty, in full uniform, 
were assembled ; Sir Charles Rowley, the governor, admirals 
Parker, Pakenham, and others. And in order that the female 
beauty of England might be duly represented, they were accom- 
panied by their ladies. Opposite to me was Lady Pakenham, with 
a head and bust so beautiful and grandiose, that they might have 



PORTSMOUTH — ITS DOCK- YARDS AND ARSENALS. 51 

served as a model for Paul Veronese's famous picture of tHe " Mar- 
riage at Cana, in Galilee," and which it was impossible to cease 
contemplating and admiring. 



X. 

Cowes, Isle of Wight, May 31st — Evening. 

Yesterday evening and this morning the arrangements of the 
arsenal in Portsmouth occupied my attention. The character of the 
naval service exercises an influence on the every-day wants and 
necessities. Every thing — the rooms, the fire-places, the beds, large, 
massive, and sometimes rich. Several young midshipmen lived in 
the house, and were commissioned among other things to provide 
for us and our wants. One of them addressed me in Italian, for, 
next to the English, the Italian is, perhaps, the language most used 
in the Mediterranean and the East, and particularly in matters of 
navigation and trade; a last remnant, as it were, of the old power 
and greatness of Italy at sea. 

The forenoon was particularly to be devoted to obtaining a clear 
and comprehensive idea of the dock-yards and arsenals, and Ad- 
miral Parker, notwithstanding his age and his lameness, would 
not allow himself to be deprived of the pleasure of conducting his 
majesty in person. First, the docks. At the moment of our arrival 
one of the large basins, which had been pumped dry, was just being 
refilled with water in order to float out a large man-of-war which 
had been under repair there. In a very short time the Collingivood 
was raised from the ground, and when we returned she was outside 
the basins, and floating gracefully in the harbour. Her destination 
is the Pacific. We next proceeded to the long building where all 
the ropes used in ships, from the smallest up to the immense cables, 
of the thickness of one's ankle, are made. Behind this building were 
laid long rows of anchors, several of which were higher than a man. 
Their size may be more easily imagined by considering that they 
are often five or six tons in weight, each ton weighing 2240 lbs. 
We also visited the smithies, where the immense hammers are put 
in motion by steam, which also, amidst howlings and noises of all 
kinds, moves the bellows of the various furnaces. One of the most 
remarkable, however, among the buildings, is that in which the 
machinery by Brunei is placed, which, acting by steam, entirely 
forms all the blocks for the rigging used in the English navy. The 
machinery itself is wonderfully clever, and has already been forty 
years in operation, during which time it has not been found neces- 
sary to make a single addition or improvement. We were shown 
how a block, with its pulley, polished and fastened within and 
tipped with brass, was completely formed out of a rough piece of 

E 2 



52 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

oak. Fourteen hundred can be made every day. Not less impor- 
tant are the buildings where the copper sheathing of the vessels is 
prepared. We observed how the metal is melted, how it is then 
flattened out by means of rollers, and how the last roller impresses on 
it in every part the mark of all the property of the royal navy — the 
broad arrow: so that one can see upon every little bit of copper 
that it has been manufactured in a royal arsenal; and, lastly, how 
the copper nails with which the sheathing is fastened to the ship's 
keel, are manufactured by thousands. Not till we had visited all 
the several workshops from which the colossuses of the English 
navy take their origin, did we proceed to view these latter, several 
of which were then in the docks, partly in process of building, 
partly under repair, and partly as a reserve. We began with the 
frame of a ship which was just being built, which was very interest- 
ing to me. It was a remarkable sight; when we stood before it, it 
lay there like a large building of four stories, upon which the car- 
penters were still employed; if we looked at it from within it was 
like standing before one of the antediluvian forests, such masses of 
oak trunks rested upon the keel and raised up their mighty arms as 
ribs. The cost of such a construction is necessarily enormous. 
About 1000/. per gun are considered as the expense for a ship 
of war, without being properly fitted out : thus a ship of eighty guns 
would cost 80,000/., and so on. We then looked over some ships 
in a finished state. And first, the steamer, Victoria and Albert, in 
which the queen sailed to Scotland. The arrangements, as may be 
imagined, are excellent; drawing-rooms, bed-rooms, boudoirs, bath- 
rooms ; in fact, every comfort of a large house in England. Beside 
it lay a large war steamer, the Firebrand, armed with six Paixhans 
guns which turned upon pivots, and some smaller ones. It was 
built so as to hold 500 men on deck and 500 between decks. Lastly, 
we visited the Neptune, which was lying there unrigged, a three- 
decker of 120 guns, capable of containing 1000 men. The height 
of this floating fortress may be conceived, when I say that from the 
upper gallery beside the captain's cabin to the level of the water, the 
depth was about forty feet. 

After having now viewed every thing worthy of observation here, 
we were to make an excursion in the basin of the harbour ; and the 
admiral, notwithstanding his age and his lameness, conducted us to 
a boat which was ready for us, excellently manned, and ornamented 
with a handsome awning. The rowers saluted with their oars 
raised perpendicularly in the air; we embarked, and in a moment 
the green oars sank into the water, and we darted at lightning's 
speed over the clear waves. From the distance, a military band 
saluted us from the Victory, festively adorned for the occasion; 
several other boats filled with spectators passed us, and the boys 
belonging to the flourishing naval school rowed by, saluting with 
their oars as they passed; and thus we soon reached the immense 
magazines for victualling the fleet, situated on the opposite side of 



THE VICTUALLING DEPARTMENT — THE VICTORY. 53 

tlie port. Here, too, every thing was on an enormous scale. We 
first paid a visit to that part where the ships' biscuit is baked, 
and stored up. A steam-mill grinds the corn, another kneads the 
dough for these flat cakes, which when divided and placed upon 
plates of iron, are again conveyed to the oven by machinery, until 
the biscuit can be packed in sacks, containing each 120lbs., with 
which the immense store-rooms are filled. A pound of biscuit is 
allowed to each man per day. We tasted it, and although it is 
certainly a pure and nourishing food, we found it so dreadfully hard, 
that it appeared to us as if the crowning point of English industry 
were still wanting, namely, a machine to masticate and digest it. 

Not less enormous were the provisions of salted meat in other 
parts of the building; and, lastly, we were shown the long build- 
ings, filled with large iron chests, which have now been for many years 
in use to preserve fresh water; and this is, indeed, one of the most 
important improvements of late years in the English navy. The 
water was formerly kept in casks, and readily became putrid. At 
present, in these fastened chests of iron, which measure about two 
cubic yards, the water keeps excellently, and they form at the same 
time, as they are stowed in the lowest part of the ship, the best of all 
kinds of ballast. We were now rowed back again, and this time 
towards the Victory, which to-day, in the bright sunshine, looked 
particularly beautiful with her numerous flags. I had expected 
something quite different from the holiday ornaments of an admi- 
ral's ship. A line is passed over all three masts, and upon this are 
suspended the national flags, and all those pretty signal flags, by 
means of which vessels correspond with each other. 

As we intended inspecting the vessel, we came alongside, the 
ladder hung down from an entering port ; the rowers of our boat 
formed a living railing with their arms, and we thus conveniently 
ascended the 'tween decks. There his majesty was received by the 
officers, whilst the sailors, standing upon the yards of the vessel, gave 
three hearty cheers. It has a solemn effect, when one thus ascends 
to the quarter-deck through the dark passages of the 'tween-decks, 
finds there the crew under arms, and hears the national anthem 
played by a full military band. The sun shone gloriously, the sea, 
with its beautiful emerald-green tinge, glanced and sparkled, all the 
ships round about were ornamented with flags, and all at once a 
salute of twenty-one guns, in quick succession, rang out from the 
port holes of the lower deck, so that the grayish smoke floated up 
through the rigging and mingled with the blue air. It produced a 
solemn and grand effect. We now visited the lower deck, inspected 
the hammocks and the food, tasted the grog, looked over the 
kitchens and hospital, examined the officers' rooms, and were shown 
the remarkable spot where Nelson received his death- wound, and 
that where he died. It is a little space on the 'tween-decks, 
close to one of the guns which project from the port-holes. His 
laconic address before the battle of Trafalgar, " England expects 



54 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

every man to do his duty" is written in golden letters on the 
cornice, as one ascends to the quarter-deck: and no one can deny- 
that he himself was always the first to fulfil his duty; and that his 
example still exercises a favourable influence upon the efforts of the 
nation, to preserve and to increase the national glory. 

We now left the ship, and descended into our boat. The sailors 
again manned the yards, and again as we left the side, twenty-one 
shots were fired from the port-holes; the effect of these shots heard 
from the water was different, and still grand. We landed at the 
Admiralty, where a luncheon awaited us; and at half-past one we 
went on board the beautifully fitted- up yacht Fanny, a capital sailer, 
to cross over to the Isle of Wight. 

The afternoon also was splendid ; a gentle breeze wafted us across 
the blue waters along the bastions of Portsmouth, which again 
saluted us with cannon ; and as if in order that we might miss no 
sight worthy of our notice, we met here a large three-decker, the St. 
Vincent, which had just set all sail in order to get into the Channel, 
where she was to wait further orders. It is rare to see such an 
immense ship with all her sails set, like an enormous swan upon the 
sea. The Fanny sailed round her, therefore, a few times, to allow 
us to enjoy the sight, which was rendered still more beautiful by 
the customary salute. In short, the whole passage was delightful, 
and we landed in the island, at the pier of Ryde, shortly after three 
o'clock; an immense concourse of people awaited our arrival; but 
our carriages, which were waiting for us, quickly carried us out of 
their sight. 

The coasts of the island present a cheerful aspect, and each 
little village extends itself, with its pretty country-houses sur- 
rounded by green parks, down to the sea; trees overgrown with 
ivy round about, hilly country beyond. We crossed a part of the 
island by land, until we again came in sight of the blue sea and the 
chalk cliffs; it was at Shanklin. We there descended to the sea- 
shore. The cliffs consist, as in Riigen, of red sandstone inter- 
spersed with white chalk; and beyond these the beach, just at that 
time left dry by the tide, extended itself to a considerable distance, 
offering great facilities for sea-bathing. This point seemed to us one 
which would be very pleasant to reside at for some days, and even 
weeks; to the mere passer-by, however, it offers nothing particu- 
larly grand or striking. (This appears, in fact, rather the character 
of the whole island, which seems to me, as it were, a large delta 
belonging to the river at Southampton.) It is used for this pur- 
pose also by many English, and even by the royal family. It is a 
sort of Buen Retiro, quite suited for the man of business or of state, 
who wishes to breathe the pure air. We ascended from the beach 
into a sort of ravine, hollowed out in the sand-rocks, called Shanklin 
Chine, in which some pretty paths are laid out through the under- 
wood; and a brooklet forms several miniature waterfalls. But the 
several views of the sea give importance even to these trifles; just 



THE ISLE OF WIGHT — COWES. 55 

as an unimportant person, when drawn into the circle of great 
events, becomes historically important. We then drove further 
along valleys and over hills, and always came upon new views of 
little bays and glittering sands. The afternoon was splendid, the 
sky so blue, and the sun so warm, that all this, together with the 
bushes of laurocerasus, the ilex which we saw at times, and the ivy 
which covered sometimes, not only the wall, but even the roof, 
transported me several times in imagination to Italy. 

At last we reached St. Boniface, situated on the higher part of 
the southern coast — the so-called Undercliff — the houses of which, 
being white, with very flat roofs, and built along chalky heights, 
decidedly recall Italy to the mind. From this point we enjoyed a 
splendid view, both towards the land and over the sea. Thence 
right across the island, through curious hollow ways and over 
downs, through Newport (the chief town of this little island) to 
Cowes, where we reached our quarters, in a club-house situated on 
the sea, just as the moon, which to-day suffered a partial eclipse, was 
rising clearly above the horizon. The club to which this house be- 
longs is composed of rich naval amateurs, each of whom must possess 
at least one commodiously fitted up yacht. From time to time 
they hold meetings here, with an admiral chosen by themselves at 
their head; the oil portrait of the present admiral, Lord Yarbo- 
rough, ornamented the room in which we supped. 



XI. 

LONDON. 

June 1st — Evening. 

Yesterday evening, at nine o'clock, a cheerful little souper- 
dinatoire in the quiet and peaceful Isle of Wight; this evening, at 
eight, a full-dress dinner-party in the splendid apartments of the 
Queen of England ! Thus do the waves of life cast us hither and 
thither; and there could be no more agreeable employment than 
that of looking at the play of the waves of the sea, were it not for 
the deep meaning which lies hidden in this oscillating motion ! 

This morning, again, was splendid ! At half-past five I was on 
the sea-beach, before the pretty little club-house at Cowes, admiring 
the several sorts of sea- weed, the blocks of freestone full of petrified 
conchy lia, the splendid sparkling of the sea, enjoying the air balmy 
with the breath of morning, and considering attentively the various 
vessels at anchor in the bay. At six o'clock we rowed off to our 
Fanny, which was followed by a large steamer, destined to take her 
in tow in case of the wind shifting against us. At first it was en- 
tirely favourable, and all the sails were set, in order, before re- 
turning to Southampton, to visit the western point of the Isle 
of Wight and the Needles. The sail was beautiful, the coast ex- 



56 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

tended itself in graceful curves, and the effect of the sea was mag- 
nificent. To the right, on the coast of England, the fort of Hurst 
Castle, with its broad old batteries, and its two red lighthouses, came 
in sight; and somewhat further, the cliffs of the Isle of Wight rose 
more majestically, distinguished by various layers of bluish and 
reddish sand, which again made way for white chalk. Now the 
Needles hove in sight; the high chalk-rocks, stretching out in a line 
into the sea, beautifully illuminated by the beams of the morning 
sun, surrounded by innumerable gulls and divers, and set off by the 
deep green of the sea. The sight was beautiful ; the brownish or 
greenish setting round the base of the rocks, the shining of the 
sharp projections of the chalk, the sparkle of the lofty chalk cliffs 
in the island itself, the thin clouds which floated along the horizon, 
and the continually changing views and groupings which were pro- 
duced by every heel and pitch of our Fanny. I shall never forget 
it ! We sailed past the rocks, so as to see them also from the west, 
and to have the open sea before us, and then turned back to the 
entrance of the Channel between England and the island. From 
this time the wind was against us, and we should have advanced 
but slowly, had not the steamer J immediately taken us in tow. The 
sail back again was also rich in interesting views. 

At twelve o'clock we went down into the cabin of this very elegant 
vessel to lunch ; this was properly my first meal on board an English 
ship, and, therefore, important to me. 1 found every thing so poet- 
ical under this glazed cover in the middle of the cabin, in the pretty 
little saloon illumined by the sun from above, and tossing about upon 
the waves. From this sort of existence, with all the comforts which 
social life can bestow, and yet entirely free from every other connexion 
with society, this swimming upon the connecting bond of union of 
the earth, and by this very means the power of enjoying the beau- 
ties of its most beautiful coasts — I can well understand how love 
of the sea may become a passion, and can conceive the origin, 
therefore, of a yacht-club. We had several sorts of excellent cold 
meat, Sherry, and some large potatoes, properly dressed only for 
the sailors; every thing was so different from our ideas, and was 
eaten with such an appetite. We also conversed on many sub- 
jects with the officers. One in particular attracted my attention 
by something delicate and amiable in his manners; I learned that 
he was from Geneva, was called Prevost, and was a relation of my ac- 
quaintance, the naturalist, Prevost. He related to us, among other 
things, some anecdotes of the yacht-club, in whose club-house we had 
slept the night before. These were well adapted to give us some idea 
of English riches. He told us, for example, that one of the mem- 
bers, a Mr. Akers, had had the handsomest yacht in the club built 
(we saw her afterwards, the Brilliant), for about 30,000/., and only 
went on board the vessel perhaps once or twice a year, because the sea 
did not agree with him ; his joining the club was thus merely a whim, 
which, however, assisted him to spend an income of some 42,000/. 



SOUTHAMPTON. 57 

a year. Another, the above-mentioned Lord Yarborough, on the con- 
trary, is so exceedingly fond of the sea, that he offered to build and 
fit out a frigate at his own expense, provided he might be permitted 
to command her. His offer was, however, refused, as all officers in 
the navy must rise regularly, and after submitting their qualifica- 
tions to the test of an examination. Other members of the club, 
again, employ their yachts in considerable voyages — sail to Lisbon, 
Malta, Sicily, or Egypt. One had even been to China. We also 
heard much of the sailor's life of the young man himself. He had 
been, for example, several times engaged in chasing slavers; and one 
case that he related to us was dreadful enough. They had captured 
a vessel under the suspicion of being a slaver. At first they were 
unable to find any slaves on board ; but, at last, a sailor wishing to 
taste the wine, pierced a cask, and, instead of the wine which 
lie expected, blood flowed from the aperture. This was the blood 
of a negro ! and it was found afterwards, that all the negroes on 
board had suffered themselves to be packed up in casks, under 
the belief that the English were approaching with the intention of 
murdering them. Our voyage passed quickly in conversation and 
anecdotes, and at half-past two we entered the bay — Southampton 
river — and shortly afterwards came in sight of the forest of masts, 
and the town of Southampton. 

In sailing up the river we perceived on the right the beautiful 
ruins of Netley Abbey, half hidden by large beech and lime trees. 
The shortness of the time did not permit us to land, but the telescope 
brought the ruins near to our eye, and the high roof of the church, 
with its empty Gothic windows, peeped out from among the trees in 
the most picturesque manner. There, no doubt, might studies of 
great importance have been made. 

At half-past three we landed on the pier of Southampton, where 
his majesty was received by the authorities, and a large concourse 
of people, with the customary " three cheers." I must, however, 
say, that I consider the sound " hurrah," as it is pronounced in Eng- 
land, very much the reverse of musical; the German, " hoch," 
sounds to me much better. Carriages which were waiting for us, 
conveyed us quickly to the railway station, where a special train was 
in readiness to convey us still more quickly to the metropolis. The 
distance is about eighty miles, which was performed with almost 
frightful speed in two hours. Wooded hills and fields, meadows 
and heaths, the country about Winchester, passed rapidly across the 
windows of our carriage, and only the houses, which became closer 
together and less interspersed with gardens, and a mass of chimneys 
and roofs, stretching away till they were lost in the distance, and 
clouds of whitish smoke resting on the city, showed that we were now 
arrived at the southern extremity of London. 

Prince Albert received the king at the railroad, and the party 
being immediately conducted to the carriages in waiting, we drove 
rapidly through a number of small streets, past rows of houses in the 



58 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

course of erection, over Vauxhall-bridge to Buckingham-palace, 
where his majesty was to reside; a large roomy apartment, well-fur- 
nished with books, on the ground-floor, looking towards the garden, 
was assigned to me. At eight o'clock the visiters and household in 
full uniform (though in mourning for the Duke of Coburg) assem- 
bled in the magnificent drawing-room of the palace. This splendid 
apartment is lighted from above, the light being admitted through 
very thick glass, in which coats of arms and stars are either cut or 
cast, like those ground arabesques which we are accustomed to see 
on large and splendid drinking goblets. The effect is very rich, as 
is that of all the other ornaments ; and this light is very well adapted 
for exhibiting the numerous and admirable paintings which surround 
the apartment. The usual presentations took place. His majesty 
the king led Queen Victoria to table, where for the first time I had an 
opportunity of witnessing all the luxury and splendour of the 
English court displayed. Covers were laid for fifty persons in a 
noble apartment adorned with large portraits; at the further end of 
the room the magnificent sideboard was loaded with a prodigious 
quantity of gold plate, consisting of golden cups, salvers, and other 
ornamental vessels, richly engraven ; above the sideboard there was 
a covered gallery for the queen 5 s band, which was wholly concealed 
from view. The band first played " God save the Queen," and 
then several overtures. I cannot, however, enter further into a de- 
scription of the splendid company assembled, of the rich uniforms of 
the high court officers in waiting, of the Scottish Highland costume, 
which was not wanting, and of the luxury and magnificence of the 
repast. According to old English usage, the queen with all the 
ladies rose and retired soon after the dessert was served. The gen- 
tlemen followed in about a quarter of an hour, and proceeded into 
the newly-ornamented drawing-rooms, where tea was served, and 
several pieces of music were played by the band. The first was 
Mendelssohn's beautiful march from the " Midsummer Night's 
Dream." 

We hear that the Emperor of Russia is expected to arrive here 
to-morrow. 



XII. 

London, June 2nd — Evening. 
Theee is a peculiar feeling of loneliness and desertion which 
arises in the mind of a stranger, who is all at once thrown into the 
midst of such an ocean of men and houses as London is. Such a 
feeling had forced itself upon me this morning. On this day diplo- 
matic relations demanded presentations, visits, announcements — in 
all which I had no concern, and I felt myself in this great palace 
in some measure an isolated being, surrounded by the most remark- 
able things in this great city, but in want of any medium of reach- 



LONDON — ST. JAMES'S PARK. 59 

ing my proper sphere at the right time and in the proper way. 
When lo ! — as if sent by a good destiny — what I stood in need of 
soon presented itself. Dr. Freund, a young German physician, who 
some years ago had acted as medical companion to Prince Piickler, 
had been furnished by me in Dresden with letters of introduction, 
which were intended for America, whither he proposed to go ; but 
in reality they proved so useful to him in London, that he preferred 
remaining in England. Feelings of gratitude led him to find me 
out, and to offer me his services. I took him immediately at his 
word, and begged him to conduct me to Professor Owen, to whom, 
as one of the most distinguished comparative anatomists and phy- 
siologists, I had already announced myself for this day, in a letter 
from Brussels. 

For the first time I went forth to-day alone, and for myself, into 
this remarkable London. On our way to the College of Surgeons, 
where Professor Owen resides, and which lies at a considerable dis- 
tance from the palace, we walked and drove through a number of 
considerable streets and squares of this capital of the world. It was 
Sunday, which, as is well known, is observed in England with 
almost puritanical strictness ; the streets are, therefore, comparatively 
speaking, little frequented on Sundays, and I had a clearer view of 
the city. The impression produced may be best expressed by the 
three words — greatness, extent, order. The part of London through 
which I drove yesterday had a mesquin appearance ; to-day I have for 
the first time really had the feeling — " I am in London." 

On leaving Buckingham Palace one enters St. James's park, 
which lies in front of the royal residence. This is really a park, with 
extensive pieces of water and clumps of large trees, above which rise 
the towers of the ancient Abbey of Westminster, and with enclo- 
sures of grass here and there, on which sheep are pasturing. To 
the left is the Mall, along which palace after palace seem to present 
themselves in succession, separated from the public walk by small 
gardens; these, however, are for the most part private houses merely 
outwardly built on a uniform plan, and in a line. I passed St. 
James's Palace, which has all the appearance of antiquity, with its 
two prominent flat Gothic towers, saw the celebrated Haymarket 
and Queen's Theatres, drove through Trafalgar-square, with its mo- 
numental recollections, where, together with other statues, that of 
Nelson has just been placed on the top of a lofty column, and some 
fountains are in course of erection. We then passed through se- 
veral of the large, elegant, and well-planted squares, which with 
good reason are called " the lungs of London." There is on all 
hands evidence of the taste for erecting monuments and statues, and 
there is no want of men who are worthy of the honour, but a great 
want of sculptors who are capable of producing any thing great and 
satisfactory. Occasionally, too, monuments are no doubt erected to 
persons whose deserts are small enough; and hence the common 
saying with respect to that of the Duke of York, whose statue is ele- 



60 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

vated upon a very lofty column, " that he was no doubt placed so high 
in order to be completely out of the reach of his creditors." 

The College of Surgeons, too, stands in Lincoln's-inn-fields, a 
large open, well-planted square. It is a large building, blackened 
with coal-smoke, with a beautiful doric portico. This college con- 
tains the valuable Hunterian Museum, of which Professor Owen is 
the director and expositor, as well as augmenter. Owen pleases 
me thoroughly — a sensible, able man — deeply versed in what is 
old, and ready for the reception of what is new, who has with 
great propriety been recently characterised as the Cuvier of Eng- 
land. He is at present busily engaged in microscopical obser- 
vations, which only a few years ago were unknown in England, in 
the departments of anatomy and physiology, and from which such 
great results have been obtained in Germany ; and as he has directed 
his particular attention to the organic remains of the primitive 
world, he has also obtained very important results in this depart- 
ment, from the application and use of the microscope. 

He received me with visible pleasure, and we immediately pro- 
ceeded to inspect a collection which is in many respects extremely 
rich, and whose chief treasures are arranged in a large room, lighted 
from above, with two galleries, one above the other, which ex- 
tend round the whole apartment. On the very entrance the atten- 
tion is immediately arrested by the rarest fossil animals; on the 
right, the great armadillo from Buenos Ayres (clyptodon clavipes), 
with its massive bony scales, almost like an immense egg, of the size 
of the largest drum. Opposite to it, on the left, is a gigantic 
creature of the sloth tribe {mylodon robastus), with its bird -like 
pelvis, and rudely powerful structure of bones, set up as if about 
to ascend the stem of a tree. At the end of the room, the skeleton 
of a magnificent elephant rises far above every thing around. In 
all directions are presented to the eye of the connoisseur things of 
the rarest description, in particular the remains of that immense 
New Zealand bird of the primitive world (the dinornis), which was 
more than one-half as large again as the ostrich ; and of all existing 
birds, seems to have been most nearly related to the singular 
apteryx found in New South Wales. Bones of several species 
have been found, but unfortunately no perfect skull has as yet been 
met with. Here, too, for the first time, I had an opportunity of 
seeing the remarkable remains and impressions of the singular pri- 
mitive Sepia, found in Wiltshire in making cuttings for a railroad, 
the termination of whose bodies appears in the shape of a sharp pro- 
jection of chalk, long known as occurring by millions in the chalk for- 
mations of Germany, which, without their real character being known, 
have been called Belemnites. When I formerly made a collection of 
them in the chalk cliifsof Riigen, and on the hills in Wiirtemberg, their 
peculiar formation led me to a variety of speculations, but now the 
riddle was all at once fully solved. There is on the whole no coun- 
try which offers so many inducements and opportunities for the 



THE COLLEGE OF STJKGEONS. 61 

study of fossil remains as England, where, in addition to the vast 
colossal Amphibia first perfectly known in this country, the great 
Mammalia of the primitive world lie in masses in its soil. Pro- 
fessor Owen told me that it may be truly affirmed that in England 
the remains or single portions of at least 1000 Ichthyosauri, and 
2000 mammoths, have been already discovered. On the east coast 
the remains of mammoths often lie far out under the sea, and fisher- 
men not unfrequently suffer injury in their nets from catching on 
the tusks of these primitive elephants. 

I was, however, still more interested in the powerful skulls of the 
toxodon platensis, discovered by Darwin in Parana, because in it, 
as well as in that of the wonderful dinotherium, which was dug up 
in Darmstadt, that particular form of head appears, which indicates 
the lowest of all the formations of the skull hitherto known. The 
base of the skull, which in men is elevated and curves upward, and 
even in the lower animals (such as fish — Amphibia), runs completely 
horizontal, in these primitive Mammalia is absolutely convex and 
bent downwards. Here may be also seen a remarkable object of 
curiosity in the section of the really immense grinder of a megathe- 
rium. 

It is not, however, merely fossil remains in which the museum is 
so rich; it contains in several thousand preparations, the different 
forms and relative structures of the human and animal organisation, 
admirably preserved and systematically arranged, together with 
numerous pathological and other remarkable objects, into the expla- 
nation of which I cannot in this place further enter.* I shall merely 
mention two extremes of the size of the human body, one, the skele- 
ton of an Irishman, of the stupendous length of eight feet two inches, 
and the second that of the smallest Englishman (six years old), of 
only twenty inches in length. Generally speaking, the relation of 
intellectual greatness between these two races is usually the re- 
verse. 

During the inspection of these objects, and our conversation 
respecting them, Cuvier was necessarily often present to our minds, 
and a remarkable circumstance which occurred, brought him and 
his works in the most lively manner before us. A lady, accom- 
panied by two gentlemen, was announced to Professor Owen; she 
exhibited a much greater interest in, and knowledge of, fossil re- 
mains and anatomical preparations, than is usually displayed even 
by women of cultivated minds. When they had taken leave, the 

* I may, however, just direct the attention of professional men to an admi- 
rable preparation of the nervous system of the Limulus gigas, preserved under 
glass in spirits of wine ; to a preparation of the remarkable bundles of arteries 
in the thigh of the ornithorhyncus, by which its relation to the sloth tribe is 
pointed out ; to the chlamydosaurus of Australia, and to the preparations show- 
ing the manner in which the race of the ornithorhynchus was perpetuated. Eggs 
are found in the oviducts in November; in December the young come forth ; 
coitus in October. 



62 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

riddle was solved ; she proved to be Cuvier's favourite daughter-in- 
law, accompanied by her husband, Admiral Ducray. 

Professor Owen proposed to accompany me to the Zoological 
Gardens in the Regent's park, an offer which I cheerfully accepted. 
On our way thither, which is a considerable distance, I had an 
opportunity of seeing many new localities. In the middle of the 
town, and in the neighbourhood of the squares on the north side of 
London, we came several times to gates of cast-iron railing, which 
were only opened on special application. This peculiarity arises 
from the vast extension of London, which embraces all the imme- 
diate neighbourhood in its giant arms. Large fields and gardens, 
formerly held by individuals as landed property, have been progres- 
sively absorbed, and are now covered with streets and squares. The 
ground still belongs to individual proprietors (such as the Duke of 
Bedford and Lord Portman), who, in such cases, have erected these 
gates, both to mark the limits of their estates and their rights over 
the property. This extension of London has led to the growth of 
vast estates; these lands have been generally let to builders and 
others, at low ground rents, for a specified term of years, at the 
termination of which the whole falls into the possession of the land- 
owner or his heirs. I was informed, that in a short time some of 
these districts will fall in, and become the property of families 
already enormously rich; and it may be easily supposed of what 
great value such squares and streets in London really are ! 

The Zoological Gardens, like almost all the institutions and societies 
of modern England, were created and exist by means of private sub- 
scriptions. These gardens occupy a considerable space on the 
northern side of the Regent's park, are of great extent, and ad- 
mirably laid out. They resemble the Jardins des Plantes, in Paris, 
in having a great number of single and neatly-built habitations for 
individual animals or families, but have a great advantage over 
the Paris gardens in a more abundant supply of water and nume- 
rous pretty ponds for water-fowl and water Mammalia. I met with 
many things here which were new to me. For the first time, I 
saw a living specimen of the orang-utang, and the saying of old 
Linnaeus was immediately suggested to my mind: " Homini quam 
similis bestia turpissima nobis !" This specimen was, indeed, small, 
and somewhat dull ; but notwithstanding that, its form and 
habits displayed something in the highest degree repugnant. The 
creature was dressed in a jacket, and thus the whole of his actions 
and movements, his gestures, climbing and petitioning for food, 
closely resembled the mien and conduct of a neglected, idiotic, ill- 
shaped, scrofulous child. His English education, too, was honour- 
ably exhibited by his having been taught to sit at table and to 
drink a small cup of tea with milk in it. Not far from the orang- 
utang, a sloth (bradyptis tridactylus) stretched himself out on the 
stem of a tree, placed in his compartment for his convenience, and 
it must be admitted that his appearance had something much more 



THE KEGENT'S ZOOLOGICAL GAKDENS. 63 

consistent in it, and was much more endurable than that of his 
neighbour. The family of giraffes, those yellow-brown swans of 
the desert, was charming. It consisted of two females and two 
young ones, one only thirteen days old. The male was very large, 
full eighteen feet high. Then two elephants — one, a young female, 
trotted about with a large saddle on her back, fitted so as to hold 
several persons, perfectly obedient to her guide, and furnishing 
immense delight to the boys who were favoured with this novel 
species of ride ; the other was a male, thirty years old. There, too, 
the almost antediluvian colossus of the rhinoceros raised his heavy 
head, with his small, malicious eyes, over the barrier of his peculiar 
compartment. The wild cats, lions, tigers, and bears, had a par- 
ticular building appropriated to themselves, and another house was ad- 
mirably fitted up with a number of trees with bare boughs, as a suit- 
able domicile for an immense number of monkeys. This presented 
almost a South American picture in the bright sunshine — for the 
day was throughout beautiful and warm — to see a great number of 
these wonderful creatures chasing one another, and performing their 
evolutions among the branches. Not far from the monkey-house, 
there were kangaroos and other marsupials, whilst the animals of 
the deer species (among them the cervus hippe tophus), and those of 
the horse family, and the rarer descriptions of sheep and goats, 
were pasturing in open grass plots, separated from one another by 
iron or wooden fences. The arrangements for keeping the birds 
were also beautiful, and the collection comprised some of the rarest 
species. Several were new to me, as the beautiful gray vulture 
(yultur leuconothus), and the polyporus vulgaris, from Brazil. Rare 
water-fowls breed in the little ponds appropriated to them on small 
artificial islands made for the purpose, and carefully protected from 
the assaults of water-rats, by being surrounded by a small wire fence. 
The cercopsis of New Holland has already bred regularly for several 
years in the Zoological Gardens. I had never previously seen a 
living specimen of the trumpeter (psophia crepitans), from South 
America. It would be endless to enter upon a description of all 
the rarities contained in these gardens, and I must, therefore, pass 
over the splendid parrots, collected, like the monkeys, in their 
separate house, the great condors, and the ostriches, walking about 
in the open air, within their peculiar enclosure, &c. &c. I cannot, 
however, omit an especial mention of one of the rarest animals, 
which, for the first time, has been brought alive to Europe for this 
collection — the siren tocertina — the black siren, which has its habi- 
tation in the marshes of Central America, of the size and form of 
an eel, and only distinguished from this fish by its small salamander 
feet. It is kept in a small reservoir of turbid water, and was only 
brought upon dry ground with great difficulty, and for a short 
time. 

In addition to the living animals, the Zoological Gardens also 
contain a very rich gallery of stuffed beasts, in which there are 



64 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

many rare and ornamental creatures to engage the attention and 
form subjects of remark. 

We passed out of the gardens into the public walks of the park 
through a gate which is so constructed by means of a revolving 
mechanism as to allow all to pass freely out, but to prevent any from 
entering in. There are many cases in which such doors would be 
very desirable elsewhere as well as in the Regent's park. Here, its 
object is to facilitate the collection of the shillings from those who 
go to view the collection and promenade in the gardens. 

On this sunny evening the Regent's park was full of walkers; it 
is for the most part uniform, and the broad pieces of green turf 
with fine, short, and well-rolled grass, form by far the most attractive 
of its charms. Places of public refreshment, coffee- gardens, and the 
like, without which a German can scarcely form an idea of a pro- 
menade, do not exist here, at least in the places frequented by good 
society. This is quite to my taste, as among us the most delight- 
ful places are completely destroyed by being made assembling 
places for smoking cigars and drinking beer. Some of the streets 
adjoining the park, such as Portland-place and Regent-street are 
splendid. The latter terminates in what is called the Quadrant, a 
short street bent in the form which the name denotes, with a colonnade 
on each side, the top of which reaches to the first floor, and is per- 
fectly uniform in its structure. This excessive uniformity is very 
far from pleasing, and it clearly convinced me how dreadful a city 
would be in which such uniformity of architecture prevailed through- 
out. The deep interest of humanity and its high significance are 
grounded upon the immense diversities which the individuals of 
which it is composed exhibit, and therefore, in all that relates to 
man, uniformity ought to be most carefully avoided: for this very 
reason war may be characterised as irrational, and calculated to 
bring shame upon humanity because it has produced, preserved, and 
even in peace made a plaything for princes out of this system of 
uniformity. 

In these magnificent streets it is a peculiarity of the recent archi- 
tecture that it gains a basement story, which, however, is not really 
subterranean, because open spaces are preserved, separated from the 
streets by iron railings, and over which a small bridge leads from 
every door to the public footway, merely in order to secure suffi- 
cient light and air for the kitchens and domestic offices, which are in 
the basement. Thus, every possible means is adopted to save 
room, and this crowding and pushing together of the living renders 
it daily more difficult to find places of sepulture for the dead. The 
grave-yards in, and immediately around London are nearly all filled, 
and a company is being formed in shares for the construction of 
cemeteries at some distance from the city; it forms a part of their 
plan to fix the cemeteries in districts through which railroads pass, 
in order to afford facilities of sending out trains of dead bodies to 
their final resting-place. Oh, Sir Jacques ! what stuff is here for 
deep, sad, melancholy reflections ! Such a train with coffins behind 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 65 

a locomotive ! What a mode of proceeding to the house of rest for 
all living, with more than the rapidity of a storm ! 

It was sunset when I returned to the palace, and I had little more 
than time to make a few notes, as the time had arrived to dress for 
dinner, at which, to-day, the Emperor of Russia, the Duke of Wel- 
lington, and Sir Robert Peel were to me the most remarkable 
persons. To-day, also, I had an opportunity of making the acquaint- 
ance of a man to whom the royal pair of England are peculiarly 
attached, in consequence of the share which he has had in the educa- 
tion of both — Baron Stockmar, a man of really scientific mind and 
education, and a well-known admirer of Gothe. 



XIII. 

Windsor Castle, June the 3rd — Evening. 

Each day furnishes new elements for intellectual development ! 
The most important for me to-day, was my first visit to the British 
Museum, and a view of the marbles of the Parthenon. 

Early in the morning I had an opportunity of forming a nearer 
acquaintance with a London practising physician. I paid a visit to 
Sir James Clark, who has published a work on the climate of Italy, 
and is regarded as one of the first physicians in the metropolis, — often 
consulted by the queen. Physicians of this description are, generally 
speaking, obliged to remain at home to receive patients till twelve 
or one o'clock in the day. Their patients are shown into an ante- 
chamber, whence they are in due order admitted to an interview, 
receive advice, and pay their sovereign. This practice is attended 
with many conveniences, and before the doctor drives out to visit 
his other patients at their respective homes, his receipts may have 
been more valuable than the receipts which, after examining his 
patients, he prescribes for their relief. Moreover, I myself had my 
first medical consultation in London to-day, to which several others 
will succeed. 

I was now free, and had something more than an hour at my 
disposal before our departure for Windsor, from which I write. This 
hour I appropriated to a hasty visit to the British Museum, which on 
this day has been fully opened to the public. The exterior of the 
building is old and unsuitable, but so much the richer are the 
treasures preserved within — the most extraordinary of all are the 
Elgin marbles. Immediately afterwards I wrote what follows in 
my pocket-book: "Have my eyes then, indeed, seen this too? 
Never shall I forget the view which opened to me as I stood in 
the room of the Phigalian marbles, and the wide hall appropriated 
to those of the Parthenon lay open before me ! In what a different 
situation lay here the remains of the three goddesses of destiny be- 

F 



66 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

fore me! Immense, and yet so beautiful; superhuman, and yet so 
soft ! How well the truly perfect forms a suitable centre from which, 
right and left, in all directions, every thing declines into the im- 
perfect, is here made most obvious by comparing the originals 
with casts in plaster of Paris; the slight difference between the 
cast and the original, has in such circumstances an extremely power- 
ful effect! This does not depend merely on the form, but is a 
question of substance also, in which the beautiful material of the 
marble, even although so much weather-beaten and injured, is to 
be considered." 

The friezes of the temple of Phigalia were already well known to me 
from Stackelberg's casts ; but these are not to be named in the same 
day with the works of Phidias. They are, besides, very small, scarcely 
one-fourth the size of life, and frequently rude and imperfect in execu- 
tion, but in liveliness and naivete of conception, still genuine Greek. 
Still more interesting are the statues and relievos from Lycia. But 
what is there which after all appears any thing more than a mere 
attempt, in comparison with the primitive grandeur and perfection 
of the Parthenon ? The great works of Egypt alone maintain their 
ground in their own sphere, even when compared with those of the 
Parthenon ! And the power which an iron and thoroughly enduring 
character exercises — from whatever it arises — can only be com- 
pletely comprehended on entering the great hall, in which the 
colossal sphinxes, the statues of Memnon and Osiris, the canephorse 
and the sarcophagi stand ! 

I should almost say, if the whole of the phenomena of the world 
really present us with two sides, that of perpetual fluctuation and 
movement in individuals and of infinite permanence and endur- 
ance in the whole, two rays are reflected from these sides, both 
upon the whole course of human life, and upon the domain of 
poetry and the arts. In the perfect works of the Greeks, and 
especially in those of the Parthenon, the principle of motion is seized 
and delineated in the most admirable manner ; whilst in the Egyp- 
tian works of art, the power of firmness and endurance is wonder- 
fully realised. If I cast my eyes upon the drapery of those magni- 
ficent recumbent female figures, which are masterpieces of Grecian art 
— look away, and then again return to their contemplation — it is 
as if a breath of air had passed over them, and the folds of the 
drapery were changed, or the loose garments had been somewhat dis- 
placed by the heaving of the bosom or the breathing life of the body ; 
but look as often as one will upon the statues of Osiris or Anubis, 
not a fold or a feature undergoes in imagination the shadow of a 
change, and centuries seem to pass over them as if they were hours. 
This completely corresponds with the magnificent ideas put into 
the mouth of the sphinx by Gbthe, in the second part of " Faust:" 

" We, of Egyptian race, have long been accustomed to reign for 
centuries; when we are left alone, we regulate the solar and the 
lunar day; we remain sitting before the pyramids like judges of 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 67 

the nations of the earth ; we witness inundations, wars, and peace, 
in succession, without moving a muscle of our countenances." 

All this I must hereafter consider at greater length. So much, 
however, is certain, that the expectations which I had been led to 
entertain of the glorious treasures in the British Museum, were 
fully realised. 

Even to-day I could not omit casting a hasty glance upon the 
animal kingdom, as it is called in England. On this occasion I 
passed by, without particular notice, the large rooms which contain 
the shells, insects, stuffed Mammalia, and birds, and turned my 
particular attention to the geological compartments, in which the 
remains of those once living creatures are exhibited, which go still 
further back into the history of the earth, than the Egyptian arts, 
which were in their best days, in the centuries immediately suc- 
ceeding Moses, as can now be proved from the explanation of several 
hieroglyphic writings. 

By the purchase of Dr. Mantell's large collection, the British 
Museum has made a most important addition to its former collection 
of fossil remains, and it is really a splendid sight to contemplate the 
heads, and even whole skeletons of these huge Amphibia, of what 
may be really called old England, imbedded in the marl strata in which 
they are found, as well as completely free. These extraordinary heads 
of two, three, or four feet long, exhibit such a wonderful appearance, 
because the large eyes, which (like those of many living Amphibia) 
contain a circle of flat bones, are exhibited as fixed in their sockets, 
and even now appear intent on prey. Here are Ichthyosauri and 
Plesiosauri from twenty to thirty feet long, immense Iguanodons, 
and the remains of huge fossil salamanders and tortoises. Here 
also are to be seen the remains of the powerful Megatherium of 
many mammoths, and the immense Missurium discovered by Koch 
in the district of Missouri, and recently purchased by the English go- 
vernment for an enormous sum, which, however, in consequence of 
a more accurate anatomical knowledge of the structure and posi- 
tion of its tusks, has ceased to appear so extraordinary as it for- 
merly did, and is evidently nearly related to the Mastodon. In this 
collection, too, there exists in the skeleton found in the island of 
Guadeloupe, the only instance of human fossil remains. The portion 
preserved consists of some of the lower vertebrae of the back, the 
pelvis, and the lower extremities, found embedded, indeed, in a 
species of rock of very recent formation, consisting of coagulated 
fragments of coral and shells. 

I now drove back, and at three o'clock set out with the whole 
court to the palace of Windsor. The drive to the railroad furnished 
me with a new opportunity of forming some idea of the size and 
immense population of London. Curiosity to see the train of open 
royal carriages, accompanied by a guard of lancers, had collected 
such a vast mass of persons along the whole line of road from Buck- 

f2 



68 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

ingham Palace to the station of the Great Western Railroad — about 
half an hour's ride — that every possible position for seeing was 
occupied. Elegant carriages, often two or three rows deep, were 
drawn up on the sides of the way, and were intermixed with a great 
number of ladies and gentlemen, mounted on beautiful horses, who 
either stopped whilst the court equipages passed, or occasionally ac- 
companied and followed them. The houses, too, were all full of life ; 
windows and balconies in all directions crowded with spectators, 
male and female; and in addition to all this, an immense throng of 
persons on foot — such as is momentarily collected in London — of 
omnibuses,' hackney-coaches, and cabs, which traverse London in all 
directions in thousands. 

The crowd at and around the railroad station was immense, but 
notwithstanding this, the best order was everywhere preserved, 
partly from a natural love of order in the people themselves, and 
partly by the activity and good management of a large body of 
police, distinguished by their simple but elegant blue uniform. The 
London constabulary are not provided with arms of any description, 
but merely carry a short staff of office in the breast pocket, which, 
although short, is heavy, and may, when occasion requires, be used 
as a weapon both of offence and defence. In the police, however, the 
people recognise the preservers of peace, order, and law, and cases 
are very rare in which any opposition is offered, or resistance made 
to their authority. 

In itself alone, the railroad station is a colossal affair, and has called 
into life a completely new and continually increasing district of the 
town in its immediate neighbourhood. The Great Western is, in- 
deed, one of the chief lines of that immense net of railroads with 
which the whole country is covered, and in addition to special trains, 
others start regularly every hour or half hour, nay, sometimes, on 
extraordinary occasions, every ten minutes ! 

The distance from London to Slough, eighteen miles, was accom- 
plished in very little more than half an hour, and at Slough other 
royal carriages were in waiting, in order to convey us rapidly through 
the small and ancient town of Eton to the palace of Windsor. As 
we passed by the celebrated college of Eton, founded by Henry VI., 
the boys were drawn up in front of this ancient Gothic edifice, 
most of them dressed in black, but some in scarlet coats, and wel- 
comed the King of Saxony and saluted the queen with a hearty 
hurrah ! 

I now drove up to and entered this magnificent pile — the oldest of 
the royal residences of England — in which the Saxon kings held court 
before the time of William the Conqueror, which was rebuilt in the 
reign of Edward III., and finally completely restored and repaired in 
that of George IV. — but always with a strict adherence to the 
original architectural design of the building. The magnificent gray 
towers and beautiful turrets, the lofty Gothic windows, the extensive 



WINDSOR. 69 

courts, the strong portcullises and the broad terraces which surround 
the castle, all contribute to make a grand and right royal impression 
upon the mind. 

Apartments have been assigned me looking towards the large 
court-yard of the castle, and just opposite to my windows, upon a 
mound in the midst of the whole pile, stands the large and lofty 
round tower, on which the flag-staff of the castle is placed. This is 
the tower in which James I. of Scotland was kept a prisoner ; 
but the chambers, like all the rest of the noble edifice, are now fitted 
up with all the luxury and comforts of the British court. On the 
left, I have a view of the wing near the grand entrance, and on 
the right, of the extensive wing, lighted by lofty Gothic windows, 
which is assigned for the use of the Emperor of Russia. Under the 
influence of the mid-day sun and of a clear and cloudless sky, the 
whole presents a most charming picture, and being now in my own 
chamber, free from all the bustle and ceremony of a reception at the 
castle, and feeling myself forgotten by the world, I availed myself of 
the leisure and quiet which it afforded to impress the scene upon my 
memory, and to realise it for the future by taking a hasty sketch in 
oils of this remarkable locality. This was, to me, a peaceful and 
most comfortable hour. 

In the evening dinner was served upon the most splendid scale — 
even of royal magnificence. What rooms, what pomp, what bril- 
liancy and splendour; the fairy tales realised before my eyes, and 
all this in an old gray weather-beaten castle ! 

Covers were laid for sixty persons, and all were served upon gold. 
Dr. R., the physician of the Emperor of Russia, who sat next to 
me, told me that such an entertainment was unparalleled even in 
Petersburg. 

After dinner I was presented to the Emperor of Russia, who was 
pleased to converse with me cheerfully for a few minutes in French. 
An autocrat in every movement ! He immediately brought to my 
mind Egypt and its arts ! 



XIV. 

Windsor Castle, June 4th — Evening. 

To-DAY, again, I have been free, and at liberty to apply my time 
according to my own pleasure. I determined, therefore, after being 
present at some consultations which I had agreed to attend in 
London, to visit the large lunatic asylum between Windsor and 
London. 

Early in the morning, I walked the short distance through Eton 
to the railroad. In Eton, I took a view of the court of the old 
college, and obtained a sight of the church belonging to the insti- 
tution. These buildings were erected in the fifteenth century, and 



70 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

are built in a massive heavy Gothic style, without ornament; but, 
notwithstanding this, the church contains a beautiful and highly- 
ornamented chapel near the altar, and is further remarkable for the 
flat construction of its roof. I found a person engaged in making a 
drawing ; he had nearly finished a very pretty view of the interior. 
At the back part of the church, a building has been erected in very 
bad taste, with doric columns, here absolutely ridiculous, which it is 
to be hoped will speedily be demolished. The number of boys 
originally on the foundation was seventy ; now, however, about seven 
hundred pupils receive their education in Eton, and some of the 
most distinguished men in England, among the rest the Duke of 
Wellington, have been brought up in the college. 

When I entered upon my consultations in London, almost as if I 
meant to continue here to follow my medical profession, the impres- 
sion was singular enough ; that, however, is one of the charms of 
medical science, it stands always and everywhere in close con- 
nexion with the state of our common humanity, and is, therefore, 
everywhere at home. 

I passed by Westminster Abbey and the new Houses of Parlia- 
ment, now in the course of erection. The impression made by the 
former is great but not imposing. It was impossible to see the 
interior to advantage, because the chief entrance was closed; and 
the wooden structure erected in the middle of the cathedral, for the 
performance of religious service, injures the effect of the edifice. 
A very hasty view, however, is sufficient to show how grand and 
mighty the conception of the whole really was. It is a great plea- 
sure to see in what an able and magnificent manner, the pure 
Anglo-Gothic style has been strictly adhered to in the new 
Houses of Parliament. The faqade towards the Thames, however, 
appears to me too low. 

Having afterwards bought a number of plans, views, and maps 
in Regent and Oxford streets, I went into the Pantheon. I must 
admit, that it has left behind a much more charming impression than 
any thing of a similar kind that I have ever seen in Paris. From 
Marlborough-street one enters into a large and spacious building 
adorned with flowers for ornament and sale, and passes up some broad 
steps towards the extremity, also richly ornamented with climbers, 
the most beautiful plants in full bloom, singing birds of the rarest 
kinds, and parrots and other foreign birds of the richest plumage. 
The centre of this upper compartment is occupied with a fountain, 
the basin of which is full of gold and silver fish, and the whole is 
covered with a glass roof. From this conservatory of flowers and 
birds, a side door leads into the large interior of the building, 
which is surrounded by a gallery, and lighted by a cupola. This 
immense hall is occupied by stand upon stand, in which the finest 
and most tasteful wares of all descriptions are beautifully laid out, 
and sold at moderate prices. Flights of open stairs lead from the 
ground floor to the gallery, near which are several rooms appropri- 



HARWELL ASYLUM. 71 

ated to the exhibition of paintings. Some of the sea pieces were 
by no means amiss, but the rest, consisting of landscapes and copies 
of historical pictures, are of little or no value. In descending from 
this gallery, various other articles for sale present themselves, and 
last of all is a collection of* pottery of all descriptions, containing 
numbers of imitations of Etrurian and other ancient vases. The 
whole, properly speaking, constitutes a passage daily open to the 
public, presenting, indeed, no small number of temptations to the 
passers by. 

The large and splendid shops in Regent-street, with their enor- 
mous plate-glass windows and looking-glasses in gilt frames, are 
truly magnificent exhibitions ! The perpetual movement and life in 
the streets, at once so wonderful and exciting ! When I think of 
Paris and compare it with London, it now leaves on my mind the 
impression of a small town! 

About four o'clock I again drove to the Great Western, and pro- 
ceeded on this occasion to Hanwell, half-way to Windsor, where, 
thirteen years ago, a large lunatic asylum was built at the expense of 
the county of Middlesex. This immense institution is under the 
care of Dr. Conolly, who, unfortunately, was not there. I hear that 
he no longer lives in the institution, but merely visits it twice in the 
week, having established a private asylum on his own account. 
Some of the assistant medical officers, who are resident, act under 
his general superintendence and directions. The situation and ar- 
rangement of the whole are magnificent and splendid. Viewed from 
the railroad, it has all the appearance of a little Versailles. First, 
a large gate in the Roman style, at which a porter lives, and where 
every person who enters is obliged to record his name. Passing 
through the gate, the visiter next enters a large garden, in the midst 
of which stretch out the great wings of this spacious and well-built 
institution, — capable of containing 1000 patients. I visited a great 
number of the halls and chambers. The cleanliness, order, and 
superintendence, as well as the care and attention paid to the food 
and protection of the inmates, and the provision of suitable places 
both for work and recreation, are deserving of the highest com- 
mendation. In each of the divisions two keepers are awake and 
on duty during the whole of the night; they are, indeed, obliged 
to keep awake, and to give proof of having been at their posts. This 
proof depends on the adjustment of a clock, the hands of which are 
to be moved regularly forward at stated intervals, and so constructed 
as to register any omissions. I found a multitude of cases of mad- 
ness of the most various descriptions — melancholy and monomania 
appeared the most prevailing — and the difference between the cases 
which occur here, and those in Italy, France, and Germany, was strik- 
ing enough. There were only a few cases of lively, garrulous patients, 
such as are common in France, or of those who seemed to express 
themselves with deep passion like the Italians, and it might be said 
of the inmates of Hanwell in general, that they are more deeply 



72 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

sunk in, and dwell more upon their own sufferings than patients of 
a similar class in other countries. The treatment of these unhappy 
persons in this asylum ought rather to be called a system of safe- 
keeping, a compulsory adherence to a certain mode of life, and an 
intelligent training in masses, than an attempt to go into the pecu- 
liarities of particular cases ; and where is it otherwise in such institu- 
tions, under the most favourable circumstances ? 

An hour had passed away when I found myself again at the station, 
at which a second train soon arrived and carried me quickly to Slough. 
Here all was full of life; multitudes were returning from Ascot races, 
and eager to find conveyances to London. Newspapers of all kinds 
were cried about for sale, and the humbler sort were already full of 
the news of the arrival of the emperor, each treating the subject in 
his own particular way. In an omnibus, in which I rode to Wind- 
sor, I picked up a piece of these multifarious popular newspapers, 
headed " Miles's Boy," containing an article called" The last inter- 
view of the Queen with the Emperor of Russia and with Miles 's BoyV 
In returning to the castle I took the foot way, which leads be- 
hind old walls up flights of small steps, and through several narrow 
courts. On my walk I passed by an old deserted Gothic chapel, 
which must present a very beautiful picturesque scene by moon- 
light, and soon found myself again in my small but most agreeable 
chamber. 

The entertainment of to-day was as splendid as that of yesterday. 
The only difference consisted in a little variety in the music, which 
was interrupted by an interlude from a Scotch piper, in full High- 
land costume, who marched round the table, and brought the shrillest, 
sharpest, and most booming tones that mortal ears ever listened to, 
out of his bagpipes and their drone, which projected far over his 
shoulder, and was adorned with glittering flags. In recent Italian 
operas — in some " Rolla" or " Linda" I have often heard such 
sounds as have compelled me to exclaim, " Can this be what 
people call music I" but this was something still more dreadful, which 
no form of apostrophe could characterise ! And the man, too, 
was a virtuoso ! — The queens piper ! There is unquestionably 
an immense difference in the organisation of the hearing, however 
difficult it may be to demonstrate. This execrable sound was only 
endurable when he played in distant rooms, and his wonderful 
piercing blasts only reached the ear from afar — like echoes among 
mountains. 

This is, however, not the only proof that the English are prone 
to mistake mere noise for a species of music ; it is confirmed by 
the chimes of the castle, which morning and evening produce the most 
disagreeable effect upon a musical ear. 

After dinner, there was a concert, at which a clever violinist, 
named Joachim, exhibited his power over his instrument. When 
the hour for retiring arrived, I went alone through the series of mag- 
nificent apartments and the long richly-adorned gallery, with its 



A REVIEW. 73 

numerous interesting paintings, to my own solitary chamber. Every 
thing was still brilliantly lighted — what riches everywhere displayed ! 
Immense malachite vases, golden candelabra, the splendour of the 
furniture and draperies, the large golden vessel, like a small bath, 
which was filled with spiced wine at the baptism of the Prince of 
Wales, and entirely emptied ; the glass cases filled with ancient splen- 
did weapons, swords, chain armour, beautifully ornamented pistols, 
guns, and daggers, which called up and forced all sorts of recollections 
on the mind. I gave way to this train of thoughts, and dwelt on 
the olden times of England, on Elizabeth, Essex, and the Earl of 
Leicester. 



XV. 

Windsor Castle, June 5th — Evening. 
To-day has been passed wholly in the atmosphere of court life. 
Soon after ten o'clock in the morning, preparations began to be 
made for a great and splendid review, especially ordered for the 
pleasure and entertainment of the emperor ; a number of royal 
carriages were driven into the court of the castle — horses were led out 
adorned with magnificent housings and highly-ornamented bridles, 
and the roar of artillery was heard from afar. A little later came the 
general officers and their stafT; — the emperor, — the king, — Prince 
Albert, and the Duke of Wellington, all dressed in rich uniforms, 
mounted splendid chargers, and it was, indeed, a royal sight to 
see such a cavalcade in the large court of the castle, within the 
circuit of those gray towers and Gothic palaces crowned with 
turrets. Then came the ladies; — the queen, accompanied by the 
Duchess of Cambridge entered her carriage, and all was put in 
motion. I too found a convenient place in one of the carriages; 
the whole cavalcade passed the gates, and took the way towards the 
great park, entered and passed along the long walk, through the 
midst of vast numbers of spectators collected from far and near. 
At length we arrived at an extensive open hilly plain, surrounded 
with old oaks; — wooded hills bounded the horizon, and Windsor 
Gastle in the distance formed a beautiful background. Here the 
cavalry were drawn up, the carriages took their stations, and the horses 
were taken out, just as the firing of the artillery commenced. At 
some distance opposite several regiments of infantry were in line, 
and at the first salute of artillery the whole of the general officers, 
who had taken up their position in the middle of the plain, put them- 
selves in motion, rode to the infantry and along the lines. Having 
examined the troops, the staff returned near the place not far from 
us, in which the ladies were stationed, and the men now began to 
defile regiment by regiment, first the cavalry and then the infantry. 
Prince Albert was at the head of his regiment, and the Duke of 



74 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

Wellington with his; he was greeted by the people with loud 
cheers. The horse guards were especially splendid; their band 
clothed in yellow with red and gold, wearing, besides, a species of 
ancient heraldic coat, looked magnificently rich. The kind of 
black velvet jockey-caps, however, which they wore, appeared tome 
totally unsuited to such a costume. There is no need to say, when 
speaking of England, that the horses were admirable. The troops 
then passed a second time in quick march, formed squares, per- 
formed various evolutions, and exhibited a sham-fight, during which 
there was a continued fire of small-arms mixed with the deep 
roar of the artillery. At last, all resumed their original positions, 
when the emperor rode forward at a short gallop to the command- 
ing general, pulled up in good style close before him, and shook 
him heartily by the hand, as a sign of his warmest approbation. Thus, 
in the course of about two hours, favoured by fine weather, the 
review was over. Multitudes of anxious spectators clambered down 
from the oaks, which had been converted into so many observatories. 
The people separated in all directions, and the royal cavalcade 
returned to the castle. 

In the evening, a grand drive through the park took place. 
Prince Albert drove the emperor; the king and the Duke of 
Cambridge accompanied the queen and the duchess. I was for- 
tunate enough to have a seat in the carriage with General von 
Adlerberg, who is usually called the emperor's right-hand man, and 
renewed an old acquaintance, which I had formed with him when 
consulted many years ago respecting his son, whom he now pre- 
sented to me in vigorous health. The drive furnished me with a 
good opportunity of forming a still more accurate idea of the great 
extent of the park, for at the rapid pace at which we were driven, 
in a few hours we passed over at least two or three and twenty 
miles within the bounds of the park itself. 

The first object we visited was an elegant, small, and new garden 
belonging to the queen, admirably adapted for fruit trees of all 
descriptions. The cortege next proceeded to a very wild part of 
the park, distinguished by magnificent beech trees, growing in all 
the luxuriance of nature, and forming beautiful bowers of foliage, 
and huge oaks affording here and there charming vistas and views 
of Windsor Castle. From thence the party pursued their way to 
Virginia Water. This part of the park much more resembles what 
is called a park among us, than any thing which I have seen in this 
country, a wide artificial canal (formerly excavated by French pri- 
soners), with occasional waterfalls, thickets, grass-plots, and banks 
for repose, and finally, as the crowning of the whole, a large antique 
ruin, and not far from it at that extremity of the water, a small 
castle mounted with ships' guns. The antique ruin surprised me 
by its peculiar style, as it sprang forth with its colonnade, single 
statues, recumbent capitals, and old walls thickly covered with ivy, 
from the midst of the green woods and surrounding cedars and 



VIRGINIA WATER. 75 

pines. I heard from Prince Albert, that all these ruins really came 
from Athens, — had been brought thither by Lord Elgin, and were 
placed absolutely in very much the same condition as they had been 
found in their original home. There was, however, a painful want 
of the charms of a Grecian sky, for a covering of dark gray clouds 
now brooded over the remains of these tenants of a brilliant age, 
and of a country with an almost cloudless sky. 

After a very short delay on the platform of the miniature castle, 
the cortege was again in motion, and drove to a small fishing house 
built in the Chinese style, and fitted up with ornamental galleries for 
angling, a general English dilettanti taste ; a small and elegant bark 
rocked upon the waters, and at a greater distance a beautiful model 
of a complete frigate. 

Whilst George IV. was engaged in the extensive reparations in 
Windsor Castle, he resided long and willingly in the park, and 
many of these artificial grounds owe their origin to his taste or 
pleasure.; as well as the small house to which the party now pro- 
ceeded, which he had caused to be built for his own use. This cottage 
is a sort of compound of summer-house, tent, and richly-adorned 
country house. A projecting building with splendid flowering 
plants, and close to it a gallery richly ornamented with mirrors, 
which multiplied the beauties of the natural world in a most agree- 
able way, conducted to a pretty drawing-room and several bed- 
rooms, all wainscotted with rare woods, simply but elegantly fur- 
nished, and inviting to a most cheerful enjoyment of life. I do 
not believe the king neglected this invitation during the time he 
passed in this rural solitude. 

It was drawing towards evening when we returned to the castle, 
where there was to be to-day a full dress dinner-party on a large 
scale. The company was very numerous, and presented to my 
notice several interesting individuals whom I had not seen before. 
Sir Henry Hardinge, about to sail in a few days to act as governor- 
general of the immense Indo-British kingdom, was present; also 
Lord Saltoun, who was just returned from China; further, Lord 
Aberdeen, a peer of Scotland, equally celebrated for his statesman- 
ship and learning, who has gained for himself general esteem, and 
whose appearance reminded me, in several respects, of our late 
respected minister, Von Lindenau; and moreover the now all- 
powerful Sir Robert Peel, and the whole of the corps diploma- 
tique. After dinner I enjoyed the still greater good fortune of 
being presented to H. |R. H. the Duchess of Cambridge, and of 
being able to bring to her recollection many circumstances of 
Dresden life. I was excited by all this to write down a few anthro- 
pognostical notices of some of the most remarkable persons, of which 
I shall therefore insert three in this place. 



76 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 



THE EMPEROR. 



" Je n'ai pas 1' air d'etre malade," said the emperor to me soon after 
I was presented to him, and was speaking of his intention of going 
to Kissingen; and I can perfectly confirm this observation. He 
possesses a handsome figure, is tall and broad-shouldered, with a cor- 
responding formation of the head, without any particular modelling 
of the front part of the skull above the forehead. His hair is brown, 
almost bald towards the crown of the head; his features large, re- 
gular, quiet, and not without a certain elegance and mildness. His 
carriage quite military, his motions quick and decided, his gestures 
particularly free and expressive. The emperor wore at the review 
the uniform of the dragoon guards, green, with white pantaloons, 
and helmet with horsehair. His uniform for the evening was that 
of a Cossack general, dark green kurtha, with a general's scarf of 
silver tissue, short crooked sabre, and a cap with the heron's feather 
in his hand. The emperor speaks French well and elegantly ; Eng- 
lish not so fluently. His organ is harmonious and sonorous, his ex- 
pressions clear, decided, and elegantly rounded. 

I could not help asking myself how it was, that such an appear- 
ance, to which one cannot refuse to allow a certain beauty and 
attractive power, can be united with the amount of violence which 
we know he has exhibited? and I could only consider how some- 
times out of the happiest, nay, even poetical temperament, life, 
with its curious coincidences and relations, produces the most ex- 
traordinary tendencies in, and the most remarkable changes of 
character. 

When, without the power of a higher notion, an elevated nature, 
and one possessing in itself a certain beauty of mind, is placed 
in conflict with rude masses, still fermenting among themselves, 
and when it has been at first in several respects obstructed and 
insulted by them, nothing is more likely than that it should itself 
be developed to a decided harshness and bitterness, feelings which 
may grow into a disregard for every thing human, and to the most 
unjustifiable violence. Considered from this point of view, the 
riddle seems also in the present case easily solved. 



SIR ROBERT PEEL. 

A man of about fifty years of age, — of good figure, powerfully 
made, and rather full; the form of his head remarkable, on the whole, 
rather for breadth than height. The relation of the three portions 
of the brain, so far as I could judge from a cursory view, somewhat 
prevented, too, by a considerable quantity of grayish hair, tolerably 



PEEL AND WELLINGTON. 77 

harmonious; the middle part of the head low, as is usual with 
heads of a broad form. The countenance expresses much firmness, 
joined with a decidedly prosaic appearance, but great sound common 
sense. In conversation with crowned heads, the expression, with 
all its firm reserve, passes readily to a smooth tone, and his bodily 
attitude easily assumes the same expression. His language is, how- 
ever, select, comprehensive, and well expressed. Whenever I had 
the opportunity of seeing him, he was dressed in black, with white 
neck-handkerchief, and without any orders. I here subjoin, in 
conclusion, some remarks which were made to me concerning his 
qualifications for his important duties as prime minister: " Sir 
Robert Peel is quite fit for his situation. By birth, belonging to 
the people, by his early connexion with Oxford, entirely devoted 
to the conservative cause, he seems to have been made for his situa- 
tion, and for his age. There can be but one opinion respecting his 
talents; he possesses, at the same time, a sufficiency of physical 
power, and has property enough to secure himself a complete in- 
dependence (the English say, ' an empty sack will not stand up- 
right'). In his daily intercourse, he is considered cold and stiff, 
and has no intimate personal friends." 



THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON. 

Completely the representation of an old soldier ! Stiff, half deaf, 
but cheerful; it is easy to be seen that he must have been what is 
called a well-built, handsome man. The form of his head, as well as 
that of his face, is principally long, the shape of the skull not very re- 
markable, the front and back portions rather high. His hair is quite 
white, and he has rather too much for his age, particularly in a 
country where baldness is more common than elsewhere. The sockets 
of his eyes are wide, and it is obvious from his appearance that he is 
rather to be regarded as a man of eyes than a man of ears, on which 
remark the history of his life oilers the best commentary. I saw 
him generally in uniform, and decorated with many orders. He 
still rides, and was at the head of his regiment at the review, and 
although the windows of his residence were broken some years 
back, he still appears a favourite with the people, for wherever 
he makes his appearance, the cry a Hurrah for the old Duke 1 is 
general. 

Among the many traits of courage and presence of mind which 
arc related of him, none seemed to me more characteristic, and at the 
same time greater and more profound, than the following: — At the 
battle of Waterloo, when the decisive moment was come, at which, 
according to the calculations of the generals, the enemy must neces- 
sarily give way, Wellington put in motion the whole English co- 
lumn. Waving his hat he rode in advance, urging officers and men 



78 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

to advance rapidly. His adjutants remarked that lie was exposing 
himself to great danger from the enemy's fire; but he answered: 
" Let them shoot away; the battle must be won, at any rate." 



XVI. 

Windsor Castle, June 6th, — Morning. 

I EMPLOYED this quiet, moist, and dark morning, in taking a walk 
upon the large terrace which Queen Elizabeth caused to be formed 
before the castle. Properly speaking, it is a lofty wall, enclosing a 
square grass-plot, of somewhat less elevation, interspersed with flower 
beds and roses. Whilst walking on this terrace (the Slopes) one 
enjoys an agreeable view of the neighbourhood, including beautiful 
groups of trees, splendid single oaks, broad meadows, and at a dis- 
tance the old spires of Eton ; a light mist lay upon the surface of the 
refreshed ground; all was very pleasant, and yet it inspired no feel- 
ing of a happy existence in the midst of such a world. The reason, 
no doubt, is a certain pedantic and ceremonious stiffness, which ex- 
tends to every thing in and around the castle. The peculiar straight- 
ness of the walks, with their gravel perfectly clean and well rolled, 
and the edges of the lawns with their velvet-like and mown grass, 
carefully cut into geometrical figures, the neatness of what is in- 
tended to represent grottos and ruined walls, the stiff elegance of 
the flower-beds, the exact symmetry of the shrubs, — these are all cir- 
cumstances which make a grand feeling of nature entirely impossible. 
Even the architecture of the castle bears the stamp of a certain want 
of truth, for however national the Gothic style of itself is, there lies 
in the great turrets and towers an assumption of a fortress -like 
style of building, which does not suit the splendour and elegance of 
the interior arrangements. In addition to all this, the sentries at 
the doors, the exact distinctions respecting how far one may go 
and where one must not enter, all this communicates to the atmo- 
sphere a particular quality, which prevents that free expansion of the 
breast which is enjoyed in other places. 

Upon the terrace I met the prince's groom — a German, named 
Meyer — who was directing a pair of saddled Highland ponies to be 
brought out, for the use of the little Prince of Wales and the Prin- 
cess Victoria. I asked him some questions respecting the races at 
Ascot Heath, and in this manner prepared myself for our afternoon's 
drive, which was to make me acquainted with this national amuse- 
ment. The queen always gives a prize to be run for at these races, 
which generally consists of some piece of silver plate. The betting 
is considerable; some of the principal horses were described to me. 

I then saw in the castle an exhibition of pieces of plate, in- 
tended for these prizes, sent for selection to the emperor and to the 



ASCOT RACES. 79 

king. They were principally groups of figures of from two to three 
feet high, representing scenes from Walter Scott's works, from Don 
Quixote, St. George, an Arabian with his horse, &c; the silver 
partly polished, partly frosted, and here and there gilt. The work- 
manship was neat and skilful, but without genius; the silver, like 
all English silver, very pure; the firm of Garrard and Co., of the 
Haymarket, sent these specimens, and had already sold three, each 
at 300 guineas. 

It was still so quiet in the galleries, that I remained somewhat 
longer in examining the largest. Even by day the ornaments of this 
gallery produce an agreeable effect; — the fine scarlet carpets which 
cover the floor, the rich gildings of the wood- work, and the alternate 
busts and pictures. There are particularly some splendid pictures 
by Canaletto, some good landscapes by Zuccarelli, and several por- 
traits by Lawrence. At length I met with a pretty living picture, — 
Lady Gainsborough, — one of the queen's ladies in waiting. She had 
lived long in Florence, and although my recollections of that city 
from my last visit were by no means pleasing, yet I was glad of an 
opportunity of recalling them, thus afforded me by her agreeable 
conversation. 

Same day — Evening. 

It was towards one o'clock when we drove to Ascot races. These 
are among the most celebrated in England, and to-day the Queen's 
plate was to be run for. We drove again through the park ; and 
several more splendid trees, particularly beeches, met my view. 
Soon after we had left the park and approached the race-course, the 
number of carriages and riders increased; at length the vast heath 
with its various roads opened upon me, which was already covered 
with a vast number of persons. Amidst loud cheering the court, 
in fourteen carriages, drove along the race-course to the pavilion 
specially erected for the Queen. On the top of this pavilion was a 
comfortable roof, from which a orood view of the heath could be ob- 
tamed. There were, perhaps, from 25,000 to 30,000 persons pre- 
sent. These took up their positions partly on both sides of the course, 
partly in various houses and on scaffoldings. A number of policemen 
w r ere employed in keeping order. Round about were masses of 
tents, and numbers of carriages, covered with human beings. Thim- 
ble-riggers and gipsies were not wanting. Among the spectators were 
a great many ladies and people of the best ton. The place itself is to 
a certain extent waste, really a heath, here and there stony; all this 
presented a remarkable picture under a grayish, rainy-looking sky, 
very different from that given by an imitation of an English race, 
that I had seen three years before, in the Cascini, near Florence. 

The course was now cleared, and the race began. The first time 
the race was only along the course, as far as the little wooden house 
with the loophole, by means of which, and a tablet placed ex- 
actly opposite, the judges determine which horse first passes the line 



80 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

of vision. A brown horse, long and slender and quite young, like 
all these racers, ridden by a jockey with orange colours, was the one 
w T hich gained the prize on this occasion. 

The court now retired to lunch , wdiich was served with great pro- 
fusion in a large tent-like space, and then again ascended the flat 
roof, upon which loud cheering followed. Indeed, when this cheer- 
ing began, I could not help thinking of the public at the theatre 
calling for a favourite actor after the play. Here also the royal 
personages present were called for singly, and as they appeared were 
greeted with loud cheers; first the Queen, then the Emperor, the 
king, Prince Albert, the Prince of Wales, and, finally, the Duke of 
Wellington. As often as any distinguished person appeared, the 
hurraing and waving of hats began, accompanied sometimes with 
clapping of hands. A sharp wind and some rain did not at all in- 
terfere with all this, and even umbrellas w^ere not suffered by the 
people, inasmuch as they hindered the view of the rest. 

Now began a new race, according to the programme upon the 
printed cards which had been previously distributed; and this time 
the horses ran along the whole course, and then in a wide circuit 
round the heath back again to the goal. This time, too, a jockey 
in orange was in advance; but a green one kept close behind him, 
and was evidently holding in his horse. When not far from the 
winning-post, the latter gave his horse head, and urged him with 
the spur to his greatest speed, so as to reach the goal first, amid 
great cheering from the crowd. Such chances and sudden changes 
undoubtedly possess a certain interest and amusement, and I could 
easily fancy that such scenes, often repeated, serve to excite the 
people, raise the interest of the thing itself, and give occasion to the 
most extravagant betting ! For my part, I could not consider it 
otherwise than as an interesting thing to have obtained, in so con- 
venient a manner, so good an idea of this national sport; but the 
sport itself could never have any great charms for me personally. 

We now returned to Windsor; and I was much amused on the 
road by the anecdotes of an old gentleman in our carriage, a Colonel 
Drummond, who had been much with George IV., and had seen 
much of the life of those times. Among other things, he re- 
marked that the custom of the ladies rising and retiring from table, 
as soon as the port and claret began to circulate at the dessert, 
was almost necessary, or, at least, very reasonable, inasmuch as, ac- 
cording to old German customs, it was usual to drink deeply. He re- 
lated an anecdote of a colonel of a regiment, whom he had known, who 
always ordered to every dinner a corporal and four privates, for his own 
use, to insure his being brought home safe and sound. Such scenes, 
however, appear almost never to occur at present, 'and therefore the 
retiring of the ladies seems to have entirely lost its importance. 

The dinner of this evening — most probably my last in Wind- 
sor Castle — offered several new and interesting points to my no- 
tice. On this occasion, the most important persons of the admi- 



ADMIRAL CODRINGTON. 81 

ralty board — these pillars of England — were invited ; amongst them 
Admiral Codrington, who has earned the somewhat doubtful fame 
of having burnt the Turkish fleet at Navarino. The provost of 
Eton happened to sit next me, who had before struck me from his 
odd episcopal dress. I entered into a long conversation with him, 
and heard many observations respecting that old college, which 
celebrated its fourth centenary three years ago," as well as some 
remarks on classical education, the corporal exercises of the 
boys, &c. 

After dinner, I was enabled to see St. George's Hall, next to the 
dining-room, where the arms and banners of the Knights of the 
Garter are suspended. It is ornamented in the strict old Gothic 
style, wainscotted with high seats all round the walls, and over them 
large portraits, armour, shields, and flags. The whole produces a 
grand and solemn effect. 

And thus, as the court returns to-morrow to London, Windsor is 
closed for me. 

I only add the following short sketch of Admiral Codrington: — 



ADMIRAL CODRINGTON. 

Of rather large stature. The emperor said to him: " Vous avez 
engraissc ;" and, in fact, there is considerable embonpoint in his 
figure. Of the three divisions of the brain, the middle and back 
parts are more considerable than the front ; the form of the whole, 
as is usual with the English, rather long than broad. His head is 
nearly bald. In his face, his nose seems to project with a sort of 
sensual characteristic, and the eyes are rather too near one another. 
The expression of his countenance is cheerful. He was dressed in 
black, with several orders. 

London, June 7th. — Noon. 

However magnificent Windsor is, London is still more so, and I 
am well pleased at being again swimming in this ocean ! I ex- 
pected great things from my residence in London, and cannot, 
therefore, afford long holidays ! 

Yesterday evening, one of Prince Albert's equerries, Colonel 
Wilde, with whom the interest in scientific pursuits which he mani- 
fested brought me often into intercourse, mentioned to me Shak- 
speare's oak in the park, and this morning I set out to look for it, 
accompanied by the chaplain to the queen, who acted as my guide. 
The readers of Shakspcare, no doubt, remember the passage in the 
" Merry Wives of Windsor:" 

" that Heme the Hunter, 

Sometime a keeper in the Windsor forest, 
Doth, all the winter time, at still midnight, 
Walk round about an oak." 

G 



82 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

This Heme's oak is still shown, though almost dead; and a 
second, but a little more alive, has been called Skakspeare's oak. 
On a beautiful balmy morning we descended from the slopes into a 
vlridarium, a sort of vaulted tunnel, richly adorned with vases of 
carved syenite. There was only an orange-tree at present here, 
and from it our path conducted us into that part of the park which 
is reserved for the walks of the castle. The trees here were beau- 
tiful, and the grass of a splendid green; but a certain disagreeable 
regularity continued to displease me. There were grass-plots; but 
upon the broad gravel walks between them, not even the smallest 
blade of grass was permitted to make its appearance; there was 
turf, but exactly three feet on each side of the walks it was rolled 
and mown so carefully, that no single blade projected above the 
rest; and. even the meadow itself was surrounded with small iron 
work, to answer the purpose of a fence. I was tempted to ask 
myself whether the air, too, were not measured off and. allowanced, 
and I could no longer enjoy the pure element with the same pleasure. 
We now penetrated further into the park, and met with many 
splendid old lime-trees and oaks, under the beautiful boughs of 
which Shakspeare may often have reposed in admiration ; but these 
were still not the mythical trees. At last we saw them. Hemes 
oak, standing more among other trees, with bare, scathed branches, 
Shakspeare s oak standing alone — also surrounded with an abomin- 
able little paling — and still green, partly from the ivy that encir- 
cles it, partly from its own foliage ; but among the green branches, 
thus scathed, some appear here and there, like the antlers of a 
giant stag. The tree would have made a splendid drawing, for its 
form and its colouring were equally beautiful. The dry branches 
were stripped of their bark, and of a fine rich yellow ; the bark of 
the old tree itself was of a gray tint; then the old trunk, of mighty 
size, and the different shades of green in the ivy and the oak leaves : 
I could have admired it for days. It quite deserves to be called 
Shakspeare s tree ! In the midst of all these surrounding objects, 
I could almost fancy the actual scenery of that charming comedy ; 
for, in truth, the church of Eton, in which the lovers were to be 
speedily united, is to be seen at no great distance. It could not but 
be interesting to me to have seen all this ! 

On our return to the castle, the same chaplain showed me St. 
George's Chapel, in which the kings of England are now buried. 
It is entered by a wide Gothic vestibule, and the nave of the church 
itself, with its lofty painted windows, its rich Gothic ornaments, 
and the sepulchre of the Princess Charlotte (by Wyatt, representing 
her corpse and her spirit ascending to Heaven), produces a grand, 
solemn, and melancholy effect. There is, however, always some- 
thing disagreeable to me in this English-Gothic style, namely, the 
flat pitch of the roof, so to speak^ which always reminds me of tlie 
Moorish style. I then advanced to the choir, with its lofty, 
richly-carved wooden seats for the choristers, adorned with a double 



RETURN TO LONDON. 83 

row of banners suspended from the roof, and but sparingly lighted 
by the large window at its extremity, which is fitted up with mo- 
dern painted glass. The morning service was just beginning, and 
a stillness, a solemn severity, and a ceremonious observance reigned, 
of which we can only get a just conception in England, and which 
again invites to a comparison with Italy, which, though Catholic, 
is so much more lax in this respect. 

Not far from St. George's Chapel, is that little deserted church 
which I had previously passed, and which, if the hand of time 
continue to act thus upon it, must soon sink into ruins. I heard 
to-day that it had been commenced by Henry III., and continued 
by Cardinal Wolsey, who, with true ecclesiastical pride, intended 
it for his burial-place. The fabric of his ambitious plans fell to the 
ground before the fabric of his sepulchre was completed, and now 
the latter is following the former. 

From hence I was obliged to find my way without a guide, 
and this is not so easy through all these courts and buildings. 
After some mistakes and questions, however, I succeeded, and 
soon afterwards the court left for London. We drove to Slough in 
nine carriages, attended by a guard of honour of the dragoon guards, 
and arrived in London in half an hour, where nine more carriages, 
with another guard, were in waiting; hence we drove through 
great crowds, and some thousand elegant carriages filled with spec- 
tators, to Buckingham Palace. Exactly an hour had elapsed be- 
tween my entering the carriage at Windsor, and my leaving it at 
Buckingham Palace. 

London, June 7th — Evening. 

My first visit in the suite of his majesty in London has been 
made, and borne a rich harvest. 

We first drove ; at three o'clock, to the mansion of the Duke of 
Sutherland. This house is considered to be the most splendid in 
London — which is saying a good deal — in regard to its interior 
arrangements; and it could not be otherwise than interesting to 
me to obtain a definite idea of how much one can live on, inas- 
much as I had often seen, as a physician, on how little one must 
sometimes subsist; and, besides, to see many specimens of art pre- 
served there. 

The house is well worthy of its character. It is not far from St. 
James's Park, and its exterior is in the simple Italian style. In the 
vestibule, the massive folding doors leading to the staircase are 
formed of a large mirror on each side, and the hinges of the door are 
of cut-glass, here as well as in the upper apartments. The reception- 
room is really magnificent ! Marble columns, wainscotting of po- 
lished marbles, marble statues, and the floors and staircases co- 
vered with fine scarlet carpets. Up stairs is a splendid room 
adorned with some excellent pictures. I found here several pictures 
which I had seen in Paris, bought by the duke from Marshal Soult's 

l G2 



84 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

gallery, for instance, two Murillos, and the picture of the " Prodigal 
Son," which had impressed me very favourably when I saw it in 
Paris, besides one by Zurbaran, and one by Velasquez. Very remark- 
able was a young Christ, bearing the cross, from Raffaelle's earlier 
years, and in contrast with this, a very handsome modern picture 
by Paul Delaroche. In addition to these, there were several 
other spendid works, which I had not time to examine as they 
deserved, for as the duke, with his beautiful wife and daughter, 
did the honours of his house, the time we could bestow on the 
pictures was necessarily much circumscribed. Thus, for instance, 
I would willingly have devoted more time to the consideration 
of a large picture by Guercino, of a Cupid in marble by Thor- 
waldsen, and of a pretty little picture by Brekencamp, represent- 
ing an old woman in her room at her simple meal; and, lastly, 
in another of the suite of apartments, the Gallery Lenoir, a series 
of pencil portraits of the time of the French revolution. We had, 
however, always something new, belonging to the most refined 
luxury, to observe and admire. In the large picture-gallery, for 
instance, there was an elegant table of plate-glass, the top of which 
consisted of a moveable mirror, placed there merely to save one 
the trouble of bending the head back in order to examine the 
painted ceiling, w T hich was more conveniently and pleasantly seen 
by reflection in the mirror. In the same way there were speaking- 
pipes with bells attached to them, in the walls of the upper apart- 
ments, by means of which orders could be immediately transmitted 
to the children's or servants' rooms. I do not attempt to describe 
the exceeding elegance of the usual furniture of the rooms; merely 
adding that the house, notwithstanding all this, gave me quite the 
idea of an inhabited one, which feeling was, perhaps, excited in me 
by the Juno-like beauty and majesty of the duchess, for truly she 
is well suited to impress the idea, that only such an elegant and 
luxurious establishment was fit for such a mistress. 

From thence we drove to take a nearer view of the Houses of 
Parliament, now in course of erection. To-day, too, when I had 
an opportunity of seeing the Thames front in its whole length to 
better advantage, it still appeared to me too low, and not in pro- 
portion to the very lofty tower-like building at the southern end. 
On the other hand, the strictest attention, even in the most 
minute details, to the Anglo-Gothic style, is highly to be com- 
mended. The ornaments, the innumerable coats of arms, the 
pointed columns, little statues and projecting points, the arches of 
the windows and doors, every thing is in harmony, and every 
thing most carefully carried out. If I should be asked, however, 
what I principally miss in all new Gothic buildings, I must remark 
that to me there appears to be wanting also in this work great and 
massive proportions, and a certain grand freedom which includes 
to a certain extent, something organically irrational. Whoever 
wishes to see by an example exactly what I mean, let him compare 



WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 85 

in his mind the Palace of the Doges at Venice, with the Houses of 
Parliament, and he will soon feel to which side the balance must 
incline. 

The material is a close-grained yellowish-white limestone, which, 
however, does not appear to me to possess overmuch firmness. The 
arrangement of the interior of the house may be called grand, and 
to the purpose. 

Not far from this is the old Westminster Hall, of which the ex- 
ternal broad Gothicstyle,andits ornaments with projecting buttresses, 
undoubtedly served as a model for the Houses of Parliament, which 
are to be connected with it. They are thus both of the same 
height, though in the hall we should have expected a less elevation, 
because the whole building is really nothing but a hall, and the 
roof and vaulted covering are one and the same thing; from within, 
therefore, it looks very large, has a grand effect, and presents a 
remarkable appearance with its ancient simplicity of walls, and its 
beautiful woodwork in the roof. 

Prize works in statuary were then placed in the hall, in order to 
determine on the artists to whom the statues for the Houses of 
Parliament should be committed. Unfortunately, every thing was as 
yet under cover, for the exhibition does not begin for a fortnight; 
otherwise, we might have been able to judge, in some degree, 
towards what direction the needle of the plastic arts at present 
points. 

Next — to Westminster Abbey. Our carriages drove into a court 
railed off and generally closed, from which the principal entrance 
to the abbey opens; the organ resounded, and the clergy, followed 
by the vergers with silver wands, came to meet his majesty. 

Even from this spot, from which is seen right in front, the immense 
nave of the church, the effect is very considerable ; but when we 
had penetrated more into the interior, and seen the several chapels 
which open out of the nave in all directions — when the tombs of 
the old kings, Edward the Confessor, the Henries, Richard II., 
Elizabeth and Mary Stuart, the monuments, and sometimes the 
tombs of so many knightly and great men, and of so many noble 
women, all in the different styles of their respective centuries, were 
presented to the eye, a feeling came over me, such as I had never 
experienced before in any church — the same feeling which the 
reflecting geologist experiences, when he reads in the depths of the 
mountains the history of the earth — the feeling, that here the fossil 
history of all England surrounds us. 

To this was added the feeling of antiquity expressed in the ex- 
traordinary colours of some parts of the stone work, and in the 
endless ornaments, as for instance in Henry VHth's chapel, and 
the most splendid effects of light and shade produced by the old 
painted windows upon openings and arched passages ! The con- 
tinued resounding of the organ, too, produced a beautiful and 



86 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

solemn effect, and I experienced a deep inward emotion during the 
whole time of our visit. 

In these pillars, England contains a firm central point for its 
further development. It is more important than one thinks, for a 
people to see itself continually represented in an old and worthy 
monument of such a kind, containing, as it were, the essence of its 
historical development. 

It had been wisely provided, that not too many persons should 
enter the church at once, and the clergy and the authorities only 
accompanied us, and gave us the requisite information respecting the 
historical monuments. And how much is there to observe? — far 
more than can possibly be seen in such a short time. Who can 
prevent a peculiar feeling, when standing before the tomb of Henry 
V., and the beautiful Catharine of France, when he sees the monu- 
ment of Elizabeth, and not far from it, that of her unhappy, and 
yet, perhaps, happier half-sister, Mary Stuart ? What a view of 
the history of the United Kingdom do we obtain from the old 
wooden throne, brought by Edward I. from Scone, in 1297. The 
chair contains in its seat the stone upon which the ancient Kings 
of Scotland were anointed, and the form of the whole reminds me 
of the old wooden throne in Norway (as represented by Dahl). 
Finally, the great number of more modern monuments erected to 
men who were in any respect a pride to their country, and who 
have found their Pantheon here. Few are well executed, the best 
perhaps is the sitting statue of Watt, by Chantrey; but all pro- 
duced a great effect by their position, and by the memory of the 
men themselves. Newton, Nelson, Shakspeare, Thomson, Canning, 
Pitt, and so many others, spirits very unlike one another, have been 
united here in a sort of Walhalla, in which I should have liked to 
have seen Dr. Jenner. 

I must, however, among so much that is sublime and serious, 
mention a sort of comical and yet characteristic scene, which arose 
from the fact, that the clergy and officers, who accompanied the 
king, had not failed, as is usual on such occasions, to bring their 
respective wives and children with them, in order, if only by a 
word, to have an opportunity of being presented to his majesty. 
This was also the case with a tall thin old gentleman, the principal 
churchwarden, whose head, almost bald, was barely covered with a 
velvet cap, and who entered the church with his family, as we were 
about to leave. His spouse, rather younger than himself, eager to 
see her husband, too, properly submissive and respectful in the pre- 
sence of royalty, remarked with horror, that the old gentleman, 
whilst his majesty, with his accustomed condescension, was ex- 
changing some words with him, still kept his cap on his head. 
She immediately approached him cautiously from behind, and by 
a sudden movement carried off the innocent skull cap from the 
head of the astonished churchwarden. The incident appeared to 



THE HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. 87 

me, in this great historical background, like a scene from Wilkie, 
and sufficiently proved who was here the commanding party. 

From the ancient history of England we passed at once into 
its most modern ; namely, the Houses of Parliament. First, to the 
House of Lords. Who does not experience a remarkable sensation 
on entering these precincts? The anti-chambers are extensive and 
covered with red carpets, the interior of the hall itself simple, the 
space almost confined; a small gallery above, for the short-hand 
writers and for visitors. In the midst, before the table, the Lord 
Chancellor, in a black gown and large wig upon the woolsack, — 
before him the mace — opposite to him the clerk — also in a wig; 
around, the rows of peers, — the spiritual in surplices, the temporal in 
common dress, and nearly all with their hats on. Of the members of 
the upper house, which consists of more than 400, not nearly the half 
were present. All sorts of petitions were laid on the table, and their 
titles read by the clerk: then the important question regarding the 
sugar duties was to have been discussed, when the motion was made 
to postpone this bill to another time, in consequence of the ball at 
court, at which several of the peers were of course obliged to be present. 
Some discussion took place — Wellington spoke in favour of the post- 
ponement, and it was agreed to, Lord Brougham was present, but 
did not speak; several others were pointed out to us. After about 
half an hour we went to the House of Commons. In its temporary 
accommodation, the arrangements are still more simple than those of 
the Upper House; it looks almost like a large lecture-room. Here 
a speaker presides, and here, too, out of more than 600 members, 
hardly 200 were present. It is true, that the most interesting 
subjects are generally discussed late in the evening, or at night. 
The question under discussion was, whether it was advantageous 
and right, still more to divide the livings in Scotland (where at 
present, at any rate, much diiference of opinion prevails in church 
matters) or not. Peel was present, came to us, and explained some 
matters, whilst the discussion continued, and the opposition loudly 
expressed their opinion, until Sir James Graham rose and defended 
the ministerial view of the subject, upon which his opinion appeared 
to be received with pretty general applause. At this point the 
king left the house. 

In the evening, there was a large full-dress dinner-party, and 
afterwards a splendid soiree in the large apartments of the palace, 
at which most of the world of fashion and beauty in London were 
present. It offered to the silent observer a wide and amusing 
field. Of politically interesting persons, I only saw Admiral Napier 
and the Turkish Ambassador, Ali Effendi, who were new to me; 
the latter a little man with very bright eyes, and an otherwise 
uninteresting olive complexioned face, with the red fez on his head. 
Among the ladies were several of remarkable beauty, for example, 
Lady Clanwilliam, a daughter of Lady Pembroke — and her sister. 
I found that a black dress and diamonds are particularly favour- 



88 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

able to the English style of beauty. The full dress of the court is 
very superb, the servants' livery richly adorned with gold lace, and, 
oddly enough, with great bags attached to the collar of the coat. 
The lords in waiting carried long white wands, and wore a very 
rich costume. It was half-past twelve o'clock before the company 
broke up. 



XIX. 

June 8th — Evening. 

This forenoon was at my disposal for some visits on medical 
business. First — a visit to Mr. Lawrence, author of a work on the 
" Physiology of Man," which had interested me much some years 
ago, but which had rendered the author obnoxious to the clergy, 
because he had endeavoured to penetrate a little more deeply into 
the relation between the conscious and the unconscious life of the 
soul (generally, but unscientifically, denominated soul and body). 
He appears to have allowed himself to be frightened by this, and 
is now merely a practising surgeon, who keeps his Sunday in the 
old English fashion, and has let physiology and psychology alone 
for the present. I found him a rather dry, but honest man. His 
wife is celebrated as one of the first flower cultivators in London, 
and possesses in particular, a beautiful collection of orchideous 
plants, which we shall probably visit on some other occasion. 
Hence I drove to Bethlehem Hospital, commonly called Bedlam. 
It is in Lambeth, par excellence the Catholic portion of London, 
and is the well-known lunatic asylum founded by Henry VIII. , 
and built after the model of the Tuileries, much to the dissatisfaction 
of Louis XIV. The present large building, adorned with a Corin- 
thian portico and a cupola, was only finished in 1815, and can 
receive about 400 patients of both sexes, but of 311 patients re- 
ceived in one year, and 263 at the time in the institution, 157 are 
said to have been dismissed cured, which would be a very favour- 
able ratio. The grounds and avenue arc splendid; but the idea of 
placing in the vestibule of a madhouse two colossal, and into 
the bargain, bad statues of a raving madman and a melancholy 
madman lying chained on the ground, could only have originated 
in the brain of an Englishman. Fortunately, these figures are now 
covered. 

I passed through several of the large, airy corridors, off which 
were cells for single patients, or for two, three, and four together. 
Every thing was very clean, but the black bars and doors produce 
a melancholy effect against the white-washed walls. In several 
court-yards were patients walking or working in the open air. A 
separate division is here made of criminal patients, i. e. such persons 
as have committed crimes, of which insanity was considered the 



BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL. 89 

reason or the excuse. Thus I saw Oxford, who made an attempt 
on the life of the queen, and who has been shut up here, although 
he did not appear to me to be insane. He is a person of very ordi- 
nary appearance. Another person, really insane, a literary man from 
Hanover, had already troubled the queen with the most various re- 
quests before he was sent to this asylum. Also an elderly German 
lady, who appears to have addressed Prince Albert on several oc- 
casions. Both these persons spoke to me, and I had some difficulty 
in getting away from them. Certainly it is very comprehensible 
that a young couple, like this royal pair, standing upon a pinnacle, 
and represented every day to millions as an ideal of happiness, 
should become the object of the passionate wishes of several of these 
unhappy persons. Bedlam may yet have to open its doors to many 
others of the same kind ! 

The treatment of the patients here seems hardly to be a medical 
treatment, properly so called, but rather to be confined to their 
safe keeping, giving them constant occupation, and preserving 
cleanliness among them. 

I was finally conducted into the room where the directors hold 
their meetings, &c. The chairman is always the Lord Mayor of 
London for the time being. The arms of the several chairmen are 
suspended round the room in elegant frames with inscriptions, &c. 

I next drove to see Mr. Deville, who was named to me as the 
principal phrenological dilettante in London. He is a citizen, and 
lamp-maker, and has a large shop of all sorts of lamps, with which a 
cabinet is connected, containing a really rich cranioscopic collection, 
consisting of the skulls of individuals of various nations, and a number 
of casts of the heads of remarkable persons. The owner himself was in 
the country, but I was allowed to examine every thing, and I should 
particularly have wished, had I had leisure, to have devoted a longer 
portion of time to the examination of a series of heads, being casts of 
the head of the same person at different periods of life. The successive 
development and changes of those fine modulations of the surface of 
the skull, which correspond entirely with those developments and 
changes by which the features of the countenance are altered, and 
which, like these, determine certain principles, and are not of them- 
selves unimportant, although they lie without the circle of any sys- 
tematic or scientific construction and explanation, were here very 
decided, and to be perceived and followed out in a remarkable order. 
Unfortunately, these casts are not allowed to be multiplied in any way. 
Of some other forms, however, casts are to be obtained, and I hope to 
be enabled to enrich my own collection by this means. I must not 
omit to mention that several interesting skulls of animals are included 
in this collection, which so often give rise to interesting comparisons ; 
the most massive was that of a large elephant killed at Exeter Change 
several years ago. The cast was very good, and showed how noble 
this form, so much used in Indian sculpture, really is, if our sculptors 
had more opportunities of applying it. 



90 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

From hence we proceeded to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, an old and 
very rich hospital in West Smithfield, in the city. I naturally wished 
to examine the arrangements of an English hospital, and to see in what 
they differ from those of Germany, France, and Italy; and for this 
purpose St. Bartholomew's Hospital (although I hope to see many 
more) appeared to me very suitable. The hospital consists of four 
buildings enclosing a court, which were built about 100 years ago by 
Mr. Gibbs, by subscription. One of these contains the offices and a 
large room for the directors, the others contain wards for the sick, an 
apothecary's and a surgeon's room. Three of the first physicians in 
London and three surgeons visit the hospital a few times a week, to 
give the necessary directions, perform operations, &c. House sur- 
geons make the other visits, attend to the dressings, and see to the 
distribution of medicines and food. The physicians are not paid, 
as is the case so frequently in England, but several young medical 
men and surgeons attend their lectures, profit by their treatment 
of the patients, and pay them for this privilege a considerable fee, so 
that in this way a few thousand pounds are easily made in the course 
of the year. There is also a lecture -room and a collection of phy- 
siological and pathological preparations, so that the institution thus 
becomes a regular school of medicine. Among the preparations was 
a remarkable skull of a madman. This poor wretch had thrust his 
head into the fire, in order to terminate his existence, but he was 
rescued before effecting his purpose : he was, however, more than 
scalped, and a disease arose, in the course of which the whole of the 
covering of the skull detached itself, like the cast shell of a crab. 
It formed partially again, and the man survived a considerable time. 

The patients' wards are large, but not so immense as they generally 
are in France and Italy. Of the 500 beds in the hospital not more 
than from twelve to twenty are in one room, which is always well 
lighted and warmed by a large fireplace. Close to it is the apart- 
ment of the sister, who has the charge of the ward, and nurses the 
patients in it. These sisters are not nuns, but paid nurses, who have 
two or three nurses under them. Their rooms are generally fur- 
nished with every comfort, carpets, fireplaces, &c, and all this gives 
to the duties of nursing something more resembling a home. The 
wards are always open, and the nurses visit the sick at all times. 
This may perhaps injure the more strict superintendence, but it 
undoubtedly causes the sick person to feel more at home. 

We afterwards visited the directors' room. The staircase is orna- 
mented with large pictures drawn by Hogarth for the institution, 
representing the history of the Good Samaritan, and such subjects, 
which we forbear to criticise in consideration of the good intention 
of the work. The room itself is splendid. All around are inscrip- 
tions in letters of gold, mentioning the numerous benefactors to the 
hospital and the sums given by them. The institution has thus 
obtained great wealth, and possesses at present a yearly income of 
more than 30,000/. Besides these the room is ornamented with a 



CHISWICK. 91 

number of large portraits — Henry VIII., who presented the build- 
ing to the citizens, — the several celebrated medical officers who have 
been attached to the hospital, as Abernethy, Lawrence, Pott, and 
others. Every year, reckoning in and out-patients, above 10,000 
patients share the benefits of this establishment. 

On this occasion I passed for the first time through the noise and 
bustle of the city; I saw in Fleet-street the only remaining gate be- 
longing to the old city of London, — Temple Bar, — that gate at which 
the newly-crowned king was obliged to request permission from the 
Lord Mayor to enter the city, where the latter, even now, presents 
the keys to the new monarch, and which, on certain occasions, is 
closed, in order to preserve the privileges of the city. I could not 
help being borne along with the crowd, and had hardly time to 
admire the splendour of the large shops, where, behind immense 
panes of plate glass, all the treasures of commerce, and all sorts of 
articles of luxury were heaped up. When one considers how this mass 
of population has increased, and with it the multitude of carriages 
of all sorts, and how it is still continually increasing, one can ima- 
gine that the time is not far distant when any further movement 
will become impossible in these narrow spaces, and where every 
thing must become fixed. 

I now drove quickly back to Buckingham Palace, as we were to 
attend a great rout early in the afternoon, at the Duke of Devon- 
shire's at Chiswick House. The long train of carriages, the court, 
with the king and the emperor, but without the queen, drove out, 
through an immense multitude, to the park about six miles distant, 
where the whole of the fashionable world was already assembled. 
The park is very beautiful, and particularly southern in character. 
Cedars, larger than any I ever saw elsewhere, spreading their mighty 
boughs with their great fan-leaves, almost touching the earth, ever- 
green oaks, broad lawns, lakes, and splendid hot-houses, adorned not 
only with real plants, but also with paintings of plants, for in one 
of them were large oil-paintings, representing partly the Rafnesia, 
partly that immense South American Lotus, — the newly-discovered 
Victoria Regina, of the natural size. The house is not remarkable, — 
built in the light Italian style ; but it contains many pictures, amongst 
others a good Albano, and a fine Paul Veronese. As the festival was 
a real rout, some 300 persons were crowded into these small rooms, 
whilst music of not the first class of excellence was being performed. 
Fortunately the day was beautiful, and all shortly spread themselves 
abroad in the open air, and whilst some sat down to a rich lunch 
(the court in a summer-house adorned with numerous heraldic orna- 
ments, and fitted up like a tent) another portion wandered through the 
park. I went down to the water, where, just opposite, three giraffes 
were walking among the trees, and gazing at their own reflected forms. 
Suddenly one of them, a handsome young animal, took it into his head 
to walk through the water, and to take a nearer view of the elegant 
company. He did so, and all at once the long necked inhabitant of 



92 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

the desert was walking about among the lords and ladies. The 
English ladies — I mention it with all honour — showed great presence 
of mind and calmness, and this unexpected event, therefore, pro- 
duced but slight confusion. When this tall oruest arrived the other 
guests gave place to him, and remained in the neighbourhood of the 
trees. His swarthy keepers soon came over in a boat and brought 
him back. It was at first to me a riddle how such remarkable game 
came to be found in an English park, but I afterwards heard that 
the duke had only hired these animals for the day from a man who 
had them for show. I should not have been surprised after this to 
have seen a dish of giraffe at lunch; and this would have been still 
less of a luxury than that of Count Romanzoff, who sent for a piece 
of the mammoth found in the ice of the Lena to Petersburg, in 
order to have it served at dinner. 

After four o'clock we all returned: I had never seen such a 
crowd of spectators. At Hyde-park corner, particularly, there was 
at least a mile in length of carriages, close to each other, from which 
several pretty faces looked out with curiosity; and a number of 
gentlemen and ladies on horseback stood still or galloped about: 
the sight was very interesting. 

We were to visit the Italian Opera in the evening, and therefore 
dinner was earlier than usual, in daylight, and with open windows. 
I paid a visit first to the great gallery. There are some fine paint- 
ings there, particularly by Rubens and Rembrandt. I was par- 
ticularly struck with a picture of the latter, representing a young 
squire, with a falcon on his wrist. The tone of this picture is ex- 
cellent, at the same time so poetical and real ! as those old painters 
have the art of often uniting the most remarkable contrasts, whilst 
the more modern ones cannot even unite their extremes. Besides 
this, there are some beautiful pictures by Horghe, one of which 
particularly reminded me of my favourite at Munich, in which the 
sunlight falls through a narrow opening into a court-yard. Here 
is just such a scene of still life represented, and here, too, sits a 
woman reading, with her red, old-fashioned dress, and a black head- 
dress, and with her back towards the spectator. There are also 
some splendid pictures by Terburg, by Potter, and the two Van der 
Veldes, the one a painter of sea pieces, and the other of animals. 
The approach of the court soon put a stop to my observations 
on art. 

Immediately after dinner, at eight o'clock, we drove to the Hay- 
market, to the Queen's Theatre, which is devoted to Italian opera 
during the London season ; and for this purpose all the most cele- 
brated talent in operas is engaged. Here, too, an immense crowd 
surrounded the house, in order to see the arrival of the court ; but, 
behind a wall of policemen, we descended in safety from the car- 
riages, at a particular entrance, from which a staircase, covered with 
scarlet cloth, conducted us at once to the anti-chamber of the two 
large boxes devoted to the use of the court. The opera was the 



THE OPERA. 93 

" Barber of Seville;" and as we entered, Grisi, as Rosine, was just 
commencing her great aria in the first act. She has a fine figure, 
and a handsome face, with eyes of somewhat oriental form. She, 
however, sometimes grimaces rather with her mouth. Her singing 
is fine, but rather sharp, and her voice does not reach the heart. 
Probably, some other part would suit her better, in merely external 
matters. Mario acted Almavida; a soft, beautiful tenor, and a 
handsome young man. Figaro was represented by Fornasari; a 
full, sonorous, baritone voice, and a beautiful figure, with speaking 
features, but rather vulgar looking. The trio in the second act, 
" Zitto, zitto" sung by these three, quite transported me to Italy, 
by its freshness and fire. Old Lablache, as Bartolo, was a capital 
buffo ; a real lion's voice, with the countenance of a lion. F. La- 
blache also, sang " Don Basilio" very well. The house is very 
large (it is said to contain space for 2500 persons), and looks rather 
too uniform with its five tiers of boxes), each merely ornamented 
with gold upon a red ground, the drapery of the boxes being also 
red. The orchestra is nothing remarkable; and the decorations, 
which can only be called middling, prove how little, on the whole, 
the theatre is regarded, and how much such occasions as the present 
are considered as extraordinary festivals. On account of this latter 
circumstance, the house was crowded, so that boxes in the best 
circle, capable of accommodating four persons, were let at twenty- 
five guineas ! The examination of the boxes was an amusing occu- 
pation for the spectator. Some very pretty faces and figures were 
visible ; and a large box, in which all the ladies wore wreaths of 
flowers, particularly attracted my attention. 

After the first act, there was great applause and clapping of 
hands. The curtain rose, and the whole musical strength of the 
company appeared on the stage, to sing " God save the Queen." 
A hurrah! followed, and another for the emperor. Next came 
the ballet, with a fandango, pas de deux, in which Cerito appeared; 
a very pleasant sight; she is very pretty, and particularly graceful 
in her movements. 

The court left after eleven o'clock; the streets were still full of 
policemen. 



XX. 

London, June 9th— Evening. 
As to-day was Sunday, on which in London all work ceases, I 
had more leisure to devote to my particular pursuits. I spent the 
morning with Owen, in the College of Surgeons, in order to com- 
pare our microscopes, and to see some interesting preparations. 
Robert Brown and Broderip also came thither, and I was induced 
to give these gentlemen and Dr. Freund, who accompanied me, a 



94 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

general view of my cranioscopy, a task which my imperfect know- 
ledge of English, rendered somewhat difficult to me, but which suc- 
ceeded pretty satisfactorily. I hope for much sympathy with this 
system, and Dr. Freund will translate my lecture on the subject at 
Leipzig, in order to render the diffusion of it easier. Robert Brown 
then exhibited some very remarkable sections of an antediluvian 
fossil-plant. Probably the entire plant was one of the cones of those 
enormous Equiseta which, like trees, overgrew the marshes of the 
antediluvian world. Owen, on his part, gave us his views of 
some remarkable formations of skulls in his collection. The most 
remarkable was a monstrous formation from India, in which 
another skull was joined to the head of a child in such a manner, 
that the two crowns were united. During life a sympathetic move- 
ment of the upper head had showed itself whenever the lower head 
moved. The bony parts of the two united skulls were in Owen's 
hands, and we considered attentively this extraordinary malforma- 
tion; and when, immediately afterwards, a skull was exhibited, which, 
by the action of water on the brain, had been enlarged so as to be 
nearly a foot and a half in diameter, it was impossible to avoid 
being reminded in how many ways even this noblest part of the 
human frame can become deformed by monstrosity or disease ! 

I was afterwards present at several consultations, one of which in- 
troduced me into the splendidly furnished house of the Marquis of 
Lansdowne. I was allowed the pleasure, after the conclusion of the 
consultation, of entering the marble hall, in which the marquis 
has displayed a number of ancient and modern Roman sculptures. I 
was most attracted by a relief, the size of life — an antique — a sitting 
jiEsculapius. The simple air of a remote period of art refreshed 
me. This was a fit conclusion to the former half of my day. 

I had reserved my afternoon for a walk through London. First, 
through the Strand and Fleet-street, to St. Paul's. I had brought 
with me no very great expectations of this edifice, great only in 
regard to its size, and the sight of it even diminished my opinion. 
In the place of one of the most magnificent old cathedrals, cele- 
brated as one of the most splendid buildings of the middles ages, 
the seventeenth century — this century in matters of taste below all 
criticism — has set up one of the most tasteless collections of columns, 
vaulted roofs, eaves and statues, that encumbers the earth. Sir 
Christopher Wren, the architect, has a monument here, upon which 
stands the proud word, " Circum spice !" but his own sentence, or 
rather that of his age, is expressed here. Only when seen from a 
distance, does the size of the cupola render it an imposing object; 
seen from within, where in addition every thing seems so waste 
and deserted, it is a mere soulless vault. 

Not far from this is the Monument, that well-known column 
erected to commemorate the great fire of 1666, which, among 
other things, destroyed the beautiful old Gothic cathedral. It 
ascends splendidly into the air, with its gilt ornament at the top, 



THE VIEW FROM LONDON BRIDGE. 95 

particularly in such beautiful sunshine as that of to-day. I could 
have wished to have obtained a view of London from the top, 
but this pedantic celebration of the Sunday even closes the door 
at its base which on other days is always open ! Thus a puritanic 
faith always prevents every free view ! I then turned my steps to 
new London Bridge, the last of the bridges towards the sea, for 
from this, too, a view is to be obtained ; and such a view ! 

I can truly say, that the size and importance of this immense 
city now first burst upon my view. The Thames is here really an 
arm of the sea, with an ebb and flood making a difference of eight 
feet, and with rippling waves of muddy water; and when one 
stands upon the bridge and looks down upon this stream, with its 
forest of masts and its innumerable steamers, which pass each other 
like fishing boats, with its great Custom-house, and the number of 
large warehouses, one obtains, as at one view, an idea of the import- 
ance of London to commerce. Added to this one sees, up the 
river, the other bridges, the masses of houses, the stores, the great 
breweries, and the immense iron gasometers, rising into the air like 
large towers or colossal blast-furnaces, and all this without any rule 
or symmetry, ranged along according as each is needed, mostly 
blackened by smoke, but always producing such an immense effect 
en masse. As a forest chain of mountains, with all its underwood 
and ugly roots, and its several flowers, which, taken separately, 
would appear insignificant or even disagreeable, appears splendid 
from a distance under favourable circumstances, and surrounded 
as it were with a bluish mist; so London, with all its dirt and 
misery, and smoke in parts, yet as a whole, how splendid and 
mighty ! What a size again is this bridge, and what traffic is there 
on it on a Sunday. I descended on the left bank one of those 
steps leading down to the water between the houses, and found 
myself in the midst of the life of a sea-port ; sailors, casks, smell 
of tar, everywhere bills and notices of sale. Every ten minutes 
one of the little steamers, about fifty of which now ply on the 
Thames, leaves each station, just like the omnibuses in the streets; 
and for no more than fourpence one is conveyed from London to 
"Westminster-bridge. We passed under Southwark, and Blackfriars- 
bridge, beautifully adorned at every buttress with Ionic columns, 
and finally under Westminster-bridge, near which immense pillars 
are erected, to which a new bridge, a suspension one, is to be 
fastened. Such a voyage is really very remarkable. To-day the 
steamers are doubly busy, for on Sunday many persons take ad- 
vantage of the opportunity of visiting Greenwich; and just as I 
left London-bridge, some boats set off quite overfilled with pas- 
sengers. Five or six were lying at the same time alongside the 
pier at which I landed. The passengers rush out and the steamer 
pursues its way. These vessels pass each other continually, like the 
pleasure boats on the Elbe. They rush past each other, steaming 
and hissing, and yet each one passes on its course undisturbed. 



96 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

The service of these steamers is simple; just above the machine 
sits a boy, who continually calls out, according to a sign from the 
captain, " stop," or " go on," according as it is necessary; and thus 
they carefully get out of the way even of the little boats, which 
otherwise would often be swamped in such a mass of movement. 

My way back conducted me through the whole length of St. 
James's-park, and I enjoyed various views of Westminster Abbey, 
peeping out from behind splendid lime trees and oaks above the 
ornamental water in the park. It looks very beautiful in the midst 
of such a city, to see sheep pasturing on each side of the path, or 
swans, ducks and geese, come to the shore to be fed by the children. 
I should almost call these parks the pauses between the long 
sentences of London, they give a few resting-places in the midst of 
this eternal bustle. 

In the evening, his majesty, as the Emperor of Russia had now 
left London, was to dine more privately with the Duke of Cam- 
bridge; and I had the honour of a long conversation with their 
royal highnesses. The duke, though no longer young, shares wil- 
lingly, and to a great extent, in all that affects life, either politically 
or Eestheticalfy ; her royal highness, with a freer spirit, and finer 
and more poetical feelings, endeavours to spread an unsought grace 
over all subjects of conversation, and succeeds admirably. 



XXI. 

London, June 10th — Evening. 

To-day, we commenced our drives through the city with the 
contemplation of human misery and the deepest human abasement. 
Two large prisons opened their heavy iron doors to the royal 
traveller: — First, the New Bridewell, Westminster, a prison built 
ten years ago by the County of Middlesex, displaying exquisite 
cleanliness and order in its arrangements. Vagabonds, swindlers, 
cheats, pickpockets, and such like refuse of human society arc here 
imprisoned either for the whole term of their punishment, or at 
least for some time at first, employed and instructed. We passed 
through the outer door into the court, which was for the most part 
formed of grass plot, planted round the edges with shrubs in 
flower. From this we passed into the division appropriated to the 
prisoners, and there every thing was arranged with the greatest 
symmetry and order; but every part of it was also provided with 
the strongest and smoothest walls, and the sharpest and firmest iron 
work for the security of the prisoners. 

The building is divided into several wings, and each contains a 
number of cells, in which, for the most part, the prisoners are con- 
fined singly; others are, however, confined together, but are, as 



THE TREADMILL. 97 

well as those employed in the several workshops, compelled to 
remain perfectly silent. The number of the prisoners at present in 
the building is 500, but as many as 800 can be received. The 
people did not appear at all ill; and as they receive good food, and 
the air is pure, I believe that the account given us is correct, that 
their health is not found to suffer. We looked into some cells, 
observed the work of picking oakum, or the threads of the outer 
coat of the cocoa-nut, and were present in one of their school-rooms. 
Every thing is done with a precision strictly military. The working 
men either walk on the treadmill, or sit in regular ranks; those 
called to the chapel or the school-room, march forward in regular 
order and with measured steps — even the exercise which they are 
compelled to take in a narrow court (for the preservation of their 
health) is performed with a regular step, and in perfect silence. 
The utility of this system was not yet perfectly decided upon — 
particularly in regard to the total isolation of the prisoners, which, 
as above remarked, is not carried out to its fullest extent. The 
silent system, on the contrary, appeared already to have produced 
good effects; and when we consider to what purposes the noble 
gift of speech is generally applied in houses of correction, this sort 
of deprivation appears decidedly to be useful. The most disagree- 
able impression made on my mind, was that produced by the tread- 
mill. In a long gallery are a number of small cells, capable of 
containing exactly one person, who stands upon a step of the wheel; 
every one of these steps passes along all the cells; each prisoner is 
obliged to step forward at the same time as the others, or the wheel 
would crush his legs in its revolutions. 

At the command of the gaoler, the doors of all the cages opened 
at the same time, and we saw the unhappy criminals ranged before 
us. There is something fearful in seeing a human being not only 
made a machine, but merely a weight for a machine ! The pri- 
soners pass their time between solitary confinement, carding flax, 
the treadmill, and a little instruction ! When will human society 
be so far advanced, as to hinder, and render almost impossible, the 
commission of crime, by a more perfect education, and a more 
beautiful and freer development of the human being ! 

The second prison we visited was the Penitentiary, situated on the 
Thames, and intended to receive convicts under sentence of trans- 
portation, and to prepare them for their future fate. The building, 
externally, looks like a bastille, and the arrangement of the several 
wings is very well managed. About 900 male, and 150 female 
convicts; and among both of these divisions are several young per- 
sons, who are said to receive regular and useful instruction. The 
food is here also good, and great care is taken to preserve the rooms 
clean and well ventilated. Out of 1000 prisoners, therefore, there 
were but fifty sick. The solitary system is here more consistently 
carried out, in consequence of the greater extent of the prison ; and 
we saw several of these cells fitted up like workshops, in which 

H 



98 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

carpets were worked, weaving was carried on, carpenter's and tin- 
man's work done, and so on. When the prisoners assemble, as in 
the church or the school-room, or to their common occupations, 
strict silence is preserved. 

Lastly, we passed round the towers of this bastille, within the 
outer wall, and saw there a piece of land, laid out as a garden, 
which is used for giving instructions in gardening to such convicts 
as are destined for Botany Bay. 

We then drove to Bedlam; and on this occasion I examined, 
besides the lunatic asylum, a working school for neglected children. 
When one considers, that among the 2,000,000 inhabitants of 
London, 20,000 are entirely without habitations, it is easy to con- 
ceive how neglected a number of children must be, and how much 
remains to be done, before the evil can be eradicated. The in- 
stitution near Bedlam, fed, clothed, and instructed, perhaps a 
couple of hundred children ; but this is but a drop in the ocean ! 
The house is, on the whole, small, the rooms for sleeping, work- 
ing, and eating, rather low; but everywhere cleanliness and 
order; and there was even a garden, kept in order by the chil- 
dren themselves. The clothes and shoes are all made in the insti- 
tution. 

We were engaged to-day to lunch with Dr. Howley, the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, the first ecclesiastical dignitary in Great 
Britain. He lives in the Bishop's Palace, at Lambeth; and in this 
old ecclesiastical building, his majesty was received by the arch- 
bishop and his lady. The entrance, through an old gate overgrown 
with ivy, was of itself remarkable ; the house itself has been several 
times altered, but still in the Anglo-Gothic style; the drawing- 
room enjoyed, from its handsome Gothic windows, a beautiful view 
of Westminster, over the trees in the garden; and the library, with 
its high Gothic windows, and its rich wainscotting, contains many 
historical and literary treasures. The collection of MSS. is par- 
ticularly rich. The firm hand-writing of Queen Elizabeth — firm as 
her character, was to be found on many a leaf already yellow with 
age. The first installation of an Archbishop of Canterbury was 
also interesting, as well as the copy of a celebrated Chronicle of St. 
Alban's, made in the fifteenth century. 

For myself, this little court of an English ecclesiastical prince offered 
several points of comparison with the rich courts of the Italian 
clergy, which I had formerly seen in Rome. The violet-coloured 
livery, in which all the servants were dressed, was the only point 
in which any resemblance was to be seen — every thing else was dif- 
ferent ; and the patriarchal appearance of the venerable couple, sur- 
rounded by a grown-up family, produced a much more beautiful 
effect. 

After a very rich, but certainly domestic meal, we drove to the 
Surrey Zoological Gardens, the second great zoological institution 
in London, which is, however, properly a matter of speculation; 



THE SURREY GARDENS. 99 

for not only is money paid to enter at the gates, to see the really 
numerous and interesting animals, but other remarkable exhibitions 
are also introduced here. We first visited the cages containing the 
rarer sorts of animals. Every thing is much the same as in the 
Regent's-park, but the positions are almost more interesting, and 
the animals very well kept. Some of the rarer animals are wanting, 
as the rhinoceros, the orang-utang, and siren; in fact, the gardens 
in the Regent's-park appear to be rather more of a scientific under- 
taking than these. Among the birds, I was particularly struck 
with a specimen of the rhamsastos, or pepper-eater (rhampsastos 
pictus), which adorns the woods of the equinoctial regions of 
America, with the splendour of its plumage. Also a rare specimen 
of water-fowl (fulica chloropus), a beautiful sort of heron [ardea 
capensis), and a rare vulture (vultur ecaudatus). Among the 
quadrupeds, the Carnivora were particularly remarkable ; and to me 
a rare specimen of the ursine kangaroo (didelphis ursinus) from 
Van Dieman's Land, was new. I was also interested in a pair of 
beautiful wapitis, those large stags of North America, which have 
seldom been seen to such advantage on this side the Atlantic. 

Whilst we were thus wandering along among the cages of the 
wild animals, we turned a corner, and a most extraordinary spectacle 
presented itself before our eyes. Over an artificial lake a painting 
or scenic decoration was extended, skilfully painted and arranged, 
representing London before the fire of 1666. It was not easy to 
distinguish where to draw the line between the real scenery and 
the canvass, for a bridge was really thrown over the water, repre- 
senting the old London Bridge of that time; the tower, the old 
cathedral of St. Paul, Winchester Palace, and the Globe Theatre 
were really there ; and it was easy, by the aid of printed descriptions, 
to discover several points in ancient London. In the evening the 
great fire is here represented, and I can well imagine that by proper 
arrangement, a very powerful effect may be produced. Every 
year, or every two years, a new piece is exhibited, and thus art, 
in addition to the wild beasts, helps to increase the profits of the 
shareholders. 

We drove now further and further towards the more remote dis- 
stricts of the city; the coachman, although undoubtedly well ac- 
quainted with the town, was several times at fault; sometimes the 
pavement ceased altogether, and instead of houses, we saw huts 
surrounded with gardens : in short we appeared to be in the most re- 
mote part of England, instead of London. This was on our way to 
the most gigantic work of modern London, the Tunnel. At last we 
arrived at the entrance, leading from the left bank down under the bed 
of the river; as yet, however, no carriage can penetrate these depths, 
but foot passengers only are admitted, on payment of a small sum, 
and are allowed to pass through. In order to be able to lay down 
a carriage road, much more ground would have to be bought, and 
the present owners demand enormous prices ; so that the matter is 

h2 



100 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

as yet to be left alone. It is easily seen, indeed, from the very 
gradual development of those parts of London which the Tunnel 
was intended to connect, that this enormous work is of little use, 
except to prove the determination of the English spirit in carrying 
out any idea once started. Should London ever become as populous 
in this part as it is more west, it will not only be necessary to 
make it passable for carriages, but a new tunnel must be built — per- 
haps even a railway tunnel. 

It was particularly interesting to me that Mr. Brunei himself 
was present, in order to show his majesty his plans of the work, 
and to explain by what means (vaulted shields, sacks covered 
with tar, and artificial layers of clay) he was enabled to protect 
this double arch of 1300 feet long, twenty feet high, and thirty- 
five broad (each arch being fourteen feet across) against the 
Thames, here broad and deep enough to carry merchant vessels. 
Brunei's physiognomy is characteristic; his figure is short and 
rough, the form of his head broad, with a large development in the 
forehead and back part of the skull. 

The conclusion of this productive day's work was to be the exami- 
nation of a large brewery, and that of Barclay and Perkins had been 
fixed upon. I was well aware that every thing here was on a co- 
lossal scale, and yet the reality far exceeded my expectations ; this 
brewery is in itself a small town, containing several courts and streets, 
with large and small buildings. We were first conducted to the store- 
rooms, in which the enormous stores of malt are kept. The brew- 
ery requires yearly 112,000 quarters, i. e. as a quarter contains two 
sacks, 224,000 sacks, of malt; it is easy to conceive, therefore, that 
the store of this material must be enormous. There were thirty- 
six large cases, reaching through a couple of stories, out of which 
the malt could be immediately conveyed according as it was 
wanted, by means of a sliding door; each of these cases contained 
1000 quarters, or 2000 sacks, so that the whole store was worth 
about 180,0007. We were next shown the immense malting ap- 
paratus, where the moistened barley is freed from the husks by 
rollers driven by steam power; the grains are afterwards dried and 
browned for making porter, and then laid up for use in these large 
cases. Next came the mills, also worked by steam power, in which 
the malt is corned, and finally the enormous vats, in which the 
malt and hops are boiled. The wort flows from these by means of 
a very ingenious system of pipes, into the cooling-pans, and from 
thence into the enormous tuns, where it is mixed with yeast, and 
where fermentation takes place; and at length into the really enor- 
mous vats, of which there are one hundred and fifty. The smaller 
ones contain each 3600 barrels, each of thirty-six gallons; the larger 
ones reach from the ground to the roof of a considerable sized 
house. At the upper end there is a passage crossing these im- 
mense vats, one of which measured fifteen paces in diameter; and 
I could now understand what I had sometimes read, that when 



LEAVEN BLADDERS. 101 

such a Gargantua's cask bursts, a sort of inundation in trie neigh- 
bouring streets is the consequence. The value of the contents of 
one of these vats is about 3500/. 

The brewery employs constantly 300 men, and 180 horses. The 
latter are of a particular breed, of very large size, in order to be able 
to draw the two-wheeled drays used to convey the casks of beer 
about the town. They are brought from Lincolnshire, and cost 
from 60/. to 70/. It was quite reasonable that at the conclusion 
of all these observations, we should pro studio et labore be conducted 
into one of the offices, in order to taste the ale and the porter. 
They were both excellent. The porter is of a heavy, solid, and 
sombre character; the ale, on the other hand, was handed round in 
Champagne glasses, and contains in its clear light brown waves a 
strong intoxicating spirit. 

If I were to make a remark in conclusion, it would be this: 
— what a number of things the human mind can produce and 
originate ignorantly and unconsciously, so that at the end exactly 
the same effect is produced as if he had all along known what 
this result would be. Thus, for example, these men direct the 
preparation and fermentation of these pleasant and nourishing 
drinks, and do not at all know that by this means they give rise 
to a process of microscopic vegetation, and cultivate one of the most 
remarkable formations of plants. It has, indeed, only been known 
for a few years among scientific men, that yeast consists of an in- 
finite number of the most minute semina, and that fermentation is 
nothing but an organic conversion of a liquid, which conversion goes 
on at the same rate if left to take its natural course, and is deter- 
mined by an increase of the original bubbles, and by a development 
of plants, which again form fresh semina, or bubbles, being the yeast 
produced by the fermentation. The beer probably would not be 
better if the brewer understood all this; but it is different with the 
spirit, which is only to be satisfied with the principles of any phe- 
nomenon, and which increases by increased knowledge. 

Several useful applications, too, might be made of this theory ! 
This evening we again dined early, and the court drove, at eight 
o'clock, to the Philharmonic Concert, under the direction of Men- 
delssohn. The concert-room might be called small for London, and 
is not richly decorated. There were reserved seats for the court in 
front of the orchestra, covered with scarlet drapery. The orchestra 
seemed to be kept together principally by the skill of the conductor, 
for the several members of it did not seem to possess any great talent, 
in consequence, probably, of the want of musical taste among the 
English; more interest seems, however, to have been excited for 
these concerts by the exertions of Prince Albert and the Duke of 
Cambridge. A symphony of Beethoven's and some beautiful pas- 
sages from the " Midsummer Night's Dream," afforded me in this 
life of commotion an agreeable rest for the mind ; and I had also the 
•pleasure of saluting the author of this " Midsummer Night's" music 



102 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

myself, when during the pause lie entered the royal box, situated 
close to the concert- room, by command of his majesty, by whom he 
was most graciously received. 



XXII. 

London, June 11th — Evening. 

Early this morning a rendezvous with Professor Owen, at the 
College of Surgeons, on all sorts of Anatomica. I availed myself of 
the occasion to measure the proportions of the head of this English 
Cuvier for my craniological tables. I have never yet measured the 
head of any truly distinguished artist, scholar, or diplomatist, with- 
out having found its proportions in general favourable, and in the 
forehead especially, preponderating dimensions. So it was in this 
case, and in addition to a good head, the peculiar structure might be 
adduced as a proof of the correctness of physiological cranioscopy. 

On my return I passed through Covent Garden market, the chief 
place for the sale of fruit and vegetables of all descriptions. Here 
there is a kind of covered bazaar, where there is stand upon stand in 
long rows, on which an endless variety of the finest vegetable productions 
are beautifully arranged. The masses of magnificent strawberries, the 
neat bundles of asparagus, and baskets full of the most various vege- 
tables, looked very inviting. Among other things the market was 
well stocked with the young stalks of rhubarb, which are regarded 
as great delicacies, and used to flavour soups, in consequence of their 
lemon-acid flavour. There, too, were to be seen what would be re- 
garded as something very unusual in our markets, large baskets full 
of oranges, and hampers of cocoa-nuts, much esteemed for their 
kernel and the sweet fluid which they contain. And, finally, there 
were numbers of baskets filled with unripe fruit for sale, particularly 
employed for a kind of pastry much used in desserts, and called 
tarts. There was no lack of the beautiful mixed up with the 
useful — whole stands full of the choicest flowers, and especially in the 
form of elegant bouquets, charmingly arranged and bound together 
by pretty cases made of ornamental white paper, furnishing every 
dandy with the most suitable morning offering to the mistress of his 
heart. 

I was obliged, however, to hasten back to the palace, in order to 
accompany his majesty in his extensive excursions through London. 
Our first object was the Baker-street bazaar. In extent the place is 
enormous, and a multitude of articles of the most various descrip- 
tions are here exposed for sale in several large buildings; among other 
things there are long galleries full of carriages, many second-hand, 
sent here by their proprietors to be disposed of. On the whole, 
however, it is deficient in the ornamental, multifarious, and varie- 



MR. hope's collection. 103 

gated appearance, which is so interesting and makes such an agree- 
able impression in the Oxford-street bazaar. 

From Baker-street we proceeded to the Zoological Gardens in 
the Regent's-park, and I had great pleasure in seeing for the second 
time this choice collection of the varieties of animal life, and observed, 
too, several which had before escaped my attention. 

The third object of curiosity was the house of Mr. Hope, son of 
that rich banker who laid the foundation of Thorwaldsen's reputation 
by a great expenditure. The father has been long dead, and his 
widow married Lord Beresford as her second husband ; the son is 
unmarried, and occupies this large and singular house quite alone. 
Curious enough, the late Mr. Hope, in the erection of this house, 
wished to furnish an imitation of the ancient Greek style of archi- 
tecture. It therefore appears from without dark and unadorned, 
whilst within it is decorated with columns, and the rooms and cham- 
bers are either lighted from the interior court, which is not indeed 
very clear, or from the top. The house contains a considerable 
collection of vases, and in the state rooms are some paintings, which 
are called masterpieces of the Italian painters, but which, however, 
have for the most part been baptised without conscientious god- 
fathers. Among the sculptures, I was most interested with that first 
and greatest of Thorwaldsen's works, the " Jason." The treatment of 
the marble itself is very beautiful, and it was remarkable to observe 
the struggle between the high artistical conception and the poor, 
dry compliance of nature. The latter was visible in the execution 
of the limbs. In the back and head the hard material had been 
more yielding under the hand of the artist. 

In the neighbouring small but richly adorned chambers I was 
struck with several paintings in oil, executed by Daniel, the author 
and illustrator of the great work upon India. The wonderful pa- 
godas, temples, and walls of Delhi, and other places, are represented 
in a somewhat broad, theatrical style, but rare, and by no means un- 
interesting. Finally, we came to a collection of pictures of the 
Dutch and Flemish schools, and here, indeed, are pieces of admirable 
beauty and distinguished excellence. I would especially name a 
picture by Van der Heist, representing the apprehension of Cornelius 
de Witt; the figures, it is true, are small, only about one-fourth the 
size of life, but are brought out nobly by the bold and skilful hand 
of the painter. We were next extremely amused by the wit and 
character displayed in an oyster feast, painted by Johann Steen. 
And further I was delighted with the picture of an old warrior just 
emptying his wine-glass, whilst standing over him, a trumpeter is 
blowing a vigorous blast from a silver trumpet, adorned with a blue 
flag richly embroidered. There are also some beautiful sea-pieces by 
Van der Velde, and by Adrian Van der Velde the large picture 
from nature of a sunny farm-yard with cattle, in which the glittering 
of the leaves in the sun-light, the play of the shadows of the trees 
upon the wooden walls of the yard, and the lying and standing 



104 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

cattle, upon the grass and in the water, are all splendidly delineated. 
The most perfect of all, however, is, perhaps, a picture by Cuyp, re- 
presenting cattle lying down in water. The brilliancy in the sunny 
air — the calm of the wide ponds — the transparent shadows and bright 
lights upon the reposing animals — fortunate may the collector 
esteem himself who has such a treasure in his gallery. 

Before returning home, it was his majesty's pleasure still to visit 
one of those large club-houses, which constitute a peculiar feature 
in London life. These club-houses are generally said to be a thorn 
in the eye of the London ladies, as they furnish so many compen- 
sations for the pleasures of domestic life, that a great number of 
men prefer remaining unmarried. A member of such a club enjoys 
every convenience for conducting his correspondence, books to 
read or consult, newspapers of all kinds, and meals at very mode- 
rate prices, so that in fact, he needs little more than a simple 
dwelling, more for the night than for the day. The club which 
we visited was that called the United Service Club; a house at 
which the higher officers both of the army and navy, in service or 
out of service, regularly meet. This club-house is beautifully 
situated in Waterloo-place, and consists of a splendid building, 
with large reading, conversation, library, and dining rooms; the 
chief staircase is adorned with statues and pictures, and the house 
contains an extremely luxurious kitchen, where, behind a polished 
fire-screen full eight feet high, and before a powerful coal fire, all 
manner of roasts, placed upon perpendicular spits, turned by me- 
chanism, send forth the odour of their ripeness for the hungry 
palate. The cost on admission is 30/. sterling, and the annual 
subscription 61. The great heroes of the army and navy, Wel- 
lington and Nelson, adorn the stairs in portraits as large as life; 
and close by Nelson there is placed a very large picture of the 
Battle of Trafalgar, executed by Clarkson Stanfield. We here 
observed the Victor?/, which we had visited at Portsmouth, in 
all her majesty. 

In the afternoon, the British Museum was to be visited. Before, 
however, we set out on this expedition, I received a visit in my 
quiet room from Prince Albert, that young and amiable prince, 
who was led to me by the interest which he takes in the science of 
nature, in order to see, under the microscope, the mysterious pro- 
ductions, previously spoken of, called leaven bladders. The exhi- 
bition was very successful — the view of the process complete — and 
the lively interest taken by him in this remarkable discovery, is a 
proof to me, that science and its promoters in England, will infalli- 
bly be much indebted to the attention and zeal of his royal highness 
for the promotion of knowledge. 

On this occasion in the Museum, we commenced with the splendid 
library, which I had not seen on my previous visit. The riches 
of these rooms in works of splendour and rarity, especially in 
Greek MSS. and Egyptian papyri, are well known to those ac- 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 105 

quainted with sucli subjects; but in a hasty review, it was impos- 
sible to dwell on such things. We therefore immediately turned 
to the antiques — and first to the Egyptian, which I was now 
able to examine somewhat more in detail. What is very remark- 
able, is, that many of these most ancient monuments have been the 
trophies of very recent victories. They constituted a part of the 
large collections made in Egypt by the French savans, and fell into 
the hands of the English on the capitulation of Alexandria, in 1801, 
as a part of the spoils of war. Among them is the celebrated 
Rosetta stone, the most important key to the art of interpreting 
hieroglyphics which it has fallen to the lot of the present age to 
discover. This stone contains a eulogy on the services of Pto- 
lemy, engraved in the hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek lan- 
guages. It is now preserved with reverence in the British Mu- 
seum, along with the tablet of Abydos, which contains the list of the 
succession of Egyptian kings. All the same thoughts which 
had been formerly suggested to my mind, on the view of these 
remnants of Egyptian greatness, again came fresh upon me ! — 
thoughts on the rigid immovable dimensions of these works of 
art, made as it were for eternity. And yet it was again as clear to 
me as ever, that nothing made by human skill, can indeed with- 
stand the consuming power of time; the power of the soul alone 
remains untouched. My ej^es to-day were again involuntarily 
attracted to these massive ruins — those colossal heads, broken from 
their trunks — those giant hands sundered from their bodies — those 
Sphinxes maimed of their proportions. Amongst them lay a huge 
Scarabreus, but nothing appeared to be so well preserved, almost 
uninjured, and distinct in their hieroglyphical inscriptions, as the 
resting-places of the dead, the immense granite sarcophagi. 

It is very remarkable to observe the strict adherence to the one 
great and severe style pervading all, down to the smallest portions 
of these broken statues. The shadow of doubt never could arise 
in the mind, whether a single finger, or any other fragment, how 
minute soever, might not possibly be the production of Grecian art. 
The Egyptian character is stamped indelibly on all, and it is always 
the same, whether it be contemplated here in the small hieroglyphic 
figures of an animal or a sarcophagus ; or in the representation of 
the immense head of Rameses III., fully five feet broad, placed in 
the wall over the entrance. 

The Lycian monuments, too, which have been recently added 
to these collections, furnished materials for consideration. They 
contain bas-reliefs, representing the demolition of a city, and eight 
single statues, all brought from the ancient Xanthus in Lycia. The 
delineations are somewhat rude, but by no means deficient in lively 
imagination; near these are the wonderful specimens of architec- 
tural remains. They exhibit a singular half Persian, half Egyptian 
style, and already mixed with Christian symbols. A lofty tomb is 
especially remarkable; an angel is represented, in its flat bas-relief, 



106 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

with a palm branch in his hand, as conducting the soul, which is re- 
presented under a very odd form. These things invite to questions 
of peculiar study and research; but they are such as would, at least, 
be always more interesting to the historian than the artist. 

Now, however, to the Greeks, to whom the mind must always 
turn, when engaged in the search after what is artistically perfect. 
True, indeed, the figures of the Parthenon again powerfully at- 
tracted our attention; but the variety of objects to be examined, 
necessarily compelled us to bestow much of our time upon other 
objects of art or curiosity. Among the Grecian antiques, 1 was 
most struck with a Venus, draped from the hips downwards, very 
closely resembling the Venus of Melos. This statue was found in 
the baths of Claudius, at Ostia, and still exhibits all the perfec- 
tion of Grecian art in the highest degree. The bearing and 
beauty of the figure reminded me somewhat of the Venus of Aries. 
The collection contains a number of large and beautiful vases, 
adorned with Bacchanalian figures, splendid candelabra and frag- 
ments of columns; some beautiful terminal statues of Mercury, and a 
great number of other busts and statues of great merit. The 
small works belonging to antiquity, are preserved in the upper 
rooms, consisting of bronzes, small vases, ornaments, and the like. 
These rooms also would furnish subjects of examination for weeks. 
I can only attempt to notice or record the most remarkable. To 
this class especially belongs the curious glass vessel, known under 
the name of the Portland Vase, and found near Rome, about the 
middle of the sixteenth century, in a marble sarcophagus. The 
height of the vase is not much more than a foot; the material, a 
beautiful dark blue glass, adorned with reliefs of a milk white 
vitreous substance. The manner in which these reliefs have been 
attached to the substratum is a question, which has given rise to much 
discussion among archaeologists. The work very much resembles 
that of the carved Roman cameos, in which the white mass of the 
shell is allowed to stand upon a yellowish ground, and it appears to 
me most probable, that in the case of this vase also, the white 
reliefs are artificially cut out from a mass of white glass matter upon 
the surface. We were further charmed with the examination of 
many rich golden diadems, and splendid bronze pieces of armour, 
formerly gilded, the exceedingly beautiful reliefs of which have 
been copied by Bronstedt (these were considered for some time as 
portions of the golden armour of Pyrrhus) : and to these must be 
added a highly interesting collection of cut stones and coins. 

The museum also contains much relating to the arts of the middle 
ages; as, for example, a small rich wood carving ascribed to Al- 
bert Durer, and several of those pieces of Martin Finiguerra, en- 
graven on metal lids, which are often regarded as the commence- 
ment of the art of copper-plate engraving, because they certainly 
give a very good impression upon paper. These were followed by 
the view of the great Hamiltonian collection of vases; and, finally, 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 107 

the treasures of small Greek and Roman bronzes and terra cottas, 
and the Egyptian antiquities, arranged in a suite of rooms. The last 
consists of furniture, ornaments, papyrus, &c. &c. The most curious 
article among those was an extremely well-preserved wig, made of 
strong brown and black hair. Whatever priest or prince of Egypt 
may have been the proprietor, it must have served to give him a 
very singular appearance. 

We next proceeded to the departments of natural history, and in 
the first of these, the rnineralogical and geological department, I found 
an opportunity of making the acquaintance of the meritorious 
curator, Herr Konig — a German. He explained to us his plan for 
the exhibition of the whole collection; of which, however, a great 
part is not yet arranged, among which may be mentioned that of fossil 
fish. The Amphibia commence in the order of the subject, with 
the Salamander tribe, among which there is to be seen an im- 
pression of the head and spine of that colossal primitive sala- 
mander, which the old Swiss naturalist, Scheuchzer, regarded as a 
fossil human being, and has given as an evidence of the existence 
of the human species at the period of the earliest conditions of 
the earth. These were folloA^ed by the land and marsh Amphibia, 
such as the Teleosauri, Geosauri, Iguanodon, or gigantic crocodiles, 
found under Tilgate Forest, in Sussex; and the winged Amphibia 
(pterodactylus); and, finally, the marine Amphibia (enaliosauria), 
which are particularly represented in the different species of Ple- 
siosauri and Ichthyosauri, the most splendid specimens of which 
have been found on the sea-coast, near Lyme Regis. Our attention 
was especially directed to an immense spinal column of an Ichthyo- 
saurus, quite detached, more than twenty feet long. 

The cases for the meteoric iron and stones, contain also very in- 
teresting specimens. The largest is a piece of iron, a part of the ce- 
lebrated mass of Otumpa, described by Don Rubin de Celis, which 
was estimated, in all, at fifteen tons' weight. The portion in the 
museum weighs 1400 pounds. Among these meteoric stones, is 
that historically remarkable one which fell from the air at Ensis- 
heim, during the battle of the (at a later period) Emperor Maximilian 
against the French. It weighs 270 pounds. The rest are chiefly 
remarkable from having fallen in places beyond the limits of Eu- 
rope, in the East Indies, Africa, America, &c. 

The rnineralogical collection, properly so called, could only be 
cursorily viewed. Among the very remarkable things here, is a 
small slab in the form of a table, presented by the Duke of Rutland, 
and singular, especially, on account of its very recent formation. 
In the lead mines belonging to the duke, in Derbyshire, there was 
found a stalagmite deposit of coloured calcareous concrete, inside an 
old water-pipe, which, when cut and polished, presented this very 
beautiful wavy, yellow-brown marble. Attempts are now said to 
be made to produce this marble by artificial arrangements made 
expressly for the purpose. 



108 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

There still remained the zoological and botanical departments of 
this Museum Universum, which is called the British Museum; and 
in order just to have a glance at the whole, we walked through 
these also. Mr. Gray, who is the curator of the former department, 
made the kindest offers for affording me every opportunity of ex- 
amining the collection more closely, and which, if I had been able 
to devote the necessary time to the subject, would have been very 
agreeable to me. We chiefly cast our eyes around among the 
legions of birds, and our attention was directed to a claw of that 
rare, extinct bird, the Dodo (clidus inaptus), as well as to the very 
remarkable play-ground nests of the P tilonorhynchus nuchalis, 
found by Mr. Gould, and placed in the museum. These extra- 
ordinary birds, observed by this gentleman in New Holland, belong 
to the family of the Lanii (stranglers), are about the size of a black- 
bird, and are called by the English satin-birds. They build their 
nests in trees; but in addition to this, they build also upon the 
ground a kind of play-ground, made of small twigs, in the form of 
a little bower, about a foot high. In this little bower, they amuse 
themselves by running about, adorn it with shells, which they drag 
thither for the purpose, and make even a kind of pavement with 
flat smooth stones; and it often happens that things which have 
been accidentally lost, such as knives, spoons, &c, are found in 
these structures. This little edifice is remarkably well preserved, 
and interested me very much, as a proof and example of a very high 
degree of structural instinct, of very rare occurrence to such an 
extent among animals. The collection of quadrupeds, fish, am- 
phibia, shells, and insects, is also of immense extent. 

The botanical department is under the celebrated Sir Robert 
Brown, with whom I had the pleasure of a previous acquaintance, 
and contains a vast mass of valuable treasures. It was, of course, 
quite impossible to cast even a glance into the extensive Herbaria, 
from all parts of the world; but we found leisure to look over several 
large volumes, full of beautiful drawings of rare Orchidea2; and the 
carpological collection furnished us with a sight of an immense 
variety of seeds and fruits. It was to me a matter of singular inte- 
rest, to have some conversation with the celebrated curator, respecting 
the vegetative power of the seeds and grains of corn taken from the 
Egyptian tombs. He alleged, that in all his numerous microscopical 
examinations of such grains, thousands of years old, he had always 
found the innermost germ completely dried up, and directly denied 
the fact of their vegetative power. Nothing, indeed, is thereby 
proved; but the matter deserves renewed consideration. The stem 
of a Brazilian fern hung up in the room, which had all the charac- 
teristics of a tree, is well calculated to give some idea of the mag- 
nificence of South American vegetation. It has a close resemblance 
to the stem of a moderate-sized pine. 

After this cursory glance, we left the Museum, in which hu- 
man knowledge is represented in a richness of objects, which, 



WHITEHALL. 109 

perhaps, might be still more advantageously disposed in separate 
collections. 

On our return to Buckingham Palace, we paid a hasty visit to all 
that remains of the old royal palace of Whitehall — the banqueting 
and death-house of English kings. In the time of Henry VIII. , 
Whitehall belonged to Cardinal Wolsey, as Archbishop of York. 
After his death, the king took it for his own residence, so that it 
continued to be used as a royal palace, till the chief part of it was 
burned down in 1695. The present palace of Whitehall is the 
whole which was saved from the flames. This portion constituted 
the banqueting-house, and was added to the original structure by 
James I. It was from a window of this hall of revelling that the 
unfortunate Charles I. was obliged to mount the scaffold, in the 
year 1649. From this time its appropriation as a banqueting-house 
ceased — and, as it were, to compensate for the bitter irony which 
had changed the very banqueting-hall into a bloody scaffold — the 
great ball-room was afterwards converted into a church. In the 
entrance to the palace we saw a great variety of ground plans and 
drawings of the former arrangements of the extensive buildings and 
gardens of the ancient palace; at present there is nothing what- 
ever to be seen in the building, except an empty palace built in the 
usual florid Italian style, whose so called church even is not calcu- 
lated of itself to make any sacred impression on the mind (for it 
is still an almost unaltered ball-room), but the place produces a pecu- 
liar effect from the recollection of the dreadful event of which it 
was once the scene. The paintings on the roof, which are said to be 
by Rubens, but no doubt for the most part executed by his pupils, 
contain the " Apotheosis of James I.," and although this makes a 
singular enough impression in connexion with a Christian church, 
it however adds a peculiar feature to the whole, when one thinks 
that the painted apotheosis of the father was formerly made a wit- 
ness to the actual execution of the son. 

After dinner, at nine o'clock, his majesty went to the opera to 
see the second act of " Lucia de Lammermoor." Persiani had the 
chief part, — a very skilful singer, but far less pretty than Grisi, 
and ungraceful in her action. The opera was followed by a ballet, 
" Undine," insignificant in invention and arrangement, and brought 
out with bad decorations. The great object of attraction was the 
moonlight dance, performed by Cerito towards the end, in 
which she has here raised such a furor, that on one occasion, 
when this dance was omitted, it gave rise almost to a riot in the 
theatre, which was only put an end to, or rather turned into laughter, 
by an Italian presenting himself to the audience to lull the storm, 
and addressing the public in bad French in the following sin- 
gular manner: — " Messieurs et mesdames, un accident est arrive a 
la machine de la lune." This moonshine was produced somewhat 
in a similar manner as in the hydro-oxygen gas microscope; the 
light was made to fall upon a milk-white glass, and certainly pro- 



110 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

duced all the effect of the clearest moonshine. In this light Cerito 
danced — coquetting with her shadow just as a young girl would 
do with her reflection in a looking-glass — bending herself down as 
she would embrace it, and then apparently flying from it again, and 
executing a hundred such fooleries, which, however, were all per- 
formed with admirable grace — called forth bursts of applause — and 
were very agreeable to see. Without waiting for the end of the 
ballet, we took our departure after this moonlight scene, and went 
home, but without any real moonlight in the sky. 



XXIII. 

London, June 12th — Evening. 
This day being wholly at my disposal for my own objects, I 
availed myself of the early hours to drive to the house of Mr. Gould, 
to whose ornithological collections my attention had been directed 
yesterday, for the second time, in the British Museum. I found 
him residing in a small but very elegant and agreeably furnished 
house, and had reason to be much pleased with a very kind recep- 
tion. It may be very truly said that he has done for the birds of 
Australia what Audubon has done for those of America. His 
work on " Australian birds" is admirable for its drawings, and full 
in its text, and contains also drawings of many beautiful Australian 
plants. What treasures had he not to communicate ! He even 
showed me some beautiful living birds from New Holland. One was 
a very small but most charming parrot, with a green and brown 
plumage — the melopsittacus undulatus — and Gould mentioned as 
an Australian peculiarity — for every thing there is usually so — 
that many of the parrots of New Holland are agreeable songsters — 
of which, however, those earlier known gave no intimation. Then 
he showed me an extraordinary rich collection of eggs and nests, 
and what was not capable of being preserved in natura, was care- 
fully delineated in oil paintings and accurate drawings. Thus I 
found with him a very well-executed oil painting of the play- 
ground of the satin bird, called by him chlamydera nuchah's, which 
was accompanied with a representation of the dark-plumaged 
builder himself. The drawings of the brood hills formed by the 
leipoa and melapodius belonging to the class of brush turkey, ap- 
peared to me very remarkable. They furnished the most singular 
peculiarities respecting their mode of life. The leipoa ocellata, a 
dark-coloured bird of the size of a grouse, heaps up a great mound 
of earth and sand to the height of from three to four feet. On the 
top the bird makes a hollow, in which the female lays eight very 
large eggs, and then the hollow is completely filled up with leaves, 
moss, and mould. The eggs are now committed to the process of 



PROFESSOR FARADAY. Ill 

nature — left to be Hatched by the warmth of the sun — and the 
young, which are very large, no sooner burst the shell, than with 
their strong feet they scratch an outlet for themselves through the 
leafy covering, and make their way to the light of day, and from 
that moment forward provide for themselves. In the case of the 
mela-podius tumulus the hillock often reaches six feet in height. In 
most cases birds are regarded as patterns of care for their young, 
but these afford an example of complete indifference and forgetful- 
ness. 

This zealous collector has not confined his attention to the birds 
of Australia alone. A short time ago he received several new 
species of the kangaroo, and of the pretty little marsupise — the 
tarsipus rostratus with its thread-shape echidna-tongue, and only 
two sharp fore teeth in the under jaw, and the chair opus with small 
claws and feet, almost like those of a jerboa. Natural history will 
no doubt be greatly enriched by the labours of this most industrious 
collector. 

From Mr. Gould's I drove to St. George's Hospital, which is 
a handsome building, admirably situated at Hyde-park corner, 
and contains a considerable anatomical collection. This institution 
is also the produce of voluntary contributions, and was rebuilt in its 
present form and dimensions about sixteen years ago. The arrange- 
ment of the wards and the care of the patients, are precisely the 
same as in St. Bartholomew's. We ascended to the flat roof, and, 
on a beautiful sunny day, I enjoyed from this elevated position a 
rich and interesting view of all that part of London which lay with- 
in the scope of my vision. Not long since, one of the nurses threw 
herself from the top on which we stood. Near the hospital is 
the anatomical school of Mr. Lane. Anatomical preparations of 
the most various kinds were heaped together in his collection; and 
Mr. Lane, on his own account, undisturbed by the government, 
which pays little attention to such things, gives instructions to 
students, who then visit the hospitals and become physicians, or at 
least apothecaries, who here, as is well known, practise medicine 
in spite of the physicians. This must be regarded as one of the 
excrescences of English freedom. 

I had now several medical consultations to attend, and with diffi- 
culty afterwards found time to pay a visit to the celebrated chemist 
Faraday, to whom we also in Germany are so much indebted. I 
found in him a man of vigorous frame, of middle size, and a form 
of head rather broad than long, corresponding to his knowledge. 
He received me with urbanity and kindness. He resides in the 
Royal Institution — an institution which was founded by Count 
Rumford in 1800 — in which Sir Humphry Davy lectured and 
made his most important discoveries. Faraday also lectures here, 
and accompanies his instructions with the necessary experiments 
in the physical sciences. He received me in the room appro- 
priated to a mineralogical and geological cabinet, which contains 



112 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

a well-arranged collection and some remarkable fossils. It is also 
furnished with what ought to be much more attended to in such 
collections, several oil paintings — views of places geologically re- 
markable (the artists indeed might have been better), of singular 
formation of trapps, great coal strata, remarkable chalk rocks, &c. 
The idea of a physiognomy of mountains has here also taken root. 

I was also anxious to see one of the benevolent institutions for the 
reception of pregnant women, and drove at leisure to the Lying-in- 
Hospital in the City-road. The fundamental law of this and of similar 
institutions is to receive only poor married women, but however the 
rule may agree with that kind of Christian feeling, from which these 
institutions have originated, it is certain, also, that the conse- 
quence is the deprivation of every place of refuge, inflicted upon 
those unfortunate persons who are unmarried, the entailing of im- 
mense misery, and the sure means of producing horrible crimes 
of another description, which it appears to me it would be much 
more Christian to prevent, than to adhere to this fixed principle. 
With the exception of this constitutional fault, the institution de- 
serves the highest commendation, and the appearance of the rooms, 
corridors, and garden, all gave me the impression of a domestic ar- 
rangement much more than that of a hospital. The results, too, speak 
for themselves; for of 590 poor women who were confined in the 
institution during the year 1840 only six died. A matron presides 
over the establishment, and the whole of the necessary nursing and 
attendance is given by women. Dr. Clark, who is the physician to 
the institution, is very rarely called in. As far as it is possible the 
women are received about forty-eight hours before their confinement, 
on the recommendation of governors, and showing a certificate of 
their marriage, and remain three weeks after, during which time all 
the care, attendance, and food, are given without cost, except that, 
what appeared to me very characteristic of English life, each person 
is required to provide her own tea and sugar. Thirty-five thousand, 
four hundred and seventy-four children were born in this institution 
from the year 1750 to the close of the year 1840. 

On my return I prepared to visit another of the great lunatic 
asylums of London — St. Luke's Hospital. It is situated in Old- 
street-road, and outwardly has all the appearance of a fortress, sur- 
rounded by a ditch, and with a bridge to approach the door; it is 
also said that the old system of force and chains prevails here.* 
Whilst we remained in the entrance-hall, the physician who accom- 
panied me tried in vain to induce the apothecary who received us, 
to allow us to inspect the hospital. " Only allowed on a written 
authority from the governors," was the only reply; and as I had 
omitted to furnish myself with such a permission, we were obliged 

* This information of my conductor does not, however, correspond with the 
" Report on the Treatment of Lunatics" in the " Quarterly Review," for October, 
1844, in which it is said " St. Luke's Hospital was found in abetter state than 
Bedlam." 



lord wilton's soik£e. 113 

*to retire, regarding this unkind reception as giving no very favour- 
able impression of the mode of treatment pursued. At some 
distance from St. Luke's stands the House of Correction, built about 
fifty years ago, on Howard's plan. Its outward appearance exhibits 
none of the traces of the humane Howard, but gives the passers 
by the impression of a terrible fortress, with its spiked walls, and 
chains, and iron bars, and therefore, among the people, it goes by 
the name of the Bastille. I did not see the interior. 

After all this, after passing through so many cross streets and 
lanes, I found myself again at sunset in my own quiet chamber in 
Buckingham Palace. The windows were open before my writing- 
table, and I rejoiced in the rural calm among the trees in the 
gardens; every thing felt as if one was altogether remote from a 
city, and especially from such a one as London. As I looked again, 
the idea was more and more realised by the appearance of a 
fawn feeding upon the grass which sprouted up under the walls close 
to my window ! It is only the possibility of finding such a buen 
Tetiro in many places of this vast city, which could make its noise 
and hurry at all endurable ! 

I was not, however, permitted even here long to indulge in these 
solitary reflections, for his majesty was about to proceed to a grand 
dinner at Lord Wilton's, from whom he had received an invitation. 
We drove thither, and in the evening there was not merely a large 
soiree, but also a ball, which detained me till late in the night, as a 
spectator only it is true, but as a spectator whose time was fully and 
agreeably occupied in the contemplation of the very beautiful heads 
which passed in review before him. I cannot omit mentioning the 
impression left upon me by the Marchioness of Douro, the daughter- 
in-law of the Duke of Wellington. Her head is of great beauty, 
and when seen in profile worthy of the goddess Juno. 



XXIV. 

London, June 13th — Evening. 

This morning his royal highness Prince Albert honoured me 
with a visit for the second time, in order to examine some of 
Ehrenberg's microscopic discoveries respecting fossil Infusoria, 
which were observed with peculiar interest. Soon afterwards we 
set out for a drive to Richmond-park and to Kew, whither his 
majesty had been invited by the Duke of Cambridge. 

At the extremity of the suburbs, we arrived at a very ornamental 
suspension bridge, which crosses the Thames, here rather dimi- 
nished in width, and to our surprise, almost immediately on leaving 
the town, came upon an extensive waste common, covered with 
thistle and broom. Were not England the country of so many 

I 



1 14 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

striking contrasts, the appearance of such a waste so close to so 
large a city as London, would be still more difficult to explain; in 
this case, it is said to arise from circumstances connected with 
jurisdiction. The day was again dry and beautiful; the roads 
covered with dust, and hitherto I might say in general, that I had in 
vain sought for this foggy, gloomy, rainy, smoky London, concern- 
ing which I had read and heard so many descriptions. This spring 
and summer, however, are said to be remarkable exceptions. After 
a short drive we reached Richmond-park, with its beautiful mea- 
dows and magnificent oaks. It makes a delightful impression after 
the noise and dust of the city and streets. The hills in this neigh- 
bourhood rise progressively; we alighted on Richmond-hill to view 
the prospect, which, among the English, is greatly admired for the 
extent and beauty of the landscape which it presents, and has 
furnished a theme for many poets, and been especially celebrated 
by Thomson, who formerly resided there. The whole is a view 
from a low hill, over an extensive and well-wooded country — with 
the agreeably winding Thames in the foreground, and Windsor in 
the distance. No doubt very pleasing and pretty in fine weather, 
but for the rest, nothing very extraordinary. We entered the 
town of Richmond, which is much frequented by the people of 
London in the summer; the Thames here, merely a river, runs 
at the bottom of the hill, on the declivity of which the town is 
built. This stream suggested to me many reflections; when I 
remembered, that only a few miles further on its course, below 
London-bridge, it is covered with thousands of large merchant 
ships; and that, in this manner, it passes all at once by its mar- 
riage with an arm of the sea from the simplicity of childhood 
to an historical personage of universal celebrity ! Such instances, 
too, are sometimes repeated in human life ! 

We found Richmond crowded with carriages, in consequence of 
the races at Hampton Court. We drove rapidly through the town, 
and soon arrived at the residence of the Duke of Cambridge in 
Kew, where the duke and duchess received his majesty in a simple 
but elegant country-house. We soon proceeded to the inspection of 
the gardens, forcing-houses, and extensive park. Sir W. J. Hooker, 
formerly of Glasgow, has been recently appointed curator of 
the gardens, to preserve, increase, and describe the collection which 
it contains. I here saw a great number of interesting and partly 
new plants, such as statice macrophylla, justicia calmia, cephalotus 
follicularis, angelonia Gardenerina, and rondelatia multiflora; to 
which must be added the Daphne kgata, the inner bark of which 
is woven into a remarkable species of ruffles, and the platy cerium 
grande, a species of fern, which sends forth its fine feathered tail 
from broad, colossal, massive leaves, which closely and significantly 
resemble the form of the Marchantia. 

My attention was necessarily attracted to the Kreysigia multiflora, 
by the remembrance of my late worthy colleague Kreysig, whose 



KEW GARDENS. 115 

name it bears. As a memorial of my friend, who did not long 
survive his journey to England, I placed a small branch of this 
almost unsightly plant with its small white blossoms in my pocket- 
book. I did the same with the remarkable dammar a Australis, but 
for a very different reason ; it is the noble tree which is found in 
New Zealand, and furnishes the English with such admirable masts. 
Among the beautiful New Holland pines, I here further saw the 
dacrydium datum. This collection also contains the first specimen 
of the pines of the Cordilleras, brought to Europe from Chili, by 
Vancouver, the araucaria imbricata, the stem of which is already 
four inches in diameter. In addition to these, there are immense spe- 
cimens of the Ginko biloba growing in the open air, and beside them, 
also without protection, several fresh trees of black and green tea, 
with many other interesting plants. The forcing-houses contained 
some beautiful specimens of orchideous plants, among which the 
splendid sacco labium yuttatum, with its large pendant blood-red 
grape-like blossoms, was pre-eminent. Nor was a magnificent lofty 
palm-house wanting, made completely of iron and glass, in which a va- 
riety of beautiful palms and bamboos are protected and shown. The 
dead stem of a xantophora (also a palm) was lying near, covered with 
curious black scales, in consequence of which it has received the 
name of the black boy. The scales are resinous, and when burnt, 
emit an agreeable odour. In short, these gardens would furnish 
interesting and abundant occupation for a botanist for many days. 
During this visit, I was fortunate enough to enjoy a great deal of 
conversation with the son of Professor Hooker. Although still very 
young, he had accompanied Captain Ross, as botanist, on his expedi- 
tion to the North Pole, and is now publishing an account of the 
botanical novelties of the voyage. He had been absent four years, 
and sometimes for the space of 100 to 150 days seen no land. 
Notwithstanding the great anxieties and privations of the voyage, 
he spoke with pleasure and zeal, of the manner in which the 
crews of the two ships, by their cordiality and union, had in so 
many respects lightened the toils of the expedition; whilst the 
grandeur and strangeness of the phenomena gave them a rich 
recompense for the dangers which they encountered and their 
perseverance. 

How spacious is this park also ! — wide spreading meadows, along 
which the narrow Thames winds its course, stretch to a distance. 
We walked through small woods, past the most splendid old ches- 
nuts and limes, and met everywhere with ornamental grounds and 
gardens. Atone place, Professor Hooker directed our attention to a 
small town, called Brentford, at the other side of the Thames. It 
contains some large brandy and gin distilleries; and some idea may 
be formed of the immense scale upon which every thing is here 
measured, by the fact, that an establishment of this kind sometimes 
pays as much as 7000/. duty in a single week. 

On our return, we joined the ladies of the household at a charm- 

I 2 



116 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

ing social luncheon, after which the duke took his departure for 
London, to attend the House of Peers, whilst the duchess invited 
his majesty and suite to make a further visit to Sion House, a 
neighbouring seat belonging to the Duke of Northumberland. A 
very elegant carriage was brought to the door, the duchess took her 
seat and seized the reins of the noble steeds; a whip was handed 
to her, which was at the same time a parasol — the king seated 
himself beside her grace, and the light carriage sped quickly through 
the park. We followed in a larger carriage. On this occasion, the 
sky, which had been clear and sunny in the morning, suddenly 
became dark and lowering; heavy clouds encompassed the horizon, 
the heat became oppressive, and in Germany a severe storm would 
have been the result; here, however, where thunder storms are rare, 
there was merely a slight covering of clouds, afterwards a little rain, 
and then again a beautiful evening succeeded. 

On our drive we first passed through the small town of Brentford, 
and soon reached Sion House. A fat, well-powdered porter, clad 
in rich livery and with a three-cornered hat, stood at the entrance, 
and we soon drove to the front of this splendid mansion, whose 
corner towers and facades are surmounted with elegant turrets. The 
interior arrangements are splendid ! The floor of the great entrance- 
hall is inlaid with black and white marble, and contains several large 
antique statues ; on one side an Apollo, and on the other a beautiful 
bronze cast of the Dying Gladiator. The adjoining apartment, however, 
is the grand show-room of the house. It is surrounded by twelve 
Ionic columns and sixteen pilasters of vercle antico, which were for- 
merly purchased in Rome, said for the most part to have been fished 
up from the bed of the Tiber. The floor and walls are made of 
polished stucco, and between each pair of columns there is a marble 
statue — an imitation of some celebrated antique. This is followed by 
a suite of splendid rooms and a large library; from the house we re- 
turned to the park, in which there is a small building fitted up espe- 
cially for an observatory, and containing a large astronomical telescope. 
We walked through a portion of the grounds, and admired the luxu- 
rious vegetation, beautiful ponds, and splendid hot and green-houses. 
These houses were arranged with a degree of magnificence and 
luxury of which I had hitherto seen no example. The building re- 
sembles a palace, surrounded with the most beautiful gardens ; in the 
centre there is a cupolated building constructed of iron and glass, 
containing fan-palms, bananas, &c, in full bearing, and great varieties 
of the cactus tribe, among which a magnificent Cereus, which may have 
reached twenty-five feet in height, deserves particular mention. The 
house constitutes, in fact, a kind of artificial, primitive forest ! The 
other houses abounded in the most beautiful and luxuriant plants 
and flowers. 

The question naturally suggests itself, whether, in the midst of such 
a mass of comforts, as the air of these places breathe, where every 
wish meets with its ready and most luxurious indulgence, the mental 



mrs. Lawrence's collection. 117 

life, the productive stimulating impulse and energy of the mind is 
not likely to be lost? All that I see here and elsewhere presses this 
reflection on my mind. It is bad to possess too little, but it is per- 
haps still more dangerous to possess too much ! 

From Sion House we returned to London, proposing, however, 
on our way to visit the country house of Mr. Lawrence, in order to 
see the splendid collection of orchideous plants belonging to Mrs. 
Lawrence. The elegance of the grounds does honour to the old, 
but not always true proverb: " Galenus dat opes." The fountains 
of all descriptions, the collection of parrots and monkeys in front of 
the house, the hot and green houses, are really extraordinary, not so 
much from their outward splendour as from their interior richness. 
Especially that which contains the orcltidece! A large astrasscea 
grandiflora spreads its branches over ornamental water basins, en- 
livened by gold fish, and a lofty solandra wound its way with its 
tendrils through the more lowly caliadice, and pottros which were 
bursting into leaf; then, too, there were placed around upon old stems, 
and hung up in moss-baskets, the most splendid groups ofessidendria, 
zi/gossatelce, onciadia, and maxillaria, and at the same time a beautiful 
dendrobium in full bloom. This collection embraces a variety of 
most charming plants, not only of the greatest interest to the ama- 
teur, but to the scientific botanist. The heath house was also 
splendid, and the varieties of white, red, yellow, and green flow- 
ering heaths, greater than I had ever seen before. Mrs. Lawrence 
herself acted as our conductor,— r-did the honours of her collection, 
and refreshed her guests before their departure, almost exhausted 
as they w T ere with the view of such collections, with the most deli- 
cate ices and Champagne. 

We returned to London by a different road from that by which we 
had left it in the morning. Here, too, in all directions were new 
squares and grounds, and the most healthy structure of houses, all sur- 
rounded by their small gardens, built along wide roads, and enjoying 
the breath of pure, fresh air. Hyde-park was still full of company in 
carriages and on horseback. It, too, is ornamented by large pieces 
of water, and as accidents are of not unfrequent occurrence from 
bathing and skating, the Humane Society have established a house 
on the banks, provided with all the necessary apparatus for saving 
and recovering those whom such accidents may have befallen. 

In the evening we dined with Lord Aberdeen. The party had 
a diplomatic character, and consisted of gentlemen only. Count 
Bjornstierna here presented himself to me in person, and quite re- 
covered, to whom, before having seen him, I had by letter given ad- 
vice and pointed out means of remedy. The physician sometimes 
makes acquaintances in a singular way ! 

Dinner was soon over, and we afterwards drove to the Haymarket 
theatre, at which comedies are represented, and saw one of Buck- 
stone's pieces, called " Married Life." The people in these repre- 
sentations see themselves caricatured! These domestic scenes of 



118 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

married life, caricatures of tall Englishmen with, umbrellas, stout 
women with boas and singular bonnets, are to be seen in real life 
every day, and the people make merry and laugh at themselves. 
On the whole, that is not amiss, but the theatre, for London, was 
too bad ! The actors are not destitute of talent for such representa- 
tions, but often exaggerate and descend to vulgarities. These thea- 
tres are not well attended. 



XXV. 

Claremont, June 15th — Evening. 

To-DAY, again, a remarkable event of my journey ! I have seen 
Raphael's cartoons at Hampton Court, examined them with time and 
attention, both near, and at a distance ! — My old wish — an oppor- 
tunity of viewing and examining, at leisure, these great testimonials 
of that wonderful period of the arts — has been gratified, and I hasten, 
before every thing else, here to record the impression made upon my 
mind. 

They are hung in a long gallery, somewhat too high, and not 
well lighted. My eye was spoiled by the view of so many oil paint- 
ings previously examined, and required time to accommodate itself to 
this description of pictures. They are drawn upon strong paper with 
charcoal, shaded with brown Indian ink, and then painted with 
colours. The colours (as in a water-colour drawing) are more indi- 
cative, than perfect and bright ; much of the colour also is faded — 
especially red, probably lake — for in the picture of the " Miraculous 
Draught of Fishes," Christ appears sitting on the water in a white 
garment, whilst the dress, imperfectly reflected in the water, exhibits 
a red colour. 

For this reason, complete harmony cannot be reckoned upon, and 
if one has been long accustomed to examine finished pictures, the 
mind must be unstrung, in order not to be disturbed by such inci- 
dents, and in a condition to receive the pure impression ; and then 
the longer they are dwelt upon, the stronger will be the effect pro- 
duced. 

These cartoons, as is well known, are seven in number: "The 
Death of Ananias," " Elymas the Sorcerer," " Peter and John heal- 
ing the Lame Man at the Gate of the Temple, which is called Beau- 
tiful," " The Miraculous Draught of Fishes," " Paul and Barnabas 
at Lystra," " Paul preaching at Athens," and " Christ's Commission 
to Peter." 

We found Griiner, the copper-plate engraver, at work. He pro- 
poses to engrave the cartoons, and has already finished " Paul 
preaching at Athens," in the same size as the original, in order, 
afterwards, to reduce it for engraving and publication. In the exe- 



Raphael's caktoons. 119 

cution of his "work, he was necessarily obliged to examine the 
original near and minutely, and a scaffold was erected for his conveni- 
ence, by which we were enabled to view the originals closely, at 
least, that of " Paul preaching at Athens," and " Christ giving 
Charge and Commission to Peter." The outlines of the cartoons 
are pricked with needles (for the purpose of drawing patterns for 
weaving), and these literally punctured lines were often the only 
guide which the copyist could follow in order precisely to determine 
the outline. 

I devoted a considerable portion of time to each of the seven 
cartoons — then examined them one after another — and still I am 
able to call the effect only great, and themselves very different 
from what I might have conjectured them to be from former em- 
broidery and tapestries ! Certainly, the feeling is decided that the 
whole is not drawn by Raphael himself; in the picture of " Paul 
and Barnabas at Lystra," an arm in the foreground is very much 
exaggerated and incorrect, as is the case, also, with the figure of 
the boy to the left between the columns in that of Peter and John. 
It would appear as if the swollen muscles, as Michael Angelo often 
represents them, had here produced too great an effect upon the mind 
of the pupil, although working under Raphael's eyes. This, however, 
only serves to give a stronger feeling of a certain genuineness of con- 
ception in all the rest. " The Miraculous Draught of Fishes," in par- 
ticular, appears to be drawn wholly by Raphael, and is the most 
correct in its details and execution, whilst the " Death of Ananias," 
" Elymas the Sorcerer struck blind," and " Paul preaching at Athens," 
produced the strongest effect in the mass, and as pictures. There 
appear heads indicating deep speculative minds, brown masses of sha- 
dow of singular clearness, and striking movements of limbs, espe- 
cially the hands, — all which furnish subject matter for long and 
earnest consideration. How peculiar are the various kinds of audi- 
tors listening to Paul's preaching ! — one thoughtful, meditative, and 
wholly abstracted from outward things — another full of faith, catch- 
ing eagerly every word as it falls from the mouth of the apostle — 
and another still enumerating and weighing the reasons one against 
another ! Who can describe all these things in detail. Enough 
that I have seen them, and have them deeply impressed upon my 
mind ! Of so much on this occasion, I have become indisputably 
convinced; that these cartoons, especially, belong to what must be 
acknowledged to be the work of Raphael, if any correct idea of the 
universality of his genius is to be formed; that, however, in general 
no genius exists, without a certain universality; such as I would call 
an original mind, is a point of which I have been long since con- 
vinced ! What a difference, for example, between the " Sposalizio" 
and these cartoons, between the " Camere" and the story of 
Psyche, between " The Entombment" and " The Madonna del Sisto." 
The peculiar tone which is adopted in these cartoons, is met with 



120 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

nowhere else in all his works, and for that very reason they are, to 
me, so remarkable. 

Having now recorded, especially, by far the most important inci- 
dent of the day, there is still time to take some notice, in order, of 
the other remarkable objects which have fallen under my notice. 

The road from Hampton Court passes through Richmond, and the* 
day was again hot, windy, and dusty, so that the burnt up meadows 
strongly reminded me of Italy. We arrived at Hampton Court early 
in the forenoon. The great avenue by which it is approached is mag- 
nificent in its kind. The front of the palace was built by Cardinal 
Wolsey, — it is castellated with towers and turrets. The materials 
are brick — the windows and doors cased with stone. There is some- 
thing peculiar in a number of medallions, let into the walls as orna- 
ments, which consist of busts, in relief, of the Roman emperors, ably 
executed in terra cotta, and said to have been a present from Pope- 
Leo X. It is said, that Wolsey, then in the height of his power,, 
and wishing to build a palace suitable to the dignity of his rank and 
influence, summoned the most celebrated physicians, even from 
Padua, to select the most suitable and healthy site for the edifice. 
They chose this property, which, at that time, was a priory belong- 
ing to the knights hospitallers of Jerusalem, with whom Wolsey im- 
mediately made an arrangement for the conveyance of the priory to 
himself. The building- was commenced in 1515, and that it must 
necessarily be of vast extent, will be evident from the fact, that at 
the height of his power, Wolsey was surrounded by a household of 
about eight hundred persons ! The splendour of the building excited 
envy, and was a matter of surprise to Henry VIII. himself ; for this 
reason, the prudent archbishop and high chancellor laid the whole 
property at the feet of his royal master, on which the king made him 
a present of the manor of Richmond, the former residence of Henry 
VII. From that time forward, Hampton Court continued to be 
almost always the residence of the royal court. Edward VI. was 
born there; it was often visited by Elizabeth, but William III. was 
the first who, in the seventeenth century, added to the palace, by 
causing the new garden front to be erected in the Italian style. 
This part of the building is much less imposing than the older por- 
tions, but contains some beautiful carvings in wood in its apartments. 

We first walked through the part of the park immediately adjoin- 
ing the palace ; the whole centre of the alley just opposite to it 
is occupied by an ornamental canal bordered with stone. This alley 
is formed by mighty lime trees, and, as it approaches the palace, by 
cedars. We next went to see the terrace along the bank of the- 
Thames, which here flows gently in its narrow bed, as at Richmond, 
along the side of the park. The next object of curiosity was an im- 
mense vine, which occupies a house built for itself, has already 
reached the extraordinary age of seventy-six years, is 110 feet -long,, 
and often bears from 1200 to 1400 bunches of grapes. 



HAMPTON COURT GALLERY. 121 

From the park we went to visit the endless suite of rooms in this 
very extensive building ; all appears to stand empty, although forty 
families reside within its circuit — families, most of whom had been 
previously at court, and here, by royal favour, find an asylum in 
poverty and age. There is space enough for several courts, but the 
ornaments and furniture of the rooms are old and somewhat fallen 
into decay. 

The rooms are crowded with an enormous multitude of pictures, 
few very valuable, some good, an innumerable quantity mediocre, 
and many — even portraits — falsely baptized and bad ; in short, a 
whole flood of pictures, two thirds of which I should have great 
pleasure in throwing into the fire. Among the most detestable of 
this description is a picture of u Joseph and Potiphar's Wife," by a 
person named Gentileschi, in which Joseph is represented as going 
out of the door with an entrechat which would do honour to a danc- 
ing-master. 

To the most remarkable pictures, on the other hand, belong a num- 
ber of Holbein's, such as Henry VIII., when a young man, admirably 
painted ; then Elizabeth, when a young princess, extremely interest- 
ing, both psychologically and for the physiognomy : a broad fore- 
head, delicate nose, and thin lips, the cheekbones somewhat promi- 
nent, and the figure, as far as it is possible to judge from the barbarous 
dress of the times, destitute of all youthful fulness. There is also a 
picture, on a small scale, of Henry VIII., and his two daughters, Mary 
and Elizabeth, which is historically remarkable. When Holbein 
painted these two daughters along with their father, who would 
have thought of the singular and great destiny which awaited them I 
To these I must add Holbein's father and mother, painted by him- 
self. The tender loving countenance of the mother, especially, has 
been admirably portrayed by the son. Finally, there are some 
great historical pictures, by Holbein, in small figures, which are 
true and rare curiosa. Among these may be reckoned the battle of 
Pavia, the embarkation of Henry VIII. at Dover, and the meeting 
of Henry VIII. with Francis I. on the field of the cloth of gold. 
The whole is treated with the greatest care, and these pictures might 
well furnish models for the arms and costume of the age. 

Of the other pictures I shall only mention, 1. A portrait of 
Shakspeare, hardly genuine ; the great poet seems more like a sol- 
dier. 2. A beautiful Leonardo da Vinci ; " Christ and John the 
Baptist," as children, extremely lovely, and full of meaning. 3. A 
baptism of Christ, by Francia, in which, particularly, the ministering 1 
and kneeling angels are of great beauty. 4. " The Shepherds' 
Thank-offering," by Palma Vecchio. 5. " Adam and Eve," as 
large as life, by J. v. Mabuse, a picture of great execution and 
power, although it cannot be called beautiful. 6. A glorious 
Claude, a sea-port — sunset, a picture in which all the beauties of the 
evening sun-light are poured upon a wondrous poetical world of ships, 
reflected from the clearest waves, and refracted by the splendid build- 



122 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

ings which surround the haven. Compared with such a warm breath- 
ing scene as this, what is even the most faithful sea-pieces of our 
modern painters ! 

From this suite of rooms we came to the gallery containing the 
Raphaels, of which I have already spoken; and after that, into 
another small gallery, adorned by the justly-renowned triumphal 
procession of Julius Caesar, by Andreas Mantegna. The proces- 
sion is divided into nine tables, the figures not quite as large as life, 
and the whole painted upon canvass, in water-colours. This work 
deserves much longer time than I was able to devote to it. It is 
finely executed, and often adorned with charming conceptions, rich 
groupings, and splendid figures. Several of the tables have suffered 
injury, but not to such an extent as Raphael's Cartoons. 

After these great works, there were still other superfluous pic- 
tures to be seen — sea-fights, family portraits, and the like. My 
mind's eye still rested on the noble figures of Raphael and Man- 
tegna, and I was often better pleased to go to the window and look 
out into the blue air. 

At last the great picture show came to an end, and we went 
down to the great hall and the chapel. The hall is truly a splendid 
structure, and the execution of the wooden ceiling wonderfully rich, 
and in good keeping. Unfortunately for us, scaffoldings were 
erected in the hall, in consequence of some necessary repairs, and 
the tapestry, armour, and banners, were all either covered up or 
removed ; the impression, therefore, was very imperfect, but still it 
was easy to form an idea of the size and splendour of the whole. This 
hall was merely planned by Wolsey, and completed by Henry VIII. , 
it has been the scene of great festivities. It is said some of Shak- 
speare's pieces were first produced within its walls, and George I. 
caused a theatre to be fitted up, in which " Hamlet" was played; 
and on the 1st of October, a piece was acted, entitled " Henry VIII., 
or the fall of Wolsey." Singular enough, that his fall should be 
scenically represented in the very house in which, whilst living, he 
had enjoyed the highest power! I must not overlook the fact, 
that the large Gothic parti-coloured windows of the hall, together 
with its side windows, painted with coats of arms, produce a splendid 
effect. 

The chapel is considerably smaller than the hall, but of similar 
Gothic architecture, and produced the same pleasing effect. It was 
an original and pertinent idea, that what are called the drops of the 
converging Gothic arches of the roof, are always prettily adorned 
with small figures of angels playing on instruments of music. 

We had now obtained a very complete view of all that was worth 
seeing in this remarkable place; and after having followed Prince 
Albert to partake of a luncheon prepared for us, we drove from 
Hampton Court to Claremont, the palace belonging to the King of 
the Belgians, built in a modern style, in the midst of a most ex- 
tensive park, containing some magnificent oaks and cedars. 



THE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY'S GARDENS. 123 

Her Majesty the Queen had arrived the day before, and Prince 
Albert had arranged a grand cavalcade through the park late in the 
afternoon, for the pleasure of the king and some of the gentlemen 
of his suite; while I availed myself of the beautiful evening to 
enjoy a long and agreeable walk with Baron Stockmar in the 
park. Charming scenes in abundance ! I was particularly struck 
with a laro-e fish-pond in the middle of a wood, completely sur- 
rounded with immense rhododendrons in full and splendid blos- 
som ; but everywhere Macadamized roads, closely -mown grass-plots, 
and that etiquette of nature, which is to me always doubly offensive 
in the midst of her luxurious productions. 

In the evening the usual dinner, with their majesties, at which 
only few persons were present, and a short evening. 



XXVI. 

London, June 15th — Evening. 
At Claremont I occupied a cheerful room, with an extensive 
prospect over the park. Large cedars stand upon the spacious 
lawns, whilst low woody hills bound the distant horizon. It is a 
very quiet place of sojourn, but, with all its elegance, made a certain 
melancholy impression upon my mind. The Princess Charlotte 
died here, in consequence of her first confinement. The account of 
this misfortune had previously occupied a great deal of my attention, 
as a remarkable fact, in a medical point of view. It was not, how- 
ever, the recollection of the calamity which gave the place this 
melancholy aspect in my eyes; the weather, too, was beautiful, and 
the situation charming ! Perhaps what I yesterday called the 
etiquette of nature, worked more powerfully. After another short 
walk in the park, we drove through Richmond to Chiswick, to 
visit the gardens of the Horticultural Society, in which the great ex- 
hibition of fruit and flowers was to commence to-day. We saw the 
exhibition before the gates were opened to the public, and surely it 
was a sight well worthy of being viewed quietly and at leisure, and 
not in the midst of a throng. The fruit and flowers were exhi- 
bited in the garden, in the open air, under a row of tents. The 
extent of the garden is great, and the whole arrangement worthy of 
London. The fruits of the finest kind and finest quality were 
placed under the first tent, and consisted of pine-apples, peaches, 
grapes, melons, Persian cucumbers, &c. &c. In the following tents 
the plants were, for the most part, exhibited in families; for ex- 
ample, geraniums of the rarest and most beautiful forms and colours, 
then heaths, then calceolaria, which have been here cultivated so as 
to attain a great multitude of the most ornamental and variegated 
kinds; next, beautiful specimens of roses were set forth, and among 



124 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

them, a great number of cut specimens, formed into small bouquets, 
with the names of the varieties and species; finally, and especially, 
orchideous plants. Among these I saw several species scarcely 
yet known, even by name, in Germany, as the Pkalcenojjsis and 
CynocJius, together with the most splendid Catleyce, Oncidia, and 
more of a similar description. There was also a tent in which 
nothing but rare and splendid plants of different families were 
exhibited together, as the lobelia longijlora, the spring-like and 
ornamental stylidiam fasciculatum, with its rolling flowers, and 
many others. 

The society have here also some considerable conservatories — and 
a small specimen of the far-famed Upas (antiaris toxica), the poison- 
tree of Java, has been recently brought to their gardens — the first 
which has ever been conveyed to Europe. This was a small plant 
about a foot high, with dark green long heart-shaped leaves, and 
stood under a bell-glass. Its poisonous properties, however, have 
been greatly exaggerated, and the same may be said of it as is said 
of Mary Stuart by herself in Schiller, "It is better than its 
reputation !" Leschenault has proved that the tree may not only 
be approached, but branches broken from it, &c, without any 
danger. That, however, the sap, when brought into the blood 
of an animal, quickly proves mortal, is certain. I also saw there a 
beautiful tall specimen of doryanthes excesla. As we were leaving 
the garden a vast number of persons already thronged the en- 
trance, and during the whole of our hot and dusty drive to 
London, we met carriage upon carriage, all filled with persons eager 
to make exhibitions of themselves, and to see that of the plants of 
Chiswick. 

After luncheon I had proposed to myself to go with Dr. Freund 
to see the curiosities in the East India House ; the time of admission 
for the public was, however, already past, and instead of East 
Indian, we turned our attention to West Indian products, by pro- 
ceeding to a tavern hard by, where they carry on a large trade in 
turtle, which are brought in great numbers from Jamaica, Ascen- 
sion, and other places, and killed and consumed in London. Some 
of the large reservoirs in which these giants are kept in salt water, 
were opened for my inspection, and it seemed frightful when the large 
gray monster, four or five feet long, raised his round, flat head 
from the water, and looked at me with his eyes. I remembered 
that I had helped to consume many of these creatures, of which the 
favourite turtle-soup is made, and contemplated these West Indians 
with a feeling of compassion, which are obliged to make a voyage 
over the ocean in order to shed their blood here for European 
kitchens, and the pleasure of English palates. 

We afterwards went to the Tower — the fortress of old London — 
I carried with me an idea of imposing antiquity and power, and 
greatness, which the sight of the reality speedily dispelled. 

The Tower is at present so encompassed by the trade and shipping 



THE TOWEK. 125 

of London and the Thames, that little more of its old fortress 
character remains than a few dark gates and doorways, and the 
dress of the heralds-at-arms, who act as guides to the visiters, and 
repeat their tale mechanically. The entrance is singular enough, 
through some old winding courts, and passages, into a room where 
the admission ticket is paid for, and visiters are obliged to wait till 
the full complement of twelve arrives, to whom the man-at-arms 
acts as a conductor. The first visit is paid to the horse armoury, 
a large room, in which a great number of weapons and suits of 
armour are exhibited — the latter partly placed upon figures, and 
mounted on wooden horses, as in the historical museum in Dresden. 
Among these are some very interesting suits, such as those of Edward 
II., the sixth, seventh, and eighth Henries, Dudley Earl of Leicester, 
Earl of Essex, James I., and others. The whole number of such suits, 
however, is not very large. The arms contained in this and the rooms 
above, are very numerous, and some of them very rare ; those of the 
upper rooms contain several various instruments of torture (said to 
have been chiefly taken from the Spanish armada), and several exe- 
cutioner's axes. Properly speaking, my chief object was to gain a 
clear and circumstantial idea of the Tower in general, and espe- 
cially of the ancient White Tower, which forms the centre of the 
whole building. Shakspeare's historical plays are of themselves 
quite sufficient to make one curious to see the room in which the 
messengers of death came upon the sons of Edward and the young 
Arthur. Unfortunately, however, the whole is not shown ; the 
Bloody Tower, in which it is said the young princes were smothered, 
as well as the Wakefield Tower, in which Henry VI. was murdered, 
were not opened, and we were only further conducted to the vault 
which contains the crown jewels. There the crowns of England, the 
sceptre, and a consecrated sword, together with golden keys and 
splendid cups of state, are exhibited, by the light of lamps, behind a 
wooden screen, and arranged in any thing but a tasteful manner. 
What recollections does the sight of these things suggest ? But the 
effect is greatly diminished by the narrow and inconvenient place in 
which they are exhibited. 

From the Tower we proceeded to the docks, those immense basins, 
surrounded by huge warehouses, and filled with the brackish waters 
of the Thames. These docks are certainly among the most remark- 
able phenomena of this metropolis of the world, and immediately 
suggest to the mind ideas of universal commerce and intercourse with 
all nations. We first visited the St. Katherine's, and afterwards the 
London Docks, unable to restrain our wonder and astonishment at 
the sight of the magnificent quays, the vast store-houses, the immense 
number of ships, and the incredible variety of wares, which were 
continually presented to our eyes. As I walked along the quays 
and looked at the rows of ships alongside, I was particularly im- 
pressed with the ideas suggested by the small boards affixed to the 
shrouds, on which the names of the places for which the several 



126 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

ships were destined were painted — Sydney, Hobart Town, Port 
Philip, New Zealand, Cape Town, New York, &c., were here at- 
tached to the ships, just as one would see in Germany on a num- 
ber of Lohnkutscher's vehicles in one of our large towns — Berlin, Dres- 
den, Prague, &c. Surrounded by these objects, it is impossible not 
to feel oneself in immediate connexion with all quarters of the globe. 
The picturesque effect, too, with such an evening light, produced 
among the masses of ships, was very striking. The Claude which 
I had. seen the day before at Hampton Court, was instantly suggested 
to my mind. 

I was, however, obliged to return to Buckingham Palace. His 
majesty had accepted to-day an invitation to dinner from Sir Robert 
Peel, and thither we proceeded at eight o'clock. I was very curious 
to know, whether I should be able to trace the effect of any of the pass- 
ing events on the face of the minister. The ministry had just sus- 
tained a defeat in parliament, which was thought to endanger its ex- 
istence. Nothing, however, of the kind was to be seen ; his coun- 
tenance exhibited the same intelligent serenity, which I had formerly 
remarked in him. 

Sir Robert Peel possesses and lives in a magnificent house, situ- 
ated on the banks of the Thames, and richly adorned with a vast 
number of paintings, selected with the best taste. In the evening, 
there was a large soiree, to which, not merely a great number of 
diplomatic persons and members of the aristocracy were invited, 
but almost all the distinguished men of learning and artists in 
London. The whole suite of apartments was thrown open, and I 
divided my time between reflections and observations on all the 
notabilities on and within the walls. 

Of the former, and among the works of modern artists, my atten- 
tion was first arrested by a large picture of Landseer's. The subject 
is a little daughter of Sir Robert with his large shaggy dog. The 
child is supposed to have just risen, still in its chemise — the good- 
natured animal, accustomed to the children, comes to it, and the 
child, which is delighted with his presence and loves him, clasps 
him with her arms around the neck. The spirit of the whole is 
charming, and the picture is splendidly painted. Next, the portrait 
of Dr. Johnson, by Reynolds. I had already seen many of this 
artist's works, which are highly praised, yet possess but little value ; 
this was the first which really gave me the impression of him as an 
able painter. Among the old artists, the Dutch are especially re- 
presented in their choicest and rarest works. First, the celebrated 
chapeau de paille of Rubens, purchased by Sir Robert at an enor- 
mous price, and truly of enchanting splendour. The fine and beau- 
tiful face looks forth from under the feathered hat with a most 
seductive glance ; and Rubens, in this picture, exhibits such a blend- 
ing and harmony of colour, as I have never before seen in any of 
his works. The collection also contains a large bacchanalian pic- 
ture by the same artist, which is of great value ; two children in the 



QUAKERS' MEETING. 127 

foreground, are especially admirable. There is also a picture of a 
broad water-fall by Ruysdael, painted con amore; a cattle piece, 
with water, by Cuyp, almost as beautiful as that one at Mr. Hope's; 
and charming Hooghes, Terburgs, Van der Veldes, and Wouver- 
manns, especially a painting with only one gray horse ! I would 
have wished very much to have had an opportunity of examining 
these and other treasures in this collection by daylight, and at leisure. 
Among the living notabilities, I here met the Bishop of Norwich, 
president of the Linnean Society, Professor Buckland, the Oxford 
geologist ; Hooker, the botanist ; Faraday, the celebrated chemist ; and 
Sir John Herschel, the astronomer, and his sister, who renders him 
such valuable assistance, both in making observations and calcula- 
tions; the directors of the British Museum, Dr. Clark, and others. 
It was a subject of great regret to me, not to have made Landseer's 
acquaintance ; I only heard of his being present, when it was too late. 
This selection of persons for his soiree on such an occasion, did 
great honour to Sir Robert Peel's judgment and taste. 



XXVII. 

London, June 17th — Evening. 

Yesterday morning (Sunday) was chiefly spent in consulta- 
tions, and in a few visits, from which I have received only one new 
and singular impression — the impression derived from being present 
at the celebration of the day in a Quakers' meeting-house. The 
house is situated near Trafalgar- square, and approached through a 
low narrow passage ; a few benches are placed near the door, for the 
use of those who come as strangers. Here one can sit down quietly, 
and observe the congregation. The men occupy one side, and the 
women the other; all remain perfectly still, deeply engaged in me- 
ditation; the women wear deep projecting bonnets, and the men, in 
like manner, keep on their hats. Those who preside sit upon raised 
cross-seats; no pulpit, no altar, no font. Thus arranged, all wait 
for some one to be moved by the Spirit. The person so moved, 
then rises and addresses the meeting; but the w T hole time often 
passes without any one feeling himself called to speak. So it proved 
yesterday; there was scarcely a breath audible — all was still, but 
there was a peculiarly deep and solemn feeling connected with the 
scene, and I must admit that it produced a more profound impres- 
sion on my mind than the psalmody of our public services. After 
some time, all rose from their seats, and the congregation left the 
house, as still as ghosts. 

I was also very glad of having been able at last to p ay a 
visit to, and enjoy a conversation with Mrs. Austin. She had just 



128 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

returned from Paris, and was residing with her daughter, Lady 
Duff Gordon, also an authoress, in a small house, in a very agree- 
able, quiet situation near Westminster Abbey. She is constantly 
occupied in the study of our literature, and is the medium of 
making her countrymen acquainted with some of its most remark- 
able works, especially in the department of history. Distinguished 
as she is as a writer, she is of still more value, in my eyes, 
as an admirable and highly intellectual English lady. 

In the afternoon, some of the London picture-galleries were 
visited; first Lord Ashburton's, in his house in Piccadilly. The 
collection contains many large and beautiful pictures; the two of 
greatest attraction, in my eyes, were, a Leonardo da Vinci, brought 
from Spain — the subject, Christ and St. John, with the Lamb; 
then St. Thomas de Villa nueva when a child, by Murillo. The 
young saint is represented amongst a number of poor children in 
the street, as pulling off his clothes, and giving them to cover the 
nakedness of a poor boy. The great pleasure which this painter 
took in delineating the little vagabonds about the streets in Madrid, 
evidently gave rise to this picture, which, under its title of saint, 
would, no doubt, be much more readily purchased by some one 
belonging to the order of devotees, than his usual beggar-boys; 
but, in addition to this, it also possesses a peculiar psychological 
interest. The future saint, still a child, and without his upper gar- 
ments, is treated with as masterly a hand as the tattered little 
beggar before him, and the others around; the saint exhibits a 
certain noble extraction in his head and bearing, which leaves the 
spectator not a moment in doubt of the person designed. I have 
never before met with an attempt precisely of this description. 
Among the other pictures, I would particularly specify a Herodias, 
by Titian, and the admirable portrait of a Dutch lady, by Van der 
Heist. In addition to these, the noble lord possesses a number of 
small paintings by artists of the Low Countries, comprising pieces 
of Van der Velde, Ostade, and other masters. (There is here a 
picture by Ostade, of the same room, but with other figures, which 
represents his studio in a painting in the Dresden gallery.) There 
is also a beautiful copy of Thorwaldsen's representation, in marble, 
of Mercury killing Argus, which is not to be overlooked. 

The second, and far richer gallery, was that of the Marquis of 
Westminster, in Grosvenor House. The owner is, perhaps, the richest 
private individual in England; whole streets and squares belong 
to him, and many more will shortly fall into his hands. His income 
is now estimated at 1000/. per day! and it will, therefore, be easily 
understood how such a person may possess a real picture-gallery. 
The foundation of this gallery was laid many years ago, by the 
purchase of a Mr. Agar's collection, for 30,000/. The house is built 
in the palace style; towards the street a covered colonnade, with 
6tatues — behind that a court, and then the house, with a garden 



GROSVENOR HOUSE. 129 

adjoining, in which there is a separate, appropriate, and lofty gal- 
lery, adorned with pilasters, and lighted from the roof for the exhi- 
bition of the large pictures and sculpture. A special catalogue 
is printed for the information of visiters, and no private gallery 
in London at all approaches this, in the possession of great clas- 
sical works. 

It is such a disagreeable, tedious task to describe pictures, that I 
shall be here very brief, and only mention particular pieces, which 
struck me forcibly, and served to suggest remarkable thoughts; 
whosoever will learn more of the collection, must even see for 
himself. 

I must first observe, that the gallery contains some most extraordi- 
nary pictures by Claude, the Raphael of landscape painters ! Some of 
the size of those in theDoria collection in Rome, others smaller, such as 
those in the Dresden gallery, and of both kinds there are some, to which 
nothing in either of these galleries just mentioned is superior. There 
breathes a peculiar air in these pictures, all suggesting to my mind 
Calderon's " Daughter of the Air." And then that broad, abstract, 
and yet so true handling of trees, meadows, water, and clouds ! It 
reminds me again of the antiques with their treatment of the human 
figure ! and this again reminds me of the Greek tragedy with its deli- 
neations of the human soul ! Properly speaking, Claude stands 
quite alone in the treatment of his subject. A proof how difficult 
such a conception of the physiognomy of the life of the world is ! 

Next there are some very remarkably large paintings by Salvator 
Rosa; with the exception of his " Conspiracy of Catiline," in the 
Florence gallery, I have never seen any thing of his so pre-eminent 
as here. There is a large picture, " The End of all Mortal Things," 
with a contemplating figure, which is said to represent Democritus. 
The picture is not overcharged, but drawn to the life; it is the product 
of a profound conviction, and in the dark brown tone of its colour- 
ing, yea in every touch of the pencil by which the scattered ruins 
of all that usually surrounds man are delineated, there lies a spirit 
disgusted with the world like that of Byron's. A " Diogenes 
throwing away his Pitcher" belongs to the same category. 

Further, the gallery contains some large and celebrated pictures by 
Rubens, as the " Four Evangelists" and the "Fathers of the Church," 
both painted for Philip IV. of Spain. In like manner there are 
masterpieces of Rembrandt, Murillo, and many others, and a " St. 
Luke painting the Virgin," and two other pictures, by Raphael, which 
I can do nothing more than recommend to the careful study of all 
who see the collection. I must on the other hand still mention two 
modern pictures — one a large picture, by Reynolds, representing 
Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse. Such attempts as these are diffi- 
cult, and when made in our days, usually degenerate into affected 
parody: in this case, however, the bold conception presents some- 
thing magnificent, which gives a high poetic value to the whole, and 
this is the second picture by the same artist which has given me the 

K 



130 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

impression of his being a great artist, something after the manner of 
a Caracci, but better. Secondly, a picture by Landseer, altogether 
admirable of its kind, such as I had not seen since I left Redleaf. 
The subject is a Newfoundland dog, retrieving a shot wild duck. 
The dog is swimming through the midst of the reeds, so that his 
head alone is seen above the water, with the duck in his mouth, but 
near and as large as life. All that a lively, vigorous, and circumstantial 
representation can effect on such things, is most charmingly shown 
in this picture. The sculpture in the gallery does not deserve 
particular attention. 

If private persons possess galleries of this description, what ought a 
grand British national gallery to be ! ! Perhaps it would have been 
called into existence long since, but from the very idea that a 
gallery worthy of the nation, relatively speaking, could not have 
been collected. The commencement which was made in 1823 is 
still far inferior to the single private gallery of Grosvenor House. 

In the evening the usual dinner, and then a midnight adventure. 
At twelve o'clock the carriages were in waiting to carry us — whi- 
ther? — to Printing House Square, the workshop of the Times, that 
enormous journal which, with its imperial folio, covers the break- 
fast table of every Englishman as punctually as his table cloth, and 
quite as large. Twenty thousand copies are set up and printed every 
night, and the paper pays in stamp duties to the government every 
year, 35,000/. It was far from uninteresting to cast a look upon this 
immense dispatch, which gives one an aversion for all that which in a 
tradesman's expression is usually called composition. A large, exten- 
sive building scarcely serves to hold the offices for the receivers of 
notices and advertisements, the rooms of the political as well as 
other writers, and of those occupied as compositors, of whom many 
are engaged at the same time, each on his own separate column. 
Others afterwards arrange the whole in suitable order, till at length 
the large sheets become full. When the whole is finally prepared, 
the type is placed under the printing presses worked by steam, and 
the printing is effected with an enormous rapidity, whilst the white 
damped sheets are continually supplied by an attending boy. 

When one only thinks of a great classical and scientific work 
requiring as many decennia for its tedious production as hours 
would be here employed, it gives rise to singular results. Those fu- 
gitive sheets now rule the world — the profound study of a single 
great intellectual work becomes more and more the property of 
the few. Whither does this wheel of time run ! — up or down ? — 
who is he that is able to come to a full and sound conviction upon 
this important subject? 



THE OLD BAILEY. 131 

XXVIII, 

Same day — Evening] 
I preferred not going with the king and his suite to-day to 
Woolwich and Greenwich, in order to have the opportunity of seeing 
and experiencing more of the operations of this ocean called London ! 
I was particularly anxious to get a correct idea of the so much cele- 
brated English law proceedings, and for this purpose drove to the Old 
Bailey, the court for the city of London and the county of Middle- 
sex. I gave my name and was shown into a box (a separate seat) in 
the hall, where trials were going on. A remarkable sight presented 
itself to my view. An old and not very large hall was surrounded 
with boxes similar to the one in which I was, arranged like an am- 
phitheatre, descending towards the centre; to the left, a similarly 
arranged space for the public. To the right, a raised gallery for the 
Lord Mayor, the sheriff (distinguished by the gold chain), the Com- 
mon Sergeant, and the Recorder (who sums up the facts according 
to the speech of the prosecutor, the evidence of the witnesses, and 
the speech of the defendant); opposite them the windows, and to the 
right of the bench a particular gallery for the jury. Below, in the 
centre, the table for the clerks and the places for the counsel; to the 
left, a sort of raised pulpit in which the accused stands, and beside 
him clerks and witnesses. 

I happened to hear a remarkable case. At the bar stood a man of 
middle age, fearful looking, and often holding his handkerchief to 
his face. The counsel for the prosecution represented pathetically, 
that this man, some years before, had sought the hand of a young 
girl of fourteen, finally carried her away from her parents, and mar- 
ried her at Gretna-Green, but had afterwards deserted her in Lon- 
don and had left her in the greatest misery. The effect of this 
speech on all present was visible, and the situation of the accused 
was wretched. I listened for some time, till the prisoner's counsel 
began to go into detail, called witnesses, &c, and my time was ex- 
pired.* If I may form an opinion from such imperfect grounds, 
I should say that such public proceedings certainly produce some- 
thing of that effect which might reasonably be expected from such a 
course of action; it is, properly speaking, the continually repeated ad- 
vice to the multitude, " Let him that standeth take heed lest he fall." 
We can in such respects only speak of the sharpening of the intel- 
lect or the judgment, the teaching to see clearly what further actions 
are the necessary result of any one action — what is the end to which 
a certain course necessarily leads; after obtaining this knowledge, 
let each do that which he believes he must, or what he really must, 
and learn to be " always ready." This is, however, only the external 

* I read afterwards, in the Times, that the man was condemned to two 
years' imprisonment. 

k2 



132 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

view of the case. The internal and more important one is the opi- 
nion of the accused formed in the minds of his judges. In this 
respect, however, also all that man can do has been done to insure 
an accurate and careful weighing of the pro and con. — What the 
Turks add to every sentence, " God alone knoweth better," ought 
indeed to be written in letters of gold in every court of justice, whe- 
ther sentence is pronounced according to verbal or written data ! 
But when once the entire unreasonableness of the sentence of death 
has been generally recognised, when prisons are no longer dens of 
torment and corrupters of the soul, then a possible human error in the 
sentence may be considered as no longer irreparable. I think there- 
fore one must follow the instinct of the age. I cannot think that 
this can be founded on any error. 

Near the Old Bailey is situated the prison of Newgate; and in its 
old w r alls blackened with coal smoke, the window was pointed out to 
me, before which the scaffold was erected, and through which the con- 
demned felon was led out to be placed upon the fatal trap-door, the 
opening of which soon put an end to his life. But even here these 
disgusting executions are become much more rare. 

Another remarkable place in this region is West Smithfield, a 
large market-place surrounded by old houses, now the principal 
cattle-market of the town, and to-day (always on Monday) rilled with 
several thousand sheep and beasts. This collection of quadrupeds 
looked comical enough, and the air w r as filled with bleating and 
lowing. It has been calculated that animals to the value of nearly 
10,000,000/. are yearly sold in this market, that is, about 158,000 
beasts, 1,500,000 sheep, 21,000 calves, and 60,000 pigs. What a 
stomach for thisGarffantua — London ! The animals are now brought 
more easily to town by means of the railways, but a great deal of 
meat is sent up by the same means ready slaughtered. The beasts 
are slaughtered very differently from the manner commonly used 
in our slaughter-houses; a pointed axe is the weapon here used. 
Smithfield was formerly the principal square in London ; — tourna- 
ments were held here and heretics burnt — this, too, being a well- 
known popular amusement during the Middle Ages- — and several riots 
and tumults took their origin here. Wat Tyler, who, in the reign of 
Richard II. made a revolt, w r as struck dead in this place, by the Lord 
Mayor Walworth; and from this circumstance Walworth's dagger 
has been ever since adopted in the city arms. 

I was driven to the East India House, passing on my way Christ's 
Hospital, the well-know r n Blue-Coat School. This institution was 
founded by Edward VI., and boards and educates above 1200 chil- 
dren. The elder boys are educated here — the younger and the girls 
at Hertford. A donation of 400/. confers upon the donor the title of 
Governor of the Institution ; and each governor has the privilege of 
presentation once in four years. I hear that the little Prince of 
Wales has been lately received among the governors. 

The India House w T as really open to-day, and I visited its remark- 



guy's hospital. 133 

able collections. One enters and walks about with a certain feel- 
ing of reverence, when one considers that in this building are 
contained the central offices whence emanate all orders for the 
government of the immense Indo-Britannic Empire ! Notwith- 
standing its blackened Ionic portico, it does look rather old and 
insignificant for a building of such importance. The rooms contain- 
ing the collection are low, and the objects of curiosity are only seen 
under dusty glass cases; in fact the house does not at all look as if 
it were the centre from which 170,000,000 of human beings are 
governed ! Among the collections here there is no doubt much 
that would reward a more careful study. One collection con- 
tains East-Indian national curiosities, another natural curiosities. 
Amono- the former are a number of disgusting-looking; idols in stone 
and metals, several pieces of armour and arms (as the armour of 
Tippoo Saib, and a piece of his throne), inscriptions (a piece of 
stone from Persepolis with an inscription in the arrow-head character), 
sculptures, portions of dress, models, and a number of Persian, 
Turkish and Sanscrit MSS. Connected with this collection is a 
library containing works on India. The collection of objects of 
natural history is not considerable, and it was evident that no one 
well acquainted with such things had taken any interest in it, or an 
East India Company might have had a different sort of museum ! 
A new kind of Indian stag (cervus frontalis) was pointed out to me 
as the most remarkable object : and I do not find it mentioned even 
in Cuvier. 

I had now to visit a few more hospitals, and I first drove over 
London Bridge to Guy's Hospital in Southwark. This large and 
really splendid hospital with several wings, a garden containing 
several separate buildings (for example one for patients afflicted with 
disease of the eye), and a very rich anatomical collection, was 
founded by a private individual, the bookseller Guy, a man who 
began with a capital of 200/. in 1668, and at a later period was 
enabled to leave to the hospital, which he had built, a sum of more 
than 300,000/. A curious anecdote, but not uninteresting in a 
psychological point of view, is told of the circumstances attending 
this foundation. Guy had long had a housekeeper whom he at last 
determined to marry. Shortly before the marriage he gave orders 
to have the pavement in front of his house repaired, and pointed out 
a stone as the limit of the reparation. During his absence the lady 
remarked a broken stone beyond the prescribed limits, and wished 
to have that repaired also. The workpeople hesitated, remembering 
Guy's orders: but she, in expectation of being shortly mistress of 
the house, repeated her wishes; adding, that if they told the gentle- 
man that it was by her orders, he would not be angry. Guy came 
back, saw, and heard: he immediately broke off the match, and 
left all his property to the hospital. Astley Cooper was for a 
long time surgeon here, and raised the character of the hospital. 
There are between 400 and 500 beds ; and the income arising from the 



134 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

funds of the institution itself is about 30,000/. a year. The ar- 
rangement is in general quite the same as that of St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital. A bronze statue of Guy adorns the courtyard of the 
building, and it would be only fair to set up another of the unfortu- 
nate housekeeper. 

Not far from this — also in South wark — is St. Thomas's Hospital, 
founded by Henry VIII. , but first carried out by Edward VI., whom 
Ridley so often persuaded to acts of beneficence. It contains about 
300 beds, and in the courtyard is a bronze statue of Edward VI. The 
internal arrangements are large and roomy, and , in particular, the rooms 
for the nurses are very cheerful and pleasant. In Astley Cooper's 
time, Guy's Hospital and St. Thomas's together, were used by the 
medical school, which now has its clinic in Guy's Hospital alone. 

I concluded my forenoon, after having made my way with immense 
difficulty through the tremendous crowds in Fleet-street, by an undis- 
turbed contemplation of the antiques in the British Museum. It is for 
this reason such a pleasure to have easy access to works of this kind, 
because one always finds here the systole after the diastole of life, and 
learns to penetrate deeper into the empire of the ideas here represented 
in stone. Once more — for I shall probably never again tread these 
courts and rooms — I fixed firmly and deeply in my mind the impression 
of the Greek poetry of motion, and of the Egyptian poetry of fixedness, 
and then contemplated with great delight for a long time the small 
bronzes and terra cottas in the upper rooms. The remarkable inge- 
nuitas of these objects always excites my astonishment ! This charac- 
ter can be only expressed by the word ingenuitas, which we cannot 
render by one word in German (English). For the same reason, we 
do not find this character in any of our present works of art. Our 
language would describe the word somewhat in this way, " an innate 
original character, expressing at the same time freedom, freedom of 
spirit, and unconscious naturalness." And yet, all this is united in 
the most successful of these little works of art; and even in the less 
successful ones, something of it is found ! When I recalled to my 
recollection the frightful forms of Indian deities, which I had seen 
at the India House, I could hardly think that both were invented by 
the same race of men. Strictly speaking, indeed, they were not ; 
for the Greeks are of the stock of the nations of day, the others from 
that of the nations of twilight. 

In the afternoon, I paid a visit to Mrs. Austin, and agreed to 
her proposal of visiting some exhibitions with her. We first visited 
the British National Gallery, in which there was an exhibition, not 
of the few old pictures belonging to this gallery, only commenced 
twenty years ago, but of an immense number of new paintings be- 
longing to the Royal Academy. 

After having seen for some time nothing but old paintings and 
works of art, the effect produced by entering at once into a room 
filled with new pictures, just come from the attelier, is very extraor- 
dinary. My first feeling among all these varnished and shining ob- 



EXHIBITION OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY. 135 

jects was rather Chinese ! I looked round in the hope of discovering 
some really good historical work, to lay in the other scale against 
this immense number — but in vain ! Any thing, really satisfactory, 
does not reach into these regions, but is rather to be sought in copies 
of old buildings, generally very skilfully painted, but frequently illu- 
minated in rather too theatrical a manner ; then, in some sea pieces, 
particularly those by Stanfield, which represent the real element of an 
Englishman — the sea — in a very lively manner ; and lastly, some 
animals by Landseer. By the last artist, I particularly remember 
(which is always a good sign) a painting, representing a moon-light 
winter night in the Highlands. A large stag is represented in the 
foreground, stepping over a tree covered with snow. The moon is 
not represented, but is without the picture, and casts a sharp shadow 
on the snow. In the distance, other deer are seen swimming through 
the lake, and beyond them are seen the mountains and the stars 
glittering in the cold. One can almost feel the cold of the clear 
still night, and rejoice with the noble animal in his wild kingdom. 
In like manner, the painting of a church in Normandy, and a scene 
on the Nile, by Roberts, left a pleasing poetic impression behind 
them. Some landscapes also were painted with great cleverness, 
but I also saw a vast quantity of so-called still life, historical scenes 
and portraits, which have quite left my memory — and yet, not quite ! 
for some have retained their place by their absurdity, or exterior 
pathological softness. Among the former, I must reckon some sea 
pieces of J. M. W. Turner. If a bright coloured sea piece were to 
be painted on a wax tablet, then melted, and all the colours mixed 
up together, I fancy it would present much the appearance of this 
artist's paintings. I would give something to know how this painter 
sees nature, and what there is in his eyes that causes him to see 
nature thus ? Then, as to the second class, there are several affecting 
stories from Walter Scott, and others represented, where the spectator 
is obliged to read in the catalogue all that he does not see in the 
picture. But enough of this misery ! Among the paintings in 
water colours were some very skilfully done, and several portraits, 
particularly, treated in a masterly manner. 

Let me be allowed to pass over the sculpture in silence. A group 
by Gibson, a naked Greek with a spear, was the only piece that pro- 
duced any effect upon me. It is, however, easy to see what confused 
fancies are to be found in this branch of art, from the fact, that one 
artist has endeavoured to represent the statue of Iago, in "Othello," 
another even, that of Law. I could not help thinking of Tieck's 
" Puss in Boots," in which Law at one time appears like a bugbear, 
at another, is eaten up by the cat in the form of a mouse. 

Mrs. Austin afterwards conducted me to another exhibition of 
older works of art, the British Gallery. Rich individuals send pic- 
tures here from their private collections for a year or more, and then 
forward others in their stead. The money received for this exhibi- 
tion is appropriated for the encouragement of poor artists, and the 



136 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

public, by this means, obtains a sight of many a bidden treasure. 
I was, however, too much influenced by the quantity of various and 
bright colouring to be able to bestow the proper attention on them ; 
a few paintings, however, made such an effect on me, that they re- 
mained fixed in my memory. One was a Ruysdael, the property of 
Sir Robert Peel: a wood, with a sheet of water, almost like the 
picture at Dresden, but in some respects even more beautiful; an- 
other was " A Holy Family," by Titian. 

Finally, my amiable guide conducted me to the house of a rich 
private individual, to show me some rare works of art there. The 
gentleman's name was Rogers, and he has at his residence — the ar- 
rangements of which, although those of a small house, are thoroughly 
comfortable — a really remarkable collection. How many such con- 
cealed treasures must there be here ! The finest piece I saw, was a 
small painting by Titian, a Magdalene kneeling before Christ in a free 
and open landscape. It was a splendid piece, a richness and delicacy of 
colour, such as I had never seen, except in that painting of " Hea- 
venly and Earthly Love" (in Rome); the gracefully kneeling figure, 
with bright, expressive, deer-like eyes, fearlessly yielding up her soul 
to heavenly love. I could hardly tear myself from it. There is also 
here a little drawing of Raphael's of the "Entombment," a very 
curious piece ; and, lastly, I was struck with a portrait of Mem- 
ling (or Hemlin), painted by himself in the year 1462, while still 
in the cloisters at Bruges, looking, at the time, ill and weak. 

In the evening was a great dinner, at which the Duke of Wel- 
lington and Lord Aberdeen were present. During dinner Rossini's 
"Tell" was performed; and after dinner, we admired the large 
golden vessels taken from the Spanish Armada, and the splendid 
workmanship on the golden plates, and vases ornamented with alto 
relievos, and then passed to the rotunda, in which a concert had 
been announced. I saw her majesty converse long with Lord 
Aberdeen ; the crisis is not yet over, but people begin to hope that 
the ministry of Peel will remain in office. 

The concert began with Spohr's " Weihe der Tone," in the 
second part of which the passages in Handel's style produce a good 
effect. Thalberg then played some pieces on a splendid pianoforte; 
and Mendelssohn's beautiful march from the " Midsummer Night's 
Dream," formed a suitable conclusion to the concert. 



XXIX. 



London, June 18th — Evening. 

The day now approaches when we must leave London; and the 
time is, therefore, zealously used, in order to learn as much as pos- 
sible of this peculiar world ! 

First, his majesty the king was to be shown the new Pentonville 



TENTONVILLE MODEL PRISON. 137 

Model Prison, built as a model, and at the same time for a trial of 
the complete system of solitary confinement. We drove out early to 
this building, only eighteen months completed, situated towards the 
northern extremity of London, where the streets and buildings extend 
continually more and more into the fields, at an expense of 85,000/. (a 
pretty large sum for a trial). I was much interested in the arrange- 
ments ; and a model of this model would have been very useful to 
convey to Germany, where the question regarding the better and 
more effective arrangement of prisons is so much agitated, but 
where hundreds of thousands are not always to be disposed of, in 
order to make such trials. The ground plan of this building is in 
so far like that of the Penitentiary, that the wings radiate like a star; 
but here only a half star is formed. Each of these four wings consists 
of a high and long hall, lighted from above, in which are an un- 
derground floor, and three stories of cells one above another. Four 
galleries run round each floor, and form the means by which the 
overseers visit the cells; and iron spiral staircases lead from one 
floor to the other. 

Each of the four wings can thus contain more than 100 cells, and 
520 prisoners altogether can be placed here, each in his separate 
cell. Every thing is kept in the greatest order and cleanliness, the 
walls merely white- washed, and the iron painted black; and above, 
between the galleries, passes a sort of railway, upon which is placed 
the carriage which contains the food, as brought up from the under- 
ground story. The food is then distributed to the prisoners by the 
overseers, who open a trap in the cell-doors, and place upon it the ves- 
sels containing the food. In a quarter of an hour a few overseers can 
distribute food to 500 prisoners. Each cell contains a hammock, a chest 
of drawers, a table and chair, a metal washing-basin, and a gas-holder; 
also every prisoner can give notice, by pressing on a spring, that he 
wishes to speak to the overseer. The cells are well provided with 
fresh air, by ventilation, and are heated with warm air in winter. 

In every cell arrangements are made for some employment, as 
in the Penitentiary, so that the unfortunate man is enabled to resist 
the fearful solitude by some occupation, and at the same time to 
make reflections on his former life. We saw and tasted the food 
(bread, meat, soup), which is here good and nourishing enough.* 
The expenses of the establishment, indeed, amount to 13,000/. 
a year — a sum which, according to German ideas, is rather large 
for the support of 500 prisoners, particularly when the interest of 
the 85,000/., which the building cost, is reckoned in; giving a sum 
something like 30/. a year for each, a sum greater than that which 
most country physicians or schoolmasters have to live on in Germany. 
Order is preserved in the house with military strictness ; and when 

* Each prisoner has, weekly, 28 ounces of meat, 140 ounces of wheaten bread, 
3 J pints of soup, 7 pounds of potatoes, 7 pints of oatmeal gruel, 14 ounces of 
milk, 5| pints of cocoa, and 10^- ounces of treacle. 



138 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND 

the prisoners assemble, either in church or for instruction, or to 
walk, which they are obliged to do within a walled court, or to 
any common labour — for example, pumping water — the most abso- 
lute silence reigns. Besides this, they wear a peculiar sort of cap, 
the shade of which falls over the face, and being provided with two 
holes for the eyes, forms a sort of mask, rendering all mutual recog- 
nition impossible; here, also, no names exist, but each prisoner is 
denoted and called for by the number of his cell — he is, as it were, 
for the time of his penalty, no longer a person in the state, no longer 
a member of human society — -the state deprives him of that life 
which it gave him, and it has, undoubtedly, a right to do so; on the 
contrary, it can never have a right to deprive a human being of that 
life, which the course of Divine Providence has assigned to him. 
There are few punishments in the establishment, corporal punish- 
ment does not exist; the punishments are, an inferior sort of food, 
and confinement for one, two, three, or four days, in an absolutely 
dark and empty cell in the underground part of the buildings. This 
prieon is only for men of from eighteen to thirty-five, and only such 
as are condemned to transportation of not more than fifteen years. 
In this respect, however, and because the establishment is not 
merely considered one of punishment, but, very rationally, also one 
of reformation, one arrangement appeared to me particularly praise- 
worthy, which causes the condemned to consider the future in the 
present, this is, the division of all the prisoners into three classes, 
according to their conduct and industry at their work, and their 
attention to the instructions they receive in religion, morals, and 
mechanical labour. According to their position in these classes, 
their future fate in Van Dieman's Land is determined. Those of 
the first class are allowed to follow a trade there, being merely 
under the surveillance of the police; those of the second class are 
compelled to labour at the public works ; but only those of the third 
class are sent to the worst and most dangerous places in the colony. 
The chapel of the institution presents a singular spectacle ! In 
semi-circular rows above one another, high wooden boxes are 
erected, which are so constructed, as to allow the prisoner in them 
a sight of the pulpit, but at the same time to render him perfectly 
invisible to any of the other prisoners. The passage to these boxes 
is up small flights of stairs; and the sight was particularly depress- 
ing, when, after our being conducted to a seat near the pulpit, sud- 
denly a number of boxes were filled with masked prisoners. As 
soon as they sit down, they throw back their mask, and their faces 
are seen for the first time. I asked some questions on the efficacy 
of the system of solitary confinement, and whether cases of mental 
aberration had not frequently been the result of this system? The 
latter question was answered in the negative, and the answers to the 
other questions were in general favourable. Longer experience will 
tell us more. So much is, however, clear, that this strict regularity 
in their way of living, this impossibility of evil communication, and 



THE NEW POST OFFICE. 139 

the continual employment — this sensibility of punishment, and of 
the being shut out from all society, must be in the end, and for all 
time, the simplest and most rational form of punishment. The 
state can only show itself effective, however, en masse! — for all 
more delicate distinctions cease here. Above the chapel is a plat- 
form, from which one has a view of the as yet free and open posi- 
tion of the prison, and the range of hills to the north of London. 
It was a dull morning — every thing looked desolate round about — 
places for building were being prepared, and some smaller houses 
actually built, looking like newly settled colonies — whilst in the 
other direction every thing was lost in a mass of houses covered with 
mist and smoke — quite a November picture in the middle of June ! 

We now drove to the Post Office, in order to obtain an idea of 
that wonderful activity, by which the million of letters which pass 
through the London post-office every week, are all correctly delivered 
to their several addresses. Human ingenuity has proved itself won- 
derful in such matters as this ! If we consider all that is sometimes 
contained in a letter, what secrets of the internal life, and what im- 
portant commissions respecting the external one, how the whole 
fate of a man would be at once entirely changed, if a letter were to 
arrive at a wrong time, or were to fall into wrong hands; when we 
consider, at the same time, the amount of trouble necessary to the 
collecting from 500,000 to 600,000 letters every week from the 
several receiving offices, and distributing them again into all the 
provinces of this country called London, it appears well worth one's 
while to cast a look at the internal arrangements of such an estab- 
lishment. The Post Office, situated in St. Martin's-le-Grand, is of 
great extent, and contains a large hall supported by columns, from 
which several entrances lead to the separate offices. When one 
enters the interior, one sees long rooms with tablets, above which 
are drawers, into which the letters which come in, and those which 
are to be sent out, are distributed. All these letters are stamped; 
and one may conceive with what swiftness these thousands of leaves 
pass through a man's hand, when I state, that a man whom I was 
looking at stamped 300 in one minute. At the same time arrange- 
ments are made for the quickest possible communication from one 
office to another; and thus, among other contrivances, there is a 
little tunnel, in which a covered box runs from one end of the 
house to the other. Letters and packets are thrown into this box 
through a trap, and the box is then sent to the other office ; there 
it is opened, the contents taken out, and other letters put in to be 
sent back again. We must at the same time consider, that by 
the present method of paying the postage of letters, much time 
and trouble is saved. In the post-offices and stationers' shops, 
stamped pieces of paper are to be had, which express the value of 
the postage, and are sold at this price. These pieces of paper are 
stuck on the letter in proportion to the general well-known charge 
for postage; the letter is then thrown into the letter-box, and is 



140 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

certain to arrive safe and quickly at its destination. The English 
certainly have the art of inventing, in all such matters, capital 
abbreviations for business, which would often take up much time. 
Thus there are always printed tables of every thing necessary for 
the house, the kitchen, or the cellar, so that a man, by looking over 
these lists, immediately sees what he has or what he wants. In the 
same way, no one keeps any large sum of money in the house ; his 
banker manages all that, and he has only a little book with cheques, 
out of which he has nothing to do but tear a leaf, write upon it 
the sum he owes, and give it to his creditor; and so of other 
matters ! 

Not far from the Post Office is Goldsmiths' Hall, and we went to 
take a view of it in order to see that all useful trades, which forward 
the advantages of the country and the city are held in honour. 
These trades form for the most part companies, which reckon among 
their honorary members the most distinguished persons in the 
kingdom, and collect funds often so considerable, that the Company 
of Merchant Tailors, for example, which reckons among its mem- 
bers Sir R. Peel and Lord Aberdeen, has caused to be erected in 
Oxford, from their extra money, a large building for a collection in 
art, and for an institution for the learning of the modern languages. 
Every such company has a house of meeting or hall, and there are 
forty-nine of these in London. One of the most considerable of 
these companies is the Goldsmiths' Company, containing above 400 
members, among whom are Prince Albert and the Duke of Wel- 
lington. Their hall is large, in the Italian style, and ornamented 
with Corinthian columns. In the lower floor it contains the offices, 
in which all manufactured silver has to be proved and stamped (as 
is well known, the English silver is distinguished by its great 
purity); from this floor a splendid staircase conducts to the first 
floor, where are the dining-room and ball-room, elegantly and 
splendidly adorned. Here the meetings are held, and splendid 
entertainments are given. The halls of the other pompanies are 
said to be similar. The Fishmongers' Company has lately (1832) 
built a new hall in the place of the old one, containing a room 
seventy-three feet long by thirty-eight feet wide. 

Next came the visit of his majesty to the Lord Mayor, at present 
a Mr. Magnay. The house inhabited by the Lord Mayor for the 
time being is the Mansion House, situated opposite the Bank. 
It was built about a hundred years ago in its present form, and 
is therefore in that false antique style, with staircases in the base- 
ment and Corinthian columns, the pediment of which contains a 
large relievo by Taylor, representing the personification of the city 
of London and of the Thames, quite in the old French style. 
Above this again is a heavy top, which fortunately is hardly re- 
marked, because the street isnot broad enough to admit of a general 
view. The Lord Mayor advanced to meet the King, preceded by 
two men in black robes of an ancient form, and with fur caps on 



THE WELLINGTON STATUE. 141 

their heads, and gold chains round their necks, carrying the city 
sword and mace. The sword is in a rich red velvet sheath, orna- 
mented with pearls, the crown fastened to a heavy gold sceptre. 
Servants, in scarlet livery richly adorned with gold lace, stood 
round, and we were first presented to the family in the drawing- 
room, and then conducted to the large hall, supported on columns, 
and adorned with banners. We slightly inspected it, and having 
just looked into the hall where smaller police cases are disposed of 
by the Lord Mayor in person, we got into the carriages and drove 
to the Old Bailey, as the king had expressed a desire to be present 
at a public trial. A trial was just going on: a man was accused of 
having stolen 500/. from the house of an old gentleman. We list- 
ened to the address of the prosecutor's counsel, a Mr. Wilkins, who 
had been first a merchant, then an actor, and lastly an advocate, 
who related the circumstances with great liveliness of gesture, and 
collected all the points which were intended to prove, and which 
appeared to me to prove in fact that no one else but the accused 
could have taken the money. The prisoner maintained his place 
rather impudently at the bar ; the formation of his head was such that 
he might easily have been found guilty of the theft on its evidence 
alone. The recorder then summed up the evidence in a speech 
that w T as rather long-winded and weak; we did not, however, wait 
for the conclusion,* but returned to the Mansion House, where a 
splendid luncheon awaited us, about three o'clock. We had not been 
long at table, however, when a deputation entered to invite the 
king and the Lord Mayor to witness the solemn unveiling of 
the Wellington statue, which has been erected by subscription, quite 
close to this, in front of the New Exchange. The invitation was 
accepted ; we rose ; and protected with difficulty by a number of po- 
licemen from the crowding of the people, we passed* to a place where 
a circle had been kept free, and where musicians had been placed 
round the statue still veiled. Now the great moment arrived, the 
covering is withdrawn, the equestrian statue in bronze, the model of 
which was made by Chantrey, appears, and the people raise a 
shout hardly to be silenced ! The chairman of the committee 
stepped forward and made a short speech, and during the playing of 
" God save the Queen," we all returned through the immense crowd 
to the Mansion House. This was the first time that I had seen 
and felt a regular English crowd, and I can now fancy the conse- 
quences of any one's being drawn into such a mass of human beings ! 
These waves of a rude multitude have something about them more 
dreadful than the waves of the sea, and the former are not beautiful 
like the latter. 

The lunch was now concluded in peace, several toasts proposed as 

* I found afterwards that the accused was found guilty, and sentenced to 
transportation for seven years. 



142 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

is usual on such occasions, after which we drove to the Temple and 
the Temple church ; and the king had some difficulty in refusing the 
use of the Lord Mayor's state coach, which was already in waiting 
before the door, driven by a coachman in a livery of red and gold, a 
great wig and little three-cornered hat, and behind which were set 
up footmen in a similar costume, only without wigs, and richly 
powdered instead. 

The buildings of the Temple contain much that is curious. These 
were in olden time the possessions of the Templars, then very nume- 
rous and powerful in England : and even now the principal of St. 
Mary's church is called " Master of the Temple." When this bro- 
therhood was broken up, the " professors of common law" bought 
all this part of the city, reaching from Fleet-street to the Thames, in 
which now two of their guilds, those of the " Inner" and of the 
" Middle " Temple are settled. We first examined the church", the 
oldest part of which was built about 1185. The entrance to it is 
somewhat solemn, a beautiful real Gothic vaulting receives us, the 
softened light of the old painted windows falls between columns 
which are not lofty, the organ resounds, and at the very entrance to 
the nave of the church, lie on the ground six Templar knights, 
stretched out like mighty iron corpses. This kind of raised carved 
grave stones, as if the armed knight lay as he had fallen in holy 
ground, I had never seen before, and they produce a powerful 
effect. The church is in other respects very simple, and not very 
large, but the effect of such an entrance is very great. 

We now passed on to the Inner and the Middle Temple. There is 
in one of these Inns a very fine old hall, where all the benchers dine 
in common, in which the arms of all the old jurists who have at 
various times read lectures here, adorn the walls ; there is also a 
large library of law works, some fine galleries, and a prettily planted 
garden with some beautiful views of the Thames. 

The day was to conclude with some exhibitions, and first the 
Exhibition of the Society of Painters in Water Colours. The 
English have, like the French, made great progress in this particular 
branch of art, more especially in architectural drawing ; there were 
several pretty drawings of old Gothic churches, streets, and castles, 
but no idea of any greater or more profound striving after art. 
All the immortality hoped for appeared to be that of having the 
painting preserved in some princely collection. 

The second exhibition was the British Gallery, which I had visited 
yesterday with Mrs. Austin. To-day, I had a better opportunity of 
seeing it, and discovered some other very beautiful pieces. I first 
saw, that Raphael of the earliest time, which Passavant has had en- 
graved in his work on this master, " The Disciples sleeping on the 
Mount of Olives." The painting is certainly important ; I have 
never seen any other in which Raphael appears so completely in 
his chrysalis state. Only in particular traits does the beauty of his 



CAPTAIN MEYNELL. 143 

future existence glimmer through, and yet, even that which is quite 
imperfect has a certain power of objective naivete. Then, a large sea 
piece, by Ruysdael, was important to me. Accustomed only to see- 
ing wood, and field, and rivers by this artist, his waves were very 
interesting to me : but I still like his trees better. Further, I saw a 
little Murillo, " The Virgin being carried up to Heaven," hovering 
and surrounded by angels — splendid — lovely — yet soft ! It appeared 
to me a sort of preparatory picture to the large one in Soult's collection. 
The most important of all, however, was, no doubt, a large picture 
by Mantegna, painted gray on gray, the figures about one quarter 
the size of life, the whole about six or seven feet long. It repre- 
sented the triumph of Scipio, and displayed a beauty of drawing, so 
noble a character in the figures represented, and such a perfection of 
finish, that I was very much astonished never to have read anywhere 
of this piece. In the first place, a good sketch, and then a perfect 
engraving of this work, would be of great value for the artists of 
Germany. 

If a good star had guided me hitherto, I was still more obliged to 
it in the evening at dinner, because, besides placing me opposite 
that English beauty, whom I have before mentioned as being the 
most perfect, in my mind, from the beautiful tracing of a counte- 
nance like a painter's Juno, it gave me for a neighbour Captain 
Meynell, with whom I very soon got into a highly interesting con- 
versation. He was one of those men who are only to be met with 
in large states. Frequently engaged in the most important historical 
events, in which England has always acted a principal part, he had 
been in the most opposite countries, and had been a member of 
various embassies. Two events in his life interested me particularly ; 
he was one of Napoleon's conductors to St. Helena, and he had often 
seen and spoken with Gothe in the years 1816 and 1817. It was 
important to me, in reference to Gbthe, to know what effect his 
appearance had produced on such a man as Captain Meynell, an En- 
glishman employed in, and intimately connected with some of the 
most important events of the history of later times. When I asked 
him this question, he replied, that his first feeling, after all he had 
heard of the poet, had certainly been disappointment ; but that the 
effect of Gothe's eye had soon been apparent to him, and from that 
time the whole power of his character had been clear to him. 

This evening, the court visited the Italian Opera, where we just 
arrived in time to hear of the death of Lucia di Lammermoor, and 
to see Mario die without any particular emotion. This evening, the 
great attraction was the ballet ; for Fanny Elsler had been sent for 
from Paris, and as she was new to me, I was anxious to observe the 
effect of her appearance. The subject of the ballet was, as usual, par- 
ticularly absurd. A young painter delights to dwell on the picture of 
a beauty whom he has formerly painted, and often consoles himself by 
contemplating her image. The mother finally seeks out the lost 
beauty in order to recover the devoted lover from his melancholy ^ 



144 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

One fine day, during his absence, the recovered one slips quietly 
into his room, and takes up her position within the frame instead 
of the picture. The lover arrives, sunk in melancholy, draws aside 
the curtain from before the supposed image — there stands the origi- 
nal herself — gives him a look full of affection, and steps forth out 
of the frame to make him happy for life ; plots and intrigues of 
various kinds still follow. Elsler personated the lost beauty. She 
is no longer young, and never was beautiful, properly speaking ; 
but her perfect and admirable command of her body still gives 
her a peculiar charm. All the graces which art can give are really 
combined in her movements. I shall never forget the beautiful 
manner, the graceful bendings with which she came forth from the 
frame — like a beautifully turned phrase from an educated mouth. 
Can there be, in reality, a peculiar music of motion in this play of the 
limbs, ruled by fine feelings? — A certain agitation of the whole orga- 
nisation in her last full bending forwards towards her partner in the 
dance particularly struck me. Like the well-timed shake of a singer, 
it worked so as to show the strongest emotion of the bosom under 
the influence of overpowering feeling. The foot really played the 
quaver ; then the bearing — the swaying of the whole body in the 
most graceful wavy curves ! Had the movement been supported by 
real beauty of person, the effect must have been irresistible ! 



XXX. 

London, June 19th — Noon. 

I HAVE, to-day, a peculiar feeling, because I must leave London 
to-morrow; London, in which I have still so much to see, to learn, 
and to do. The feeling of to-day is half that of an expected libera- 
tion, and half that of a sensible loss ! The most important questions 
respecting the destiny of mankind, the relation of individuals to the 
whole body of the state, and the rights of both, are nowhere to be 
seen in such close and immediate connexion as here. None except 
those who have seen London, and lived there for a short time, will 
easily obtain any thing like a clear and distinct idea of the subject. 

Notwithstanding, I must acknowledge that I do not feel myself 
possessed of the organisation to live here. I feel too strongly that 
with its overwhelming power it would drive me from the very 
foundations of my own proper being, and to that no man should ex- 
pose himself. 

The morning was calm, dark, and cloudy, and being obliged to 
attend a medical consultation, I was afforded a further opportunity of 
taking a quiet survey of this great city. I passed by Westminster 
Abbey, which stood out dark and gloomy against the lowering sky. 
The town appeared to me like a slumbering giant, which might 
at any moment awake, and then resistance would be impossible. 



TOM THUMB. 145 

Afterwards, I went into a printseller's to buy a few memorials of 
Landseer, and I was fortunate enough to see there a large water-colour 
drawing by Haghe, the best which I have ever seen of the kind. 
Haghe is well known by his beautiful works on the interiors of 
English castles, and I expected much from his drawings ; but what 
I saw far exceeded my expectations. The drawing represented 
the portico and entrance of a Spanish cathedral, with monks in 
the vestibule distributing alms among the people. The extraor- 
dinary skill in the drawing of the figures, the bold treatment of 
the subject, and the beauty and distinctness of the light and 
colouring, must secure it the reputation of a master-piece. Why 
have the English no historical painters able to execute on a large 
scale, what this small historical picture does on a small one ? It may, 
perhaps, be said, the nation is too active and powerful merely to paint 
great deeds and the expression of great thoughts ; if a man has a 
genius powerful enough to effect something great, he really brings 
it out somehow or other in life, and the course of ambition is here 
open to the least and to the greatest. Mozart expresses himself 
somewhat after this fashion in his letter on the various explanations 
and sesthetical reflections respecting a musical work of art: " One of 
us would write it sooner." Numerous further considerations connect 
themselves with this ; in reference to Germany, also, which in con- 
sequence of its multifarious divisions has less room for great deeds, 
and therefore gives freer scope to its ideal tendencies. I will not, 
however, here lose myself in an ccean of reflections, where so much 
immediately impels to action. 

First of all I went to see an anthropological curiosum — Tom 
Thumb — the smallest of human beings, 13 years old — 25 inches 
high — fifteen pounds weight. He has been exhibited in London for 
more than a month, in the Egyptian Hall in Piccadilly, in the 
same room in which Catlin, the traveller, exhibited his North 
American Indians. During my life I have made acquaintance 
w T ith many more small men than great ones, but such a one as 
this I have never seen ! He is a true remnant of the pygmies ! 
Withal he is well built, and the rounded form of the head, with 
the projecting forehead of childhood, well corresponds to the intel- 
ligent self-satisfied nature of the mannikin. He gives one the impres- 
sion of a piece of wound-up mechanism when he walks about 
hither and thither on the large table — imitates the position of 
the Borghese gladiator — takes off Napoleon — sings a boat-song in 
the character of a sailor, and such things. What singular aberra- 
tions human education sometimes presents ! 

The last public sight which I visited in London was the Chinese 
exhibition. This vast collection was made by a native of Philadel- 
phia, Mr. Nathan Dunn, who lived above twelve years in China, and 
enjoyed a high degree of popularity among the Chinese. It is 
really remarkably well worth seeing, and is quite sui generis. 
It has been exhibited in London for a considerable time in a 

L 



146 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

large building near St. George's Hospital and Hyde Park Corner. 
The catalogue, ornamented with drawings by Mr. Langdon, oc- 
cupies 169 pages. It presents a complete collective picture of these 
singular people from the ceremonies used in their temples, with 
their colossal idols, to imitations, in carved wooden figures as large 
as life, of the different modes of living, trades, and customs — 
the most complete collection of all the single objects of necessity or 
productions of art — books, weapons, furniture, ornaments, porcelain, 
moneys and weights — carriages, models of ships, and productions of 
nature; — and after one has gone through the long hall and exa- 
mined the various objects which it contains, one is constrained to 
come to the lamentable conclusion, that the light of more elevated 
beauty has never shone upon a nation of more than 300,000,000 of 
men ! This view suggests a long series of melancholy thoughts. When 
one sees the high artistical skill of their works — contemplates the 
nature of their social relations — thinks upon the industry and inde- 
fatigable ingenuity of the people — one is disposed to exclaim : 
"Why is light given to the miserable!" Is all that mass as 
it is here exhibited to be compared to a single work of Phidias — to 
a single noble free and deep thought of Plato, or to the perfect form of 
a Sixtine Madonna. And why have these millions been condemned 
to wander in darkness, and with their ridiculous world of ceremonies 
and most complete servility, to form the genuine type of a " Phi- 
lister?" And yet there blooms even there a peculiar fortune — 
there is evidence of a particular kind of science and art, and a 
peculiar phase of humanity is there developed. I must, however, 
curb the flights of thought, for time presses forward. 

Dr. Freund, my faithful guide in London, officiated as my con- 
ductor to the Chinese Collection. I separated from him with lively 
feelings of gratitude, and not without an earnest wish, that the 
great undertaking, of which he is the main spring — the foundation 
of an Hospital for all poor Germans in London, may bear the 
richest fruits. Many liberal contributions have been already made 
by the rich and powerful, and the object appears to meet with 
more and more encouragement and support. Would that these 
words of recommendation may reach the eyes and stimulate the 
hearts of the wealthy and benevolent among ourselves, to co-ope- 
rate in this design ! 



XXXI. 

Same Day — Towards Evening. 
I HAVE taken leave of London ! — a twofold leave, most pro- 
bably never to see it again — and, therefore, peculiar emotions 
necessarily crowd upon my mind. One part of the leave-tak- 
ing was merely formal. When his majesty went to pay his 



DEPARTURE FROM LONDON. 147 

visits on departure, I, with other gentlemen of his suite, at- 
tended him in a second state-carriage, to the house of the Duke 
of Cambridge and to those of the queen's ministers. The etiquette, 
however, in such cases is, that the suite remain in the library and 
enter their names in a book left there for the purpose, whilst the 
crowned head alone takes his leave of the family in the drawing- 
room. These short drives, therefore, merely furnished opportunities 
of seeing the interiors of a few more houses, and I was happily soon 
released from this ceremonial. The other part of my leave-taking 
affected me more deeply. Alone, and once again reflecting calmly 
on all the peculiarities and greatness of the scenes by which I was 
surrounded, I took a solitary walk through some of the most 
splendid streets in the neighbourhood of the palace, such as St. 
James's Street, Piccadilly, and then through St. James's Park, 
where to-day every thing was remarkably still. The contrast 
between bustle and movement, quiet and repose, was very strik- 
ing. In such parks London, which everywhere appears great 
and mighty, may be called also beautiful. The extensive water, 
the sheep pasturing around, the large trees with their full foliage, 
and the lofty towers of Westminster Abbey majestically rising 
above them, all gave the impression, in the evening light, of some- 
thing both beautiful and grand ! Every thing appeared so peaceful, 
and at the same time so free and noble. A gentle rain fell upon 
the dry grass and renewed its verdure. I thought within myself — 
Shakspeare has probably trod this soil and viewed these scenes, and 
in him I felt myself more at home in the surrounding objects, of which 
on the morrow I must take my leave. A great mind, with whose 
feelings and ideas we deeply sympathise, always makes us more at 
home in and more intimate with the country in which that mind has 
been developed, its powers matured, and its fruits shed, than any 
thing else whatever. This is the circumstance which inspires us 
with such a feeling respecting Greece — and this, too, formerly gave 
to the whole western world such a longing after the scenes and 
recollections of the East. This it is which brings Italy nearer to us 
than its Apennines. And who is there that has a longing to see 
any country whatever without a history ? 

London, June 20th — Early. 
Every thing is already packed; servants are busy carrying 
cloaks and portfolios. Two gentlemen of the suite return to 
Saxony in one travelling carriage, and two others are retained 
for our journey through England and Scotland. In one his majesty 
the king travels, accompanied by Privy-councillor v. Gersdorf, 
his ambassador in London; and the second is assigned to Major 
Reichardt, his majesty's equerry, and myself."* Much of the travelling 
baggage also goes back direct to Dresden — therefore, there is nothing 
but hurry, running, asking questions, taking, and carrying ! After 
seeing my own affairs in order, I withdrew from the commotion, 

L2 



148 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

which always causes constraint and annoyance, to spend a quarter of 
an hour at my writing-table, in my agreeable chamber, in which I 
had become quite at home, and where the nicest paper and the best 
pens were always in readiness for me. — In the midst of such a scene, 
I think with pleasure on those of a very different character; for 
nothing sooner restores the equilibrium and impartiality of the 
mind, when disturbed by outward disquiets, than when, in the 
midst of the present, we transport ourselves to far other and different 
scenes ! 

On this occasion I represented to myself, how peculiar and different 
from this must be the morning preparations for departure of a travel- 
ling caravan in the East. The camels driven together to receive 
their loads — horses galloping about — negro slaves screeching — and 
seraskiers swearing — whilst, peaceful and glorious, the orb of day 
rises above the distant level horizon of the desert ! 

Time, however, advances. Order is restored, and I must take 
my leave — first of all of this peaceful chamber, in which, late in 
the evening, no sound of near disquiet interrupted reflection, and to 
which only that singular, incessant rolling of distant carriages forced 
its way, which proceeds from all the busy streets of London in a 
continuous sound, closely resembling very distant thunder, or the 
beating of the waves of the sea. I shall probably never visit this 
quiet room again. Now for a general parting. 



XXXII. 



JOURNEY THROUGH ENGLAND. 



Cambridge, June 20 — Evening. 

The first day of our journey has terminated most agreeably. At 
nine o'clock in the morning the carriages were in waiting at the pa- 
lace. Her Majesty the Queen, and Prince Albert, accompanied 
their royal guest to the great entrance hall, where we also were 
afforded an opportunity of paying our grateful respects to her ma- 
jesty and her consort, and immediately the carriages set off and we 
drove rapidly through London. The sky was gray — the air mild — 
and a gentle rain sprinkling the earth. We pursued the great 
north road, which passes under a lofty archway at Highgate, where 
a deep cutting is made to diminish the ascent, and a bridge thrown 
over to connect the two sides and form a cross road above. After 
passing the archway wc entered upon an extensive open district, 
which, towards noon, changed into a half-wooded and half agricul- 
tural country, interspersed with meadows. 

Soon after we approached the entrance into a large park, deer 



HATFIELD HOUSE. 149 

were lying under the lofty trees, and we found ourselves at Hat- 
field, a property belonging to the Marquis of Salisbury. 

The marquis, a vigorous and lively though elderly man, is a 
widower, and spends only a part of the autumn and winter at his 
residence at Hatfield House, an edifice of about two centuries and a 
half old. He had only just come here on this occasion to receive 
his majesty, and on our departure immediately rode back to Lon- 
don to attend his duties in parliament. The house is peculiar, built 
of red stone in a quadrangular Gothic style, and covered in many 
parts with ivy. The very entrance hall is singular. The wall to- 
wards the garden is made of filigree work, but only in fact apparently 
open, for on nearer examination it was seen that panes of glass were 
inserted between the stones. We first remained for some time in 
the great drawing-room, with which the rich old paneled walls, 
the furniture a hundred years old, and the whole decorations all 
harmonised; and were then conducted by the marquis himself 
through the different corridors and apartments of his house. 

Haghe in his English residences has given many picturesque views 
of Hatfield. The wide rich staircases covered with carvings, pro- 
duce a particularly splendid effect. Above these is a very large 
gallery, the whole of the walls of which are also panneled. The 
rooms are hung with family portraits, immense carved wooden seats 
stand by the fire-places; and a spacious adjacent corner, was capable 
of being changed into a separate chamber by turning round a 
portion of the ornamental wainscotting, — every thing was peculiar. 
In addition, a certain peculiarly romantic air of old times was spread 
over these rooms. This air arises, properly speaking, from the re- 
pose of loneliness, and made a wonderful impression on my mind. 
I have been, indeed, in other ancient castles, where this peculiar 
odour, half balsamic and half suggestive of still and dry decay, pre- 
vailed — which points far backward into ages past, and suggests recol- 
lections of olden times; and, thus, has such a strong poetical in- 
fluence on the mind. In this reflective spirit, I wandered through 
the numerous chambers, viewed the lofty carved canopied beds — 
the variegated gold embroidery on the couches — entered the small 
domestic chapel; and, finally, descended into the courts and farm- 
yard, where a half-ruined tower of red stone still remains, in which 
Elizabeth, when princess, was once kept a prisoner. 

The marquis now ordered a carriage in order to show a part, at 
least, of the park. Our first drive was to the vineyard. The way 
thither led through lofty limes and oaks, and by the side of mea- 
dows and plantations; a few magnificent oaks stood quite alone, and 
spoiled by the weather of their loftiest tops, they had become of 
such strength and foliage as to call to mind bread-fruit trees. 

Here, too, there was more freedom — the etiquette of Nature had 
ceased — heaths and grass grew luxuriously — the old trees threw 
out their mighty roots afar — in the free enjoyment of the bounties 
Nature had provided. What is called the vineyard is a more orna- 



150 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

mental and better kept portion of the park, situated behind a lodge 
overgrown with luxuriant ivy and flowering honeysuckle, and it was 
quite charming at the very entrance, when the eye, looking through 
a vista of yews over green terraces, fell upon a clear pond, beyond 
which a free young plantation presented a most picturesque back- 
ground. We went as far as this plantation, loitered here and there 
by the way, and then returned to the house, where an elegant lun- 
cheon stood ready in the large ancient hall, adorned with flags and 
coats of mail. I was constrained frequently to cast my eyes around — 
the large family portraits — the ancient gallery richly carved in dark 
coloured wood — the coats of arms — the great sideboard, and the 
marquis himself in a green old age; the old-fashioned powdered 
servants — the whole again formed a picture in itself in most har- 
monious keeping. 

Immediately after lunch we departed, and drove through the 
village of Hatfield, across an open agricultural country, and con- 
tinually brighter weather, through the town of Stevenage to Cam- 
bridge. 

It had become a very cheerful and beautiful evening, as we drove 
through the green pleasure-grounds around the city, and entered 
Cambridge, in which there was a delightful feeling of the quiet of 
a town of 20,000 inhabitants, after all the hurry and noise of the 
streets of London. A still spirit of silence seems to breathe around. 

Immediately on driving into the town, we passed the New 
Museum of Arts, built in the Grecian temple style, but not yet 
quite finished. This building owes its origin to a legacy left for the 
purpose, by the late Earl Fitzwilliam, who bequeathed a sum of 
100,000/. for its erection. Several of the old colleges next pre- 
sented their gray walls, crowned with turrets and ornamented 
Gothic panels — the slender Gothic church of St. Mary's was seen; 
and through the quiet streets, illumined by the evening sun, we 
drove into the first and richest of the colleges, Trinity, in which, 
since the days of Queen Elizabeth, it has been the custom for 
monarchs, as they journey, to sojourn. Our host was Dr. Whewell, 
the present master. 

Almost without any time for preparation, we followed our hos- 
pitable host, in order to obtain the clearest possible idea of the 
buildings and arrangements of this remarkable and celebrated old 
university. The spacious court of Trinity College, with its yellowish 
stone colour and lofty old Gothic architecture, produces a splendid 
effect. It was first founded in 1546, by Henry VIII. (Cambridge, 
in general, is so old, as to have been destroyed as early as the ninth 
century by the Danes.) The college contains about 400 students. 
The gate, especially, is in beautiful style — lofty, castellated, and 
ornamented with towers crowned with pinnacles ; it harmonises 
admirably with the adjoining buildings, which are very little lower. 
An ornamental Gothic fountain, in the open space within, has the 
very best effect. 



TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. 151 

The arrangement of these colleges is, moreover, very peculiar ; 
there are not less than seventeen of them, of which the oldest, St. 
Peter's, was founded as early as 1257. From 1700 to 1800 stu- 
dents, in all, reside within their walls; but each college has its own 
foundations, is regulated according to its own laws, and, by means 
of its teachers, called fellows, gives instruction to its own students in 
the ancient languages, mathematics, and theological morals, whilst 
the whole of the students are, in common, at liberty to attend, and 
do attend, the lectures of the university professors in the various 
faculties, according to their particular objects of study or professional 
views. The time of our visit was out of term, and but few students 
were in college. They all wear black gowns and caps, the fellows 
and masters a long black robe (almost like our clergy), and black 
cap, which has a broad, flat, square top. It is said that no small 
jealousy and rivalry exist among the various colleges; and I myself 
heard one of the fellows compare the state of feeling between Tri- 
nity and St. John's, to that between Athens and Sparta. We visited 
the gardens behind Trinity, and found the clear and broad waters 
of the Cam, which runs into the Ouse, and thus connects Cambridge 
with the sea. In these waters the students enjoy the most splendid 
opportunities of boating and rowing, which is seized upon with 
avidity, and the young men become adepts in the art. We next 
returned to the college buildings, in order to see the hall and the 
library. This college is proud of having ranked Newton amongst 
its fellows; a marble statue and a portrait of the great philosopher 
adorn the hall, and reliques of various descriptions are contained in 
the library. A portion of his hair, some manuscripts and instru- 
ments belonging to him, were shown to us; and among the last- 
mentioned, the earliest and imperfect form of his " Refractor." Among 
the MSS. were letters from foreign men of learning; and among 
the rest a letter from Voltaire, written in very correct English. The 
college is not less proud of Bacon of Verulam, whose portrait hangs 
beside that of Newton. In addition to these pre-eminent names, 
Ray, the naturalist, Dry den, Barrow, and other celebrated men of 
literature and learning, were formerly students, and Richard Bentley, 
master of the college. The present master, Dr. Whewell, is a man 
of solid learning, and among other languages so well versed in Ger- 
man, as to give to his countrymen a flowing translation of " Hermann 
and Dorothea," without being deterred by the difficulties of English 
hexameters. From want of time, it was impossible to devote at- 
tention to any more of the numerous curiosities which the library con- 
tains, than these already mentioned. There is here a copy of the 
Gospel, which is, undoubtedly, very valuable in the history of the 
arts ; it contains a number of pictures in the Byzantine mosaic-style, 
and is supposed, by Waagen, to be of the date of the eighth century. 
Some MSS. of Milton were also shown us, consisting of letters and 
other papers ; but the most interesting of all was the first plan of his 



152 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

" Paradise Lost," sketched in the form of a drama. The evening, 
however, was advancing, and it was time to dress for dinner. 

After our numerous state dinners in London, our comparatively 
quiet repast in the society of men of learning and a few highly edu- 
cated ladies was a true refreshment. The master had invited several 
fellows, Dr. Paget, a physician, and Dr. Clark, professor of anatomy. 
The conversation was lively, and the order of the entertainment it- 
self had in it something original. The system of carving at table, 
usual in all English houses, I first saw here regularly practised; 
a number of dishes are put upon the table at the same time, and 
every person carves the dish immediately placed before him, and 
helps the other guests. At the conclusion of the various courses 
of which the dinner was composed, a large silver bowl, filled with 
rose water, in which was placed a silver spoon, was set upon the 
table, and sent round, in order that each might take a portion upon 
a small plate, to dip his napkin in for the purpose of refreshing 
the face and hands ; this custom had something to me quite 
oriental in its observance. After this, the cloth was removed ; 
a silver tree-shaped service was placed in the centre of the polished 
table, laden with small dishes filled with confectionary and preserves - . 
In addition to this, there were dishes of fruits both dry and fresh, 
and a great variety of cakes and ornamental sugar work. Among the 
cakes, a portion of bride cake was particularly pointed out. This 
cake was a part of that which had been made after the wedding 
of the master with his very polite and agreeable lady, and* was, as 
such cakes in general are, rich, dry, and highly baked. They 
are often partly preserved for years, brought forward on great 
festive occasions, and eaten in small portions. The ladies having now 
retired, and the master having taken the seat of the lady of the 
house next his majesty the king, a small silver waggon, with cut 
decanters filled with port and sherry, was put in circulation on the 
smooth table, always from right to left, so as to allow every one to- 
help himself according to his pleasure. Finally, the gentlemen, too,, 
rose from table, followed the ladies into the drawing-room, found a 
sideboard with tea and coffee in an adjoining room, and thus a genu- 
ine English dinner was completed. 

As I have already said, I felt a particular pleasure in again finding 
myself in the company of men of learning alone, and especially, as I 
found, that I myself was already well known here through my 
works. My " Physiology" and " Comparative Anatomy," had not 
only been studied by the medical professors, but it furnished me, at 
the same time, with an opportunity of conversing upon other im- 
portant phenomena in our literature with Mr. Worsley, a lively young 
man and fellow of Trinity. He had read, for example, and highly 
valued Tieck's " Vittoria Accorombona." Moreover, just whilst I 
was engaged in a lively discussion with Drs. Paget and Clark upon 
the nervous system, a second Carus was introduced. He was a the- 



ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE. 153 

ologian — also a fellow — and had been in college already seventeen 
years. On this occasion, I learned that several families of the name 
are to be met with in the north of England. Some curiosity was 
expressed to hear how I pronounced the name, which proved to be 
very different from the English usage. It is probable these, too, 
are descended from Roman stock ; but which of us can lay claim to 
descent from the Emperor Cams, it would be difficult to discover ; 
it ^ would, perhaps, be easier for me to establish a connexion with 
Titus Lucretius Cams, the poet of nature. — We did not separate tiE 
a late hour. 



XXXIII. 

Woburn, June 21st — Evening. 

We lingered till after midday in Cambridge, and I have there 
learned and seen much, which seems to me indicative of the com- 
mencement of a new and fresh impulse in this otherwise anti- 
quated university. Of means of study, there is no deficiency ; the 
quiet of the place, the non-permission of theatres, and the non-ex- 
existence of manufactories and trade, are all favourable to the undis- 
turbed pursuit of knowledge. May the free spirit of knowledge 
more and more throw off those chains, in which Puritanic theology 
has so strictly bound almost every thing in England ! 

I was present at a characteristic scene in the house of the master of 
Trinity, at the customary early morning service before breakfast. It 
is the custom for the whole household to assemble ; the servants come 
in and seat themselves upon a row of seats near the windows. The 
master of the household takes his seat at a small table, with the 
Bible and prayer-book before him, reads a prayer, and then some 
chapters from the Bible ; next, whilst all kneel, he reads a long, long 
litany, which in almost the whole of its parts corresponds with that 
of the Catholic Church. The service finished, all rise, the servants 
depart, and then comes the breakfast, which in England, as is well 
known, is a very rich and multifarious affair. As for myself, the cus- 
tom was interesting for once; as a question of daily use, it must 
become tedious and ineffective, and presumes much time to spare. 

After breakfast, Dr. Whewell conducted the king and us to St. 
John's College, which contains about 300 students, and has been very 
recently rebuilt. A portion of the buildings lie on the further side of 
the Cam, and a covered bridge, constructed so as closely to resem- 
ble a Gothic corridor with glass windows, connects the two buildings. 

We next proceeded to the large university library, which contains 
170,000 volumes, and a great many curious works; among others, the 
first book published in England, in the year 1462, an important MS. 
codex of the New Testament, the poems of Hafiz, very ornamentally 
written in minute characters, and merely as the filling up of the per- 



154 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

son's name to whom the copy is dedicated, and several things of a 
similar kind. 

From thence we went to visit King's College, founded by Henry 
VI., as early as 1441, and especially for the reception of the Eton 
scholars. Its slender, lofty chapel (St. Mary's Church) is regarded 
as one of the finest Gothic buildings in England. The style differs 
completely from the German Gothic architecture. It belongs to the 
commencement of the sixteenth century, and by the rich interior deco- 
rations of its stone roof, reminds the spectator of Henry VII. 's chapel 
in Westminster. In my youth I had once made a drawing of this 
church after a copper-plate engraving, and longed anxiously to see 
the original. Now it was before me — slender, lofty, and light. As 
we entered the organ was played, and a very happy effect was pro- 
duced by the sunlight subdued by the lofty stained-glass windows. 
Thus it is that many of our expectations in life are fulfilled with a 
surprising richness, whilst many others not less or still more eagerly 
desired are destined never to be realised. By means of a wind- 
ing staircase in one of the towers, we ascended to the top of the 
singularly-constructed roof. Notwithstanding the low pitch of the 
roof, it is, nevertheless, very strong, and like that of the Cathe- 
dral of Milan, may be ascended by steps to the ridge. In the 
bright sunlight and clear sky the view over the town, with its nu- 
merous Gothic buildings, gardens, and the agreeable country round, 
was very beautiful; the stone dome beneath us — the blue firmament 
— the immense dome above us, and the richness around, produced 
upon my mind a more solemn impression than the litany of this 
morning ! 

Not far from the church is the mineralogical and geological col- 
lection of the university. Neither is very large; the latter, however, 
contains some very interesting specimens, among the rest a large fossil 
deer, an admirably preserved Plesiosaurus, above nine feet long ; and 
what for the first time I had seen in such perfect form, several spe- 
cimens of spiriferce, fossil shells, first described by Buckland, which 
between their valves contain a kind of skeleton or detached spiral, 
whose physiological value has not been yet clearly determined. 

We next examined the botanical garden, which appears as indif- 
ferently supplied as the museum of comparative and pathological 
anatomy. As, however, I happened to have time to remain here a 
little longer than in other departments, I discovered one among the 
pathological preparations, whose importance had hitherto escaped 
Dr. Clark himself* This collection also contains some very inte- 
resting skulls of savages, of which the curator presented me with one 
belonging to a New Zealander, which, as an anatomical vade mecum 
was henceforth to be my carriage companion during the rest of 
our excursions. 

* This was a case of Graviditas uterot ubaria, of whose remarkable conditions 
and transition to Graviditas inters titialis, English physicians appear hitherto to 
have little or no knowledge. 



WOBURN ABBEY. 155 

I now went to St. Peter's, whither his majesty also came, after 
having, in the mean time, visited the observatory, and after partaking 
of a rich luncheon in this college, the carriages drove up, and we 
were soon again en route. 

The weather was beautiful; and as we drove across the level and 
well-cultivated country, we had a free view of the atmosphere, and 
it struck me forcibly for the first time how peculiar the structure of 
the clouds of the cumulus and cirrus region are, which appear over 
this island ; their difference from those of other countries is difficult 
to describe ; but when seen their peculiarity is not to be mistaken. 
The next considerable place on our route was Bedford, where the 
arrival of the king collected a great crowd of people, notwithstanding 
his incognito, and soon after we came to the avenues leading to Wo- 
burn Abbey, the noble possession of the Duke of Bedford, who was 
then absent. 

The abbey is approached under lofty trees and through extensive 
pastures, covered with herds of deer. On our way thither, I know not 
why, but probably merely led by the name, I had imagined the ruins 
of an old and picturesque building, but found myself completely de- 
ceived when I saw before me a long, uniform, and heavy palace build- 
ing, erected some fifty years ago, whose interior, moreover, presented 
nothing more extraordinary than its externals. The long suites of 
rooms contain many family and other portraits, as well as many land- 
scapes, among which there is only one good, but that is really precious, 
by Caspar Poussin. I had never previously seen any thing like it 
from the hand of this artist; the whole tone of the picture is so mild, 
clear, and pure, that it might be ascribed to Claude. Daylight 
is just departing over distant water; it recalled to my recollection 
that passage in Dante, in which he says of the pilgrim, that he heard 
the evening bell from afar 

" Che paja '1 giorno pianger, die si muore." 

Adjoining the gardens there is a gallery of antiques and sculpture, 
in which there are some interesting things. A relief by Thorwald- 
sen is very beautiful, representing " Achilles being supplicated for 
the Body of Hector;" not less so is the Torso of an antique Bacchus. 
I was also much interested with a copy of the large and celebrated 
Warwick vase, with its comic masks; and, finally, I must not omit 
to mention among the remarkable objects, a large Roman sarcophagus 
with reliefs, of rather rude workmanship. 

The grounds themselves had, in my eyes, something desultory. 
What struck me as prettiest was the view from the terrace near the 
house, when the eye wanders over the extensive grassy park, on 
which were pasturing deer lying in groups, and a wide pond of clear 
water stretched out before the view. 

There was a beautiful sunset, but before it began to grow dark, 
we still found time to have a look at the duke's forcing-houses, which 
lie at some distance from the abbey. These long rows of houses 



156 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

contain the most excellent grapes and peaches, and are so arranged 
as to have fruit always ripe, in order that whatever time the owner 
passes at his residence here, the noblest fruits may be always at hand. 
I thought these houses, in every sense, more tasty than the situa- 
tion and arrangements of the abbey itself. 

Woburn, where we spent the night, is close to the park of the 
abbey, and appears to be a very small place, in which, in the evening, 
a genuine, simple English tea with some cold fowl and other addi- 
tions, formed a welcome substitute for the late dinners of which we 
had hitherto partaken. 



XXXIV. 

Bakewell (Derbyshire), June 22nd — Evening. 

A true railway day ! How would it be possible to traverse such 
a piece of England as from Woburn through Chesterfield to this place 
with such rapidity, were it not for these fiery chariots ? 

We left Woburn at six o'clock in the morning, with fine clear 
weather, and driving through a hilly and well- cultivated country, 
reached the large station of the London and Birmingham railway at 
Wolverton, at a quarter before eight o'clock. The carriages were im- 
mediately placed upon the proper trucks ; the train from London arrived. 
His majesty preferred our remaining in the open carriage on the truck, 
and immediately after eight the train started which brought us through 
Leicester to Derby at twelve o'clock. Riding in an open and shak- 
ing carriage so elevated was at first somewhat startling ! Dragged 
along backwards by the snorting engine with such rapidity, under 
thundering bridges, over lofty viaducts, and through long dark tun- 
nels filled with smoke and steam ! By and by, however, we became 
accustomed even to this, and came to look with composure upon the 
extensive, pretty, and quickly changing country, the loaded boats as 
they passed on the canals, the roaring and whistling trains as they 
rushed past (one with a whole herd of oxen, penned in carriages), 
and the wonderful pushing, going and coming, getting out and 
getting in, carrying and bringing at the different stations. 

Did time permit, there were materials for extended considerations. 
A sentimental journey a la Yorick, becomes more and more impos- 
sible ! The latest newspapers were constantly offered at the stations ; 
we bought some, and the rapidity with which news is here circulated 
may be guessed from the circumstance, that the Times of this morn- 
ing just arrived, gave a full and minute account of his majesty's visit 
to Hatfield House yesterday ! In this manner, all that takes place 
at the court in London, visits, invitations, excursions, &c., are par- 
ticularly chronicled and printed in all the newspapers, and now I 
see that the reporters, even on their journey, report with the same 



DERBY STATION. 157 

rapidity. At every station a person in one of the nearest carriages 
kept continually looking towards our carriage, and fixed his eyes 
upon us as if he were working upon a sketch of the travelling 
equipage for a wood cut in the Illustrated News! I confess that 
all this spying and universal small talk of the newpapers seems to 
me to be doubly mischievous : first, to the people who are thus ac- 
customed to trouble themselves about a multitude of trivial circum- 
stances, family affairs, and the most ordinary events ; and, secondly, 
for those who are the objects of such incessant prying and observa- 
tion. Such a people as the English should be far above such lit- 
tleness ! 

A wonderful place is the immense station at Derby ! There was 
half an hour's delay, because several railways cross each other, and 
the trains are separated and re-formed for their further destination. 
We availed ourselves of the time, in order to obtain a more complete 
idea of the various arrangements of the station. Every thing is on 
an immense scale. A great number of railways cross this colossal 
court, intended to accommodate several companies. About 100 en- 
gines are always ready; and in the middle of the court there is a 
large round building with a cupola, into which the engines which 
have just been used are pushed, and placed concentrically on a large 
revolving metal plate, and easily turned round, so as to be readily 
replaced upon any of the converging radial lines, on which they are 
next to be employed. Not less than sixteen engines were standing in 
this immense rotunda, and I compared the whole to a colossal stable 
built for the reception of these snorting and roaring railway horses. 
Close by these is a hospital, too, for the lamed or diseased cattle, to 
which they are sent in case of need. Engines which are in any 
respect defective, or have received injuries, are sent thither to be 
examined and repaired; and, as may naturally be supposed, the 
workshops for the construction or repair of these steam-engines, have 
their own machinery put in motion by steam. 

At the end of the half hour our train left Derby, and we then 
entered upon the calcareous region which contains coal-beds. The 
limestone forms immense layers, which are either passed by very 
deep cuttings, such as we passed through before reaching Leicester, 
or penetrated by tunnels. The works in such cases are very fa- 
vourable to the study of natural history ; by their means many very 
interesting fossils have been discovered, which now adorn the 
various English collections. The country, too, is here upon a 
grander scale — diversified with hills, and well-watered valleys — lofty 
broken rocks, and long chains of hills alternate agreeably with one 
another. 

At half-past one we arrived at the Chesterfield station, where we 
left the railway. This small ancient town is situated upon elevated 
ground, and is remarkable for the crooked steeple which terminates 
the tower of its church, said to have been built in the thirteenth 
century. It happened to be a fair time at Chesterfield, and every 



158 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

thing gave distinctive evidence of the peculiarity of a small country- 
town, in the centre of England, without any considerable manufac- 
tures or trade, and in a hilly district. Before the windows of the 
inn at which we stopped, all the small dealing and bargaining of the 
country people making their purchases was actively going forward. 
We enjoyed a true English dinner — excellent beef and capital claret. 
In the mean time the carriages had been brought up, and the horses 
put to, and an excursion was undertaken to an ancient neighbour- 
ing seat belonging to the Duke of Devonshire — Hardwick Hall. 
The way thither proceeds chiefly along high ground; the weather 
was splendid, the view over the green valleys charming, and the 
pure clear air, after the smoky atmosphere of the railway, very 
refreshing and agreeable. After a short ride over hill and dale, 
we soon reached one of the numerous gates, which separate the 
divisions of the park. These were opened by a groom who gal- 
loped on before, and the surrounding scenery became more and 
more beautiful. I must here add a word on these divisions in the 
English parks. The vast number of deer, as well as herds of cattle 
and flocks of sheep which are enclosed in different parts of the 
park, render such gates indispensable. In order, however, that the 
obstruction on the roads may not be too great, a species of wooden 
railed gate has been adopted, which opens wide on a hinge, and 
is so constructed, as, when let go, to close of itself. The fastening 
consists merely of a latch, so made, that a person on horseback can 
readily raise the bolt with a hook attached to the handle of his whip, 
and thus open the gate. He is no sooner through than the gate 
shuts of itself, and the latch resumes its position. It is usual to meet 
with many such gates in every English park. 

As we skirted the hill, we soon came in sight, from a distance, of 
the Hall and its picturesque scenery. The trees around are splendid, 
and it rejoices one to see how the old time-beaten oaks, with their 
dry knotty branches, are preserved with reverence. On the hilly pas- 
tures were deer in abundance — and, finally, the castle itself. It con- 
sists of two parts ; one is a complete ruin, and thickly overgrown 
with ivy; the other is still habitable, but very rarely inhabited. 
Both present a most peculiar physiognomy. The older part was the 
residence of the Hardwicks in the reign of Henry VII. ; the more 
modern was built in the latter half of the sixteenth century, by 
Elizabeth Countess of Shrewsbury, who inherited this possession as 
female heir of the Hardwicks, and died in 1607. This lady was 
four times married — inherited large possessions from her husbands ; 
and by this means, as well as the prudent marriages of her children, 
she brought together an enormous property, and laid the foundation 
of four dukedoms. Her first husband was a Cavendish, and her 
last that Earl of Shrewsbury to whose keeping Mary Stuart was 
committed as a prisoner. The unfortunate queen long occupied 
apartments in a part of the castle, now in ruins, and in the neigh- 
bouring Wingfield manor-house, now gone to decay. This building 



HARDWICK HALL. 159 

bears all the characteristics of the time of Elizabeth, with its high 
lattice windows, thickly clothed around on the outside with ivy, its 
stone floors covered with straw mats and carpets, its old worked 
tapestry and curiously-carved furniture — every thing had the colour- 
ing of that age. I may say that this was the first building which com- 
pletely corresponded to my idea of the great simplicity combined 
with the knightly grandeur of old " Merry England !" In the hall 
there is a statue of Mary Stuart, of but inferior execution, with the 
inscription — 

" A suis in exilium acta 1568 
Ab hospita neci data 1587." 

In a little chamber above, the furniture of which had been brought 
from the old castle, were shown the fringes of a bed-curtain, em- 
broidered by the unfortunate Mary herself, and marked with the 
initials, M. S. 

The large upper room is particularly remarkable, with its worked 
tapestry and parti-coloured bas-reliefs over the doors; in the side 
wall there is a colossal fire-place, above which are placed the arms of 
Queen Elizabeth, with the old Norman-French motto above, " Dieu 
eist mon droit." In the middle of the room there stands a large old 
wooden table inlaid with various coloured woods and curiously 
wrought. A kind of Quodllbet appears scattered about upon the 
table — maps, coats-of-arms, and mottoes — (that of the Cavendish 
family " cavendo tutus") — draft-boards and musical instruments of 
different kinds, accompanied by music books, on one of which a 
psalm is set for three voices, in very old notes. These things might 
be not unimportant in the history of music. 

In addition to the one just mentioned, there is another large room, 
in which the Duke of Devonshire has hung about 200 historical 
portraits — very few of them are even tolerably executed. It was, 
therefore, much more interesting to me to follow our conductor up 
to the almost flat roof of the house, where, between the highly- 
ornamented stacks of chimneys, four detached chambers are built 
somewhat in the fashion of corner towers. The galleries of the plat- 
form, as well as the flower-beds in the garden, surrounded with box 
wood, are everywhere marked with the letters E. S. (Elizabeth 
Shrewsbury). The view is extensive and beautiful; — the rich 
woods of the park — the old ivy clad ruin opposite — below, grassy 
meadows and fields, with the distant villages and blue hills in the 
horizon — all appeared very beautiful in the warm afternoon sun- 
light. 

Finally, we proceeded to the old ivy-clad castle almost completely 
overgrown with trees ! What studies might be here made ! The 
old lofty corner towers without a roof, covered with grass and foliage 
— young trees pushing their tender shoots through the broken stone 
mullions of the windows — the dilapidated walls — the court of the 
castle overgrown with luxuriant trefoil, affording food and pastime 
for multitudes of humming-bees, busy in the warm sunshine. It 



160 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

was difficult to know whither first to turn one's eyes. There is still 
a room above almost in ruins, and reached with difficulty by an 
unstable stair which is peculiarly beautiful, with its open windows 
clad with ivy, and its reliefs still partially visible. There is also 
an old chimney-piece remaining. Here, on a warm moonlight 
evening, the room lighted by a fire flickering upon the hearth — 
without, the balmy night air, and within a select society of persons. 
Here is a place to become absorbed in the most multifarious recollec- 
tions ! With these impressions we left Hard wick, enjoyed a last 
beautiful look back upon the Hall proudly seated on its elevated 
situation, and were immediately borne from its sight by a bending 
in the road. 

We drove back to Chesterfield, where in the mean time the news 
of the king's arrival had brought together a multitude of people 
round the inn, who did not suffer the exalted traveller to depart 
without hearty cheers. From Chesterfield, the road hither led us 
more and more into the Peak district. Large quarries by the way 
side showed us that we were in the region of the calcareous strata, 
often visibly consisting of conglomerate shells, which, on rubbing, 
emit the smell of sulphur ore. The features of the country become 
more mountainous, the lofty ridges more imposing, and there are 
extensive mountain slopes so overgrown with thick, dark-green 
heath, that the black rocks and this violet-green present a striking 
contrast. It was already becoming dark when we arrived at this 
place, which, although small, has an elegant inn, and afforded us 
excellent accommodation. 



XXXV. 

Bakewell, June 23rd — Evening. 
To-day is Sunday — the morning brought repose and quiet, and, 
left to myself, I was free to indulge in a solitary walk upon the 
heights above the little town. The morning was very clear, and the 
air delightful. The little town below lay before me in all its beauty, 
with its old Gothic church steeple springing up above the surround- 
ing lime-trees, the slightly wooded ridges of the limestone mountains 
stretched afar, with their green valleys between. Near me were 
spread out large green meadows, separated from one another by 
stone walls, in which the cattle were pasturing without a herdsman. 
The dew was still upon the grass, and the larks singing in the sky. 
I examined the stone of these rudely-constructed walls, and the 
whole was composed of nothing else than a thick conglomerate of 
shells; the limestone here and there crystalline. Thus it is that 
habitations serve for habitations again, and through the endless series, 
the waxing and waning of living races are intimately wound up 



CHATSWORTH. 161 

with one another; one thing alone always shows itself, the observa- 
tion of the conscious mind, which everywhere thus proves its im- 
mortality ! But what is immortal ? — it is 

" Der Gehalt in Deinem Busen, 
Und die Form in Deinem Geist!'' 

" The substance in thy breast, and the form in thy intellect.!' 

The repose and solitude' of this early walk produced a most 
agreeable effect, and I entered the carriage with cheerfulness, when 
his majesty, in the afternoon, resolved to proceed to Chats worth, 
another seat belonging to the Duke of Devonshire, and one of the 
largest and most magnificent country-seats in England. The way 
thither was beautiful, and led through a green, well- watered valley, 
richly planted with trees. Then came the view from a distance of 
Chatsworth itself, in every sense magnificent, situated on a gently 
rising ground. The main edifice is adorned with channeled 
pilasters of the Ionic order; adjoining it is an additional structure of 
somewhat less elevation, terminating in a lofty open hall with 
columns, which represents the flag-tower. 

Both the main edifice and its wing are surrounded by a court, 
entered by a splendid gate," which is closed by a gilt grating and 
richly adorned with columns. The windows also in front of the 
palace have gilt frames, and under the windows runs a terrace along 
the river side, protected by balustrades on which there is a fountain, 
whose waters fall in spray into basins of white marble. 

We drove through the gilt gate, and found the house itself a 
most princely mansion. In all directions marble walls and pillars, 
statues, gold," and painting, met the eye. A luxurious lunch stood, 
ready in a chaste and cool apartment, in which the water trickles into 
a gray polished marble basin, and large white stalactites hang down 
from colossal Champagne glasses on a marble slab, representing as it 
were the foaming Champagne itself suddenly changed by enchant- 
ment into stone. 

The view of the splendid apartments, and of the large and not less 
splendid library was rendered particularly interesting by the celebrated 
" Liber Veritatis" of Claude, which is preserved in the latter. We 
hastily looked through the whole volume of about three fingers' 
breadth, in which, as it is said, are to be found sketches of all his 
pictures. I found in it both our Dresden Claudes, which appear 
to be executed almost with more genius in the sketch than in the 
finished picture, especially " The Coast of Sicily." I recognised 
many others, also, but in many, too, the sketch may never have 
been finished. Some are done with extraordinary haste, others are 
treated somewhat more carefully, and are very beautiful as drawings. 
In a corridor adjoining the library (too much exposed to the sun and 
light), there is a large collection of drawings glazed and framed. It 
contains several very remarkable pieces by Raphael, Michael Angelo, 
Salvator Rosa, Rembrandt, Claude, Albert D'urer, and others. This 

M 



162 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

collection alone would require a whole day's study ! In the other 
apartments, there are also many old and new oil paintings, especially 
splendid portraits by Van Dyck, and one of singular excellence by 
Rembrandt. Among the recent paintings, the most distinguished is 
the " Return from the Hunt," by Landseer, in which the dead stag 
is most admirably treated. Notwithstanding these beauties it was 
impossible to restrain the eye from gazing through the immense 
window panes upon the beautiful surrounding objects, the magnifi- 
cent garden, and the lofty fountains of dazzling whiteness, the 
largest of which was still unfinished at the time of our visit. In the 
glorious sunlight this was indeed an enchanting prospect, and at the 
same time through other windows a view was presented of a large 
cascade rolling and foaming through the surrounding foliage of the 
hills over broad steps of marble — nothing but enchantment and 
beauty ! 

Among the ornaments of this "room, I must particularly mention 
the admirable wood carvings by Gibbons — especially some carved 
birds. Over one of the chimney-pieces, around a compartment, as it 
were a field of the wall, there was a garland of thrushes and part- 
ridges represented in a row, just as a sportsman would bring them 
home. The different situations of the- dead birds, the falling of the 
wings, the softness of the feathers, are all so beautiful as to excite sur- 
prise and astonishment at the execution of such objects in wood. A 
piece of the bird-net, also worked in wood, has not been forgotten by 
the artist, as the proper appendage to the groups. We now de- 
scended to the lower rooms — on one side opens a magnificent bath, 
which is so large as to admit of swimming, whilst on the other side 
lies the great marble sculpture gallery, where the duke has brought 
together and splendidly arranged a great number of modern works : — 
a " Venus" by Thorwaldsen is the most important; next to that, " the 
Mother of Napoleon," and a " Hebe" by Canova. The last mentioned 
is, perhaps, the best work of the artist. The collection also contains an 
" Endymion" by him, which, however, is not so satisfactory in itself, 
nor to be praised on account of the too brightly polished surface. 
Besides these, there is statuary in masses, Bartolini would say " une 
fortt de statues" and among other vases a large and splendidly 
polished granite basin by Cantian of Berlin. The beauty of the 
exhibition is increased by the gallery opening immediately into a 
large Viridarium, in which oranges, araucariae, rhododendrons and 
camelias, with their deep green, offer an excellent background for 
the white marble statues, all the year through. 

Through this viridarium we passed into the garden, and proceeded 
immediately into a conservatory, where the rarest plants, such as ca- 
suarias, acacias, and glycinas (of enormous size) spread out their 
branches on a lofty wall, heated from within in winter, and covered 
externally with matting. This spot was an extremely favourable point, 
as affording a general view of the whole palace and grounds — a view 
which, in the bright sunlight, reminded us of the enchanted gardens 
of Armida. Before us lay the extensive, splendid palace, above 



CHATSWORTH. 163 

which was seen the outline of the hills ; there sparkled the fountains 
richly adorned with Tritons and sea-horses; and here sprang up 
from the midst of hedges of roses in full bloom, marble statues and 
Grecian columns entwined with beautiful roses, at the foot of 
gently sloping lawns ; whilst on one side the copious waters of the 
mountain stream rushed foaming over its marble steps, from the 
midst of the woods. In the happiest dreams something so fairy-like 
may have presented itself to mortal vision; such a reality I had 
never seen before ! 

W e now proceeded further to. the giant hothouse, which had been 
previously concealed from our view by a w r ood, in which the duke is at 
present forming an artificial rocky valley. Such beauties are wanting 
in the immediate neighbourhood, and in order to combine this charm 
with all the others which his grounds present, no cost has been spared 
by the noble owner; enormous blocks have been brought in multi- 
tudes to the spot, and rocks heaped upon rocks, so as to furnish no 
bad imitation of the Ottowalder Grund, in what is generally called 
the Saxon Switzerland. This is none of those petty rockeries which 
are to be seen in many so-called English gardens in Germany; 
but an actual scenic and wild rocky valley, among lofty beech 
trees, will be here presented to the eye. The largest of all the conser- 
vatories stands immediately behind these still uncompleted grounds ; 
the structure is made wholly of glass, wood, and iron, after the plan 
of Mr. Paxton, the curator of the duke's gardens, by whom all these 
improvements have been planned, and under whose supervision they 
are executed. It corresponds completely to the character of the park, 
which contains 1121 acres, is eleven miles in circumference, and in- 
cludes three villages. The building is 277 feet long, 122 wide, and 
sixty high. It has been calculated that the glass measures 62,000 
square feet ; that the frames would reach fort}^ miles, and that the 
whole of the w 7 ater and steam-pipes together are six miles in length. 
The house contains a gallery running round the whole of its ex- 
tent, and it would be quite possible to drive into it with a coach 
and four ! Within the conservatory there are rockeries with tropical 
plants, artificial marshes with the lotus and papyrus ; Italian gardens, 
Indian shrubberies, American productions of the torrid zone, ferns, 
immense climbers, palms of the most various kinds, &c. The whole 
has been only completed about three years; how splendid will it be- 
come in the course of a short time, when the magnificent plants wdxich 
it contains are more developed ? 

The artistical existence of the duke is undoubtedly great and impor- 
tant ; may his natural existence also bring him happiness ! He is said to 
be very beneficent and good. He has remained unmarried, as it is said, 
for family reasons. This property was conferred by William the Con- 
queror upon his own natural son, called William Peveril; at a later 
period it came into the possession of the Cavendishes, and was also im- 
proved by the Countess of Shrewsbury. The present house was 
built by the first Duke of Devonshire, in 1702, after the plan of an 

M 2 



164 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

architect named Talman. Queen Mary Stuart during her imprison* 
ment often passed her time in Chatsworth, and a small stone alcove 
in the garden, projecting into the water, is still called Queen Mary's 
bower. The present duke gave a series of splendid entertainments 
to the queen, when she paid a visit to Chatsworth a few years ao-o, 
and the illumination of the park and house especially is said to have 
been one of the most splendid things ever seen. 

The kitchen gardens and greenhouses lie at some distance from 
the house, and, under the guidance of Mr. Paxton, we drove there 
as well as to the model village. In the forcing-houses we found the 
largest grapes and peaches becoming ripe, and the smaller ones con- 
tained many remarkable plants; the amherstia nobilis was especially 
pointed out to us as a great rarity. At some distance from and op- 
posite the house lies a kind of model village, consisting solely of small 
ornamental stone cottages, built at the expense of the duke, in the 
Anglo-Gothic style, and let out to occupiers at low rents. This being 
Sunday it looked particularly pretty ! All the families, the people in 
their holiday dresses, were collected before the doors. The neat 
houses lie back, the doors frequently adorned with roses, and all of 
them have small and pretty gardens planted with laurels and other 
evergreens. Near this village again is situated the large farm-yard,, 
which belongs to the duke's demesne, and in which the arrangements 
for breeding and feeding cattle are extraordinary. The doors of some 
of the stalls were opened, and the poor creatures brought out, many of 
which are loaded with enormous masses of fat, for the benefit of the 
cook. A prize cow, and a fatted hog, which had also been a suc- 
cessful candidate for honours, were exhibited, as well as a cow of 
a year or a year and a half old, with its fine bones and smooth broad 
back. In short, we here received a full proof of the manner in 
which farming and useful operations are especially carried on in 
connexion with all that is great and beautiful. 

I could not take my departure from this magnificent seat without 
a number of reflections on the unequal manner in which the goods 
of fortune are distributed ! Leaving Chatsworth in the evening, we 
drove through beautifully green and well-watered valleys to Had- 
don Hall, an ancient uninhabited seat belonging to the Duke of 
Rutland, which, desolate and romantic, afforded the strongest con- 
trast to the full and detailed splendour of the preceding. Morrison 
has published a particular work on Haddon Hall, which contains a 
number of admirably lithographed views of these old walls, treated in 
a most ornamental style. This seat in early times belonged to the 
Avcnels, and from them came to the Vernons. Sir John Vernon, 
the last of this family, on account of his magnificent hospitality and 
open house, was called the " King of the Peak*" His daughter is 
said to have been carried off by one of the Manners family. By her 
the possession came into this family, of which the Duke of Rutland 
is the head. Nothing whatever has been added to the building since 
the sixteenth century, and the hall has been by degrees altogether 



HADDON HALL. 165 

forsaken, and so it has now stood for two hundred years empty, with 
the exception of some remnants of ancient furniture. The house is, 
however, protected against complete decay, and upon the mind of 
the lonely stranger produces all the effect of a tradition of the olden 
times. The hall stands on the declivity of a wood, on the steep, 
rocky banks of the little river Wye. The ancient gray towers shoot 
boldly up, thick ivy covers many of the walls, the old doors in the inte- 
rior of the house are riven, pieces of ancient tapestry still hang upon 
•the walls, and a peculiar death-like air breathes through the narrow 
passages and small chambers. Spirits must have their dwelling there ! 
In the twilight a bat was wheeling its course through the kitchen, 
and the dark- green of the surrounding woods looked wonderfully 
curious through the old windows. I could have employed hours 
•alone, drawing and dreaming in the midst of these scenes ! How 
wonderful every thing appeared in the old hall ! A few helmets 
were lying scattered about, and the real wooden table was still there, 
at which many a knight and squire may have sat in olden times; 
and in one of the panes of glass the year 1586 was cut. Add to all 
this, that the deep glow of the evening shed a peculiarly warm light 
through the windows, and within, it began to assume a ghostly ob- 
scurity ! No more favourable moment could have been selected for 
visiting this fragment of the remote history of England. 

We ascended the tower called the Eagle Tower, which is, how- 
ever, not very high. The view of the gardens and chapel, of valley, 
mountain, and woods, with their noble foliage, was splendid ! We 
descended, and went to visit a spot not far from the hall, where the 
warder of this empty quiet castle has his small and peaceful dwelling. 
How gladly would I have remained a few days with him ! But the 
course of our journey dragged me away. The evening was beau- 
tiful, the crescent moon rose on our left, and an agreeable valley 
conducted us back to Bakewell at rather a late hour. 



XXXVI. 

Matlock, June 24th — Evening. 
This proved a somewhat stormy day, with the first British 
tempest. We took our departure early from Bakewell, and drove 
over the heights of the Peak to Castleton. As our carriages pursued 
the ups and downs of the mountain way, the clouds spread them- 
selves like a dark mist over the magnificent mountains. Just as we 
were descending on the last large hill before reaching this poor little 
place, the rain began to fall. Happily the most important things to 
be seen there were underground. Close to Castleton is the cele- 
brated Peak Cavern, or Devil's Cave, and not far distant are many 
other excavations in the limestone hills of the district. 



166 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

At the bottom of a large and deep ravine, lies the immense mouth 
of this huge cavity. The wide door yawned gloomy and dark; 
jack-daws flew out from its roof; and as we drew nearer, we saw 
that the entrance was occupied by several families, as a flax-spinning 
establishment. This simple manufactory, still existing in its natural 
condition, has been located here for above a century. We were here 
provided with lights by a guide, and prepared for penetrating into 
the depths of the gloomy cavern. At first, a wide and lofty vaulted 
way leads progressively downwards; it, however, soon becomes nar- 
rower, the rocks hang further down, and at length water is reached, 
which appears completely to bar further progress. The guide now 
brings a small boat, strewed with straw, and one after another, or, 
at most, two at a time, lie down in the boat, holding the lights upon 
their breasts; the guide goes into the water and pushes the boat 
before him, where there is scarcely room for the prostrate passenger 
to pass under the immense depending rocks — wondrous ferry ! It has 
a near resemblance to the passage into the shades under the conduct 
of Charon, in his slender boat — and this little piece of water is there- 
fore called the Styx. Dante was often in my mind whilst engaged 
in this extraordinary visit. Shall I also see the three kingdoms, in 
order more and more inwardly to complete the conception ? It ap- 
pears almost even so ! The further shore was soon gained, and having 
once more set foot on solid ground, we proceeded forwards over 
moist stones, under a vaulted roof, again become more lofty. The 
shaking and noise of the stones under foot, as described by Dante, soon 
gave proof that ours was no tread of spirits, like those of Virgil, who 
passed over the stones without causing them even to move. In this 
way we passed onward, through many compartments without sta- 
lactites, but often very singularly formed, and at length reached the 
largest cave, which was splendidly illuminated with Grecian fire. 
The guide, in order to give better effect to the lights, had not 
so much climbed as run up high into the clefts of the rocks, so 
that I proposed to designate him a " subterranean Chamois." I 
should have found it impossible to practise such gymnastics in such 
a place. On our return another cavern was explored, in which a 
small cannon was discharged. The effect was singular ! The lofty 
and extensive rock walls of the cavern shook and resounded for a 
long time in the most remarkable mariner. It produced a pe- 
culiar booming and motion, which proved that the apparently 
firmest things in the earth, such as these giant rocks, can be put in 
a state of violent agitation by what are apparently the tenderest — air 
and sound. Is an earthquake any thing else than a motion of this 
kind upon a large scale? 

Still further, on our return, we visited another division of the 
cavern, which was illumined by a number of lights stuck round 
the sides ; and at last, also with Bengal fire ; but by far the most 
beautiful in my mind, after having recrossed the Styx, was the 
ascent towards the mouth, and the observation of the singular effect 



THE PEAK. 167 

of tlie daylight ! This effect was something very peculiar. The bluish 
light penetrated, somewhat like the early morning dawn, into a room 
illumined with candles, and produced shadows of the most various 
kinds. The light even of the gloomy sky of this lowering day 
penetrated far into the dark recess, caused wondrous shadows from 
the projecting corners and deep clefts of the rocks, and produced a 
yellowish play of colours. I remained far behind, and alone, to ex- 
amine these phenomena with great care. When we left the cavern 
the rain was over, but a peculiar sultriness remained in the air. 

We here purchased many specimens of cut stones, cups, and the 
like, by means of which it was possible clearly to exhibit the richness 
of the different limestone formations, and of the Derbyshire spar found 
in the Peak hills. I procured some pieces, upon the cut surface of 
which the most beautiful corals and madrepores were distinctly 
visible. Here, too, all was once covered by the sea, and every 
thing is the production of animal life ! 

Above Castleton lie the ruins of Peveril Castle, which occupies 
a prominent place in the history and traditions of England. It is 
the scene of Walter Scott's " Peveril of the Peak." John of Gaunt 
once occupied this castle, which is said to have been built by Wil- 
liam Peveril, natural son of William the Conqueror; and Robin 
Hood played his right merry pranks around this district. Deep 
and rugged ravines stretch from the castle down towards the great 
cavern ; but in themselves the ruins are insignificant. 

The carriages were then sent forward, and we proposed to follow 
them on foot, through a bare mountain ravine, at the top of which 
there are some lead mines. On our way thither we passed the 
entrance of another cavern, which was also to be visited. From 
the warm suffocating air, we descended by a narrow stair, as if into 
a tomb, and felt a very sensible change of temperature. Here again 
we found water ; a large boat was ready, into which we entered to- 
gether, provided with our lights, and were shoved through this water- 
passage, for the rocks were blasted by art, to a great distance within. 
At length we arrived at an immeasurable natural cleft in the interior of 
the mountain, when we disembarked, and again observed the effect 
of the Bengal lights ; on the other side, the eye could penetrate far 
into a deep abyss, into which stones, when thrown, plunged into 
water far beneath. Again to the boat, and again a long and tedious 
passage through the adit to the stairs ! On our way back the two guides 
sang a pretty popular song, in parts, and really harmoniously ! 
So much the more unmelodious was the music which greeted 
us on our exit from the cave ! We shall have reason to congratu- 
late ourselves, if none of us carry away with us a cold from this 
music of the caves, not to say the music of the Inferno. 

The walk through the desert valley to the rocks, which are called 
" The Wind Gates," was spoiled by pouring rain, mixed with 
frequent and loud claps of thunder ; upon the whole, however, this 
violent thunder-storm, with the gloomy, sultry atmosphere, har- 



168 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

monised well with the ravine, and its uniform green sloping 
banks and black rocks. Above were heaps of refuse, and the 
buildings connected with the mines, which are called Odin's 
mines, by which name, as well as by that of a neighbouring moun- 
tain, Mam-Tor, the memorials of the ancient German divinities are 
preserved. 

After a good wetting, we here entered the carriages, rolled our- 
selves in our cloaks, and were literally dried by the heat of the sun, 
which again broke forth. Leaving the mines, and traversing ex- 
tensive hilly districts, we arrived in a very cheerful humour, and 
under a clear sky, at noon, in Buxton. This whole town is, pro- 
perly speaking, represented by a large crescent of good houses, 
built at the expense of the Duke of Devonshire, to whom the place 
belongs. The baths connected with this watering-place, a large 
hotel, and a number of lodging-houses, are in the crescent — and 
just opposite lies a piece of elevated ground, laid out in walks, and 
adorned with shrubs. I visited the springs and baths. The water 
is very strongly impregnated with lime, and has a natural tempera- 
ture of 82° Fahrenheit. This watering-place is often visited merely 
on account of the beautiful surrounding; neighbourhood — and the 

• . . OCT 

visiters are said to exceed 12,000 in a season. We only stopped 
here long enough to take a luncheon, and then returned by the 
shortest road to Bakewell, and from thence to Matlock, which is 
also a watering-place. Immediately on leaving Buxton, we passed 
very imposing masses of rocks and wide valleys. Horses were changed 
in Bakewell, amidst great crowds of people and ringing of bells — 
and a number of strangers had arrived at the hotel, where we pre- 
viously stopped, who visited the neighbourhood merely for the pur- 
pose of angling. This art is very seriously and pedantically 
exercised by many Englishmen, who take great pleasure in it, 
and at the Marquis of Salisbury^ I saw a fishing-book containing 
an immense variety of hooks and artificial flies, which are syste- 
matically changed according to the species of fish and the season of 
the year, in order to entice the poor inhabitants of the mountain 
brooks from their cool retreats into the glowing fire. The marquis 
did not deny that he had often taken a journey to Scotland for the 
mere pleasure of this pursuit; these remarks brought back in all 
the freshness of early recollections, the interest which I took in 
these things, when I was a boy. 

The road from Bakewell to this place is very charming. It passes 
through green valleys, past beautiful masses of trees, and rich farm- 
houses. Matlock, too, is situated in a lovely valley watered by the 
Derwent ; beautiful mountain crags rise to a great elevation, and in 
the bottom of the valley, along the river, there is a splendid wood 
of elms. 

Having now seen many of the level and many of the moun- 
tainous parts of England I must express my conviction that much 
of what has been indicated to me as beautiful and picturesque 



BIRMINGHAM. 169 

is by no means deserving of such great commendation as 
it has received. There are abundance of pretty vales, green 
meadows, and beautiful trees, in short, of every thing which can 
rejoice the eye in the midst of a moderate and peaceful ex- 
istence; but beauties of a higher character — beauties which of 
themselves are sufficient to attract travellers from foreign countries 
for the purpose of seeing them — do not exist. The real beauties of 
England are to be found in connexion with that element on which 
her power is established — the sea. 



XXXVII. 

"Birmingham, June 25th — Evening. 

In the dull but pleasant early morning, I took an agreeable walk 
in Matlock, along the charming banks of the Derwent — and visited 
several of the shops, in which great varieties of ornaments are sold — 
made of the Derbyshire marbles — especially of black and variegated. 
Extremely pretty things were exhibited for sale, and I could not 
resist the temptation of making myself the owner of a few specimens. 
Very beautiful vases, letter pressers, tops of tables, nay, whole tables, 
inlaid brooches, and a multitude of other pretty little ornaments in 
hundreds, and all laid out so as to entice purchasers. The workers in 
such articles really cause these stones to become bread. 

On leaving Matlock, we passed through a very agreeable rocky 
vale extending for some distance, beyond which the country be- 
comes flat, and the traveller enters upon the region of variegated marls 
and red conglomerate. We joined the railway at Derby; the car- 
riages were soon placed on the proper trucks, and we arrived here 
in Birmingham at noon. 

The king wished as far as possible to avoid public notice, and we 
therefore immediately drove round the outside of the town to 
Ashton Hall, the seat of the sons of the celebrated James Watt. 
These gentlemen, however, were gone on a journey, and we re- 
mained only a few seconds in order to examine one of the most 
wonderful structures of the seventeenth century. It was a kind of 
castle, built of red stone, and constructed according to the most 
recondite principles, and adorned with the strangest pilasters. A 
tolerably large garden adjoins the house, but every thing was still 
and empty. From thence we immediately proceeded to the great 
manufactory of Watt himself, and were fortunate enough to obtain 
a very able conductor, who was qualified to give us a clear explana- 
tion of the whole of this great establishment. The chief objects of 
manufacture here are steam-engines for ships, on which about 400 
workmen are daily employed. We were first conducted to the 
office of the establishment, where all the calculations are made, and 



170 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

the plans and drawings executed of all the new works which are 
ordered, and we were shown some letters and drawings by Watt 
himself, the great discoverer and perfecter of the steam-engine, which 
are carefully preserved, and form an object of interesting curiosity. 
We next proceeded , to the rooms, in which all the wooden 
models for the castings of various parts of the machines are prepared 
and preserved. The most valuable things belonging to the estab- 
lishment are here stored up, and long rows of houses were pointed 
out to us, which are filled with models alone. At the moment of 
our visit a large model in wood of the beam of an engine had 
just been finished. This naturally brought us to the place in which 
these castings are made. Here the wooden models are used to 
form the impressions in sand into which the melted metal is poured. 
The rough castings when properly cooled are removed from the 
sand, and conveyed to other workshops, where they are properly 
polished and prepared for being put together, which is finally per- 
formed, and the machine is thus complete. It will be obvious that 
all the smithies and machinery for grinding, polishing, &c, are them- 
selves worked by means of steam power, so that in all cases* the 
instrumentality employed consists much more in the exercise of 
human intelligence, than of mere physical force, and this is the 
most interesting view of the subject. The engines prepared in this 
manufactory are of all dimensions, extending from 6 up to 450 
horse power. Those of the latter size are too large to be shipped 
upon the canal, which passes close to the manufactory. 

We now proceeded immediately to the Albion Hotel, and in 
order that Iris majesty's incognito might be carefully preserved, 
we went to visit several of the other manufactories in a couple of 
hackney coaches. These establishments, which have made the 
name of Birmingham celebrated all over the world, are innumera- 
ble; the 200,000 inhabitants of the town may be almost divided 
into master manufacturers and workmen. The nature of the occu- 
pations gives to the whole place a certain gloomy, dirty, and purely 
material appearance, with which the dark gray sky of to-day, 
and the smoke from the great chimneys which fills the air, very 
fitly corresponded. The streets are uniform, and the low houses 
of which they generally consist, blackened with coal-smoke. 
Innumerable chimneys tower above the surrounding houses in all 
directions, one of which is distinguished for its enormous height, 
and is employed to carry off the injurious vapours of a chemical 
manufactory. Here the visiter looks in vain for public monu- 
ments, large edifices, and green airy squares ! 

Our first object was the papier-mache manufactory of Messrs. 
Jennings and Bettridge. These works employ about 200 hands, 
chiefly young women. A series of sheets of paper, laid one upon 
another, are strongly pasted together by a particular and very tena- 
cious cement — reduced to forms of the most various description, 
by being applied to wooden models prepared for the purpose, and 



BIRMINGHAM. 171 

then dried by a strong artificial heat, by which means the mass 
becomes as hard as the hardest wood, and takes a fine polish. The 
articles thus prepared — such as tables, card boxes, dressing-cases, 
writing-desks, vases, &c, are next richly painted, gilded, and, 
finally, covered with a splendid lustrous varnish. The establish- 
ment itself contains a suite of regular painting rooms, and the 
artists who are here engaged, produce specimens of the most 
beautiful flowers, birds, landscapes, and views, according to their 
respective tastes and fancy. It is now become very usual to 
employ panels of this description, for ornamenting the cabins of 
steamboats and similar purposes. It appears to me, that panels of 
this kind might also be very advantageously used by real artists. 

We next drove to the great button manufactory of Messrs. Turner 
and Co., in which also several hundred workpeople are employed, 
including young women and boys. It excited our surprise to 
observe, as far as we were able to follow the process, the great 
number of hands through which a button goes, before it becomes 
that ornamental, polished, glittering thing, which we employ for 
use and ornament in dress, and look upon as so insignificant. The 
most interesting point to me, was to have an opportunity of casting 
a glance upon that misery so much spoken of, which is the lot of 
children in great manufactories. This is certainly a wonderful 
pathological excrescence of our tirnes, as a whole so great, but in 
particular cases, exhibiting results deeply to be deplored. These 
vast multitudes of children, although of a cheerful appearance, are 
wholly devoted to mere thoughtless mechanical labour — day after 
day the same — at an age, too, in which the human being should 
live solely for the higher growth and development of his mental 
and physical powers; they are compelled to exist in the present, 
and should live for the future. The consideration of this suggests 
something dreadful ! something inhuman ! and no resolution of par- 
liament whatever, however much the legislature and individuals 
may have devoted or may devote themselves to the amelioration of 
the condition of the working classes, and especially of the children, 
can be effectual in removing this curse. On the other hand, again, 
there is something reconciling in the thought, when we think of the 
perpetual increasing growth of human beings, and reflect on the 
limited means of providing for their sustenance. It then appears 
like a manifestation of divine beneficence, that the intelligence and 
inventive powers of the human mind have discovered means of 
providing on a large scale for the wants of this immense growth of po- 
pulation, and at least of rendering existence possible; for, after all, is not 
this, even in its most contracted form, always a kind of happiness? 
The human species in general, from the beginning of the world, has 
always owed its highest mental development to the efforts of the 
few, and the beauty and greatness of ancient Hellas would not 
appear to have been possible without the condition of slavery among 
the Helots. Considered, therefore, from this point of view, the 



172 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

•whole condition of this immense manufacturing system, under which 
thousands sacrifice the highest claims and demands of their being, 
in order to satisfy the wants or gratify the pleasures of other thou- 
sands, and secure at least an existence for themselves, involves 
something very important, and has many analogies in the history of 
the world and of the development of the human race. Moreover, 
no one is yet in a condition to effect any substantial alteration. 

Our last visit to-day w T as to the Town Hall, a building which 
contains an immense room for public meetings, but built in a very 
tasteless style, and is, besides, the only public building which the 
town possesses. A very large organ, which has been erected, has 
a singular appearance in this spacious and empty hall. It is, how- 
ever, the custom of the country to erect such instruments in public 
rooms of this description. I know not whether they are intended 
to produce a softening or an inspiring influence upon the multitudes 
who periodically assemble in these public buildings. 



XXXVIII. 

Leamington, June 26th — Evening. 

Haying- resolved to continue our visits to the manufactories of 
Birmingham this morning, and being especially desirous of seeing 
one of the largest gun manufactories, we were refused admittance 
because the owner is in possession of secrets in his trade. After this 
un-English greeting, we directed our course to a great nail manu- 
factory (Britannia Nail Manufactory), of the extent of whose pro- 
ductions some idea may be formed, when it is known that on an 
average forty-two tons of iron are consumed in a week. Almost 
every thing is in reality here done by machinery, and not more than 
from 160 to 170 workmen are employed. How many blows of the 
hammer are elsewhere necessary to form a single nail? and yet 
there are here large rooms full of machines driven by steam power, 
by means of which a completely-finished nail is bitten out of an 
iron bar at every stroke, as it were by the bite of one of the ro- 
dentia. These machines were invented in America, and a single 
boy furnishes all the necessary attendance, by merely supplying 
new materials to the steam-nailer. Nails are made by this process 
from the largest size to one so small, that 60,000 of them go to a 
pound. The noise in the room, when all the machines are at work, 
is stunning, and many of the work people actually become deaf. 

Our next visit was to an establishment of plated goods, in which 
the processes of plating and gilding are carried on by electro-galva- 
nism (Elkington's Electro- plating Manufactory). We were first 
conducted into a room in which an immense variety of articles 
produced in the manufactory and having all the splendour of silver 



BIRMINGHAM. 173 

and gold were exhibited for show and sale. These consisted of tea- 
services, dish covers, wine coolers, dishes, and boxes, of very orna- 
mental forms, and tastefully arranged. I was most interested by the 
application of this metallic process to various organic structures. 
There were vine and geranium leaves, and similar objects covered 
with metallic deposit, which looked splendid, and furnished us with 
an opportunity of observing with admiration how far the simplicity 
of nature with its inborn beauty outstrips even the most splendid 
efforts of human art. We afterwards visited the workshops, where 
the solutions of silver and copper are contained in large troughs, and 
that of gold in a trough of smaller dimensions kept at boiling heat. 
The process of plating and gilding is performed by means of galvanic 
batteries, the current from which is directed by conducting wires to 
the articles to be plated or gilded, and for that purpose immersed in 
the solution. Articles which are not made of copper must be 
coppered before the process of gilding can take place. Gilding is 
effected by means of a weak galvanic stream — coppering and plating 
by a strong one. 

We were favoured with an opportunity of examining another 
great branch of industry, in the gun manufactory of Messrs. Sergeant 
and Co. I was the more surprised at the rapidity with which 
multitudes of gun barrels were produced, because I had previously 
formed no circumstantial idea of the process. First, all sorts of 
rough and broken pieces of iron are melted into a mass by means of a 
furiously raging fire; the mass is then hammered and rolled, and 
afterwards cut with immense shears driven by steam power. Such 
pieces of iron about an inch thick are then rolled together whilst red 
hot and welded in the middle. They are next placed upon iron 
rods and passed under rollers, and continually lengthened till the 
form of the gun barrel is complete. When the process has been 
carried so far, the barrels are next turned, bored, and polished. 
What noise was here also ! What handling of the glowing iron, 
and what showers of sparks flew from the metal as it was ground and 
}3olished ! We were told that in case of a demand for arms, this 
manufactory alone could furnish a thousand stand of arms in a 
week. Close to the manufactory is a proving house, in which the . 
whole of the barrels are first proved by being heavily loaded, placed 
in rows in a vault, and fired by a match applied from the outside, in 
order to ascertain the soundness and efficiency of the barrels as 
produced. 

Our last visit was to the pin manufactory of Messrs. Phipson and 
Co. Here, also, some hundreds of children were employed. An 
inconceivable quantity of wire is here drawn, then cut into small 
pieces of the size of a pin, and pointed in masses on grindstones. 
The formation of the head of the pin is also very ingenious, for, by 
steam also, small spirals with three windings are cut from other pieces 
of wire and placed in thousands together. These spirals are placed 
on the ends of the pins by children employed for the purpose. 



174 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

Every separate pin is next placed in an opening of a machine made 
for its reception, and regulated by a boy. A single stroke of the 
machine, — and the pin is provided with a head by the compression of 
the spiral. Each boy is able, in this manner, to head about a hundred 
pins in a minute. The pins are next placed in a mixture by which 
they are whitened, and finally pass into the hands of whole rows of 
girls, who sort them, and instantly stick them into papers properly 
prepared and arranged for sale. Almost worn out with the examina- 
tion of all this industry, we now drove to the railway, and set out by 
the next train to Coventry, which we reached in forty-five minutes. 
Whilst the carriages^ were being brought from the station and horses 
put to, we had time enough to examine that ancient city a little 
more closely. The streets are narrow, the houses small, and there 
is no appearance of any great manufacturing industry. The old church 
is in the highest degree picturesque; its lofty square tower (richly 
adorned with Gothic arches and sculptures), terminates in a high 
solid spire. The church is built of the red sandstone of the district, 
in which variegated marl and red conglomerate form the prevailing 
elements, and with its weather-beaten surface and soft reddish colour 
presents a very fine study for an oil painting. The interior of the 
building is less attractive and imposing. Just opposite to the church 
stands St. Mary's Hall, an old building erected in the beginning of 
the fifteenth century; its spacious rooms and halls are used for 
public meetings and judicial sittings. Among many pictures which 
the hall contains, our attention was particularly directed to that of 
the Lady Godiva, wife of an Earl of Mercia, of whom it is related 
that she earnestly petitioned her husband to lighten the burdens 
which, as a liege lord, and strict and rude as he was, he had imposed 
upon the city. The earl answered that he would comply with her 
request, provided she would ride naked through the town. She 
took him at his word, and strictly fulfilled the conditions. The 
council, however, decreed that all the doors and windows should be 
closed upon pain of death, so that no one might see the beautiful 
and pious lady. The temptation proved too great for a man named 
Tom, who took a peep at the lady, was observed, and immediately 
blinded. In commemoration of this event, a small caricature-like 
figure is placed in the wall at the corner of one of the streets, which 
is pointed out to strangers as the image of Peeping Tom of Coventry. 
The figure, unfortunately, is very insignificant. 

There is an old hospital for twelve aged women in one of the 
narrow lanes of Coventry, which is singularly picturesque. It is built 
of wood, very low, and with its carved beams reminded me forcibly of 
the old wooden churches of Norway. Both the foundation and the 
structure must be very old, and it ought to be carefully drawn and 
preserved before it falls to pieces from age. I entered one of the old 
rooms, which was low and dark, and very badly lighted by small 
lattice windows ; a miserable bed, a couple of cupboards, and a carved 
seat, constituted the humble furniture; an old decrepit woman with 



KENILWORTH. 175 

a severe cough, made way for me on my entrance. What an exist- 
ence ! — properly speaking, merely a coffin of somewhat larger dimen- 
sions than usual. And yet even here existence was a sort of happi- 
ness. Thus a picture of the completely stagnant and most limited 
life makes an altogether singular impression upon a hasty and ex- 
tended journey. 

We found the carriages ready, and in agreeable but rather low- 
ering weather, we left the ancient city at a rapid trot, in order 
speedily to reach an old castle, but in a state of ruin — the magnifi- 
cent Kenil worth. 

The splendid remains of this ancient castle are situated close to 
the village of the same name. The name is derived from Kenulph, 
one of the old Saxon kings of Mercia, and his son Kenelm. History 
relates many anecdotes of this castle, which was founded in the reign 
of Henry I., by Geoffrey de Clinton, his treasurer. It afterwards 
fell to the crown, and w T as bestowed upon Montfort, Earl of Leicester, 
by Henry III., and was afterwards vigorously defended against the 
king by Leicester and his adherents. In the reign of Edward I. the 
castle was the scene of a splendid tournament; Edward II. was im- 
prisoned within its walls; and under Edward III. it came into 
possession of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, by whom it was 
considerably enlarged. At length Queen Elizabeth presented it to 
her favourite, the Earl of Leicester, whom she twice visited at the 
castle, and on the second occasion, in 1575, she was entertained by 
the earl with the most splendid festivals of those times. Cromwell 
at a later period relinquished it to some of his officers, who destroyed 
the splendid edifice in order to sell the materials. And thus it now lies 
completely in ruins; time has covered the corner towers and walls 
thickly with ivy ; rank grass has grown over the ruins of its courts, and 
it now forms a place, of which I may truly say, that I have never seen 
any thing so thoroughly picturesque, with such an air of nobility and 
power, and in all respects so imposing. Immediately at the entrance 
the smaller part of the castle is still in tolerable preservation, but 
further above are walls of which those towards the north-west re- 
semble the Castell del Ovo with its ragged and steep walls, the 
middle part rather a chapel and hall, built in the noblest Gothic 
style, and the south-eastern part the castellated form of modern 
English castles. It w r as impossible to cease admiring ! Ivy, with 
stems and foliage like oaks, slender columns, magnificent open win- 
dows in the great hall, ornamental corner towers, and deep vaults; 
every thing united to constrain us to dwell as long as possible on 
the contemplation, and to wish for the presence of the ablest artists. 

I was glad to find that this was a great point of attraction for 
travellers from all parts of the country, and at the moment of our 
visit we found the clergyman of Stratford-upon-Avon, with his 
family, on a similar errand. He soon guessed the exalted traveller 
among us, and offered his services as Cicerone in the birth-place of 
Shakspeare. 



176 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

I took a few hasty sketches, but could not satisfy my desire of look- 
ing at the splendour of the ruins. The castle may have been beautiful, 
with its stately halls, its wide staircases, and its chambers vaulted with 
carved wood ; but in all its glory it never could have left behind the 
impression, or excited the inspiration, with which it now filled me. 
It is singular and full of significance, that a great work of human 
art, when it falls into ruins, i. e., yields to the force of physical laws, 
often thereby becomes more beautiful, more magnificent, and. almost 
always more poetical ; whilst the works of God — the living being — 
a man, when he dies and goes to decay, raises a feeling of repug- 
nance, and scarcely even retains any trace whatever of beauty. This 
is a point on which long dissertations might be written ; the mere 
suggestion of the topic must here suffice. At the exit from the 
castle, there is still standing one of its numerous accessory buildings, 
which is inhabited by a porter. I entered this part, too; an old large 
ornamented chimney-piece in a kind of hall, in which quantities 
of vegetables and cabbages were lying scattered in picturesque 
confusion, still gave signs of former splendour. In all directions there 
were enticements to drawing, to contemplation, inquiry, and poeti- 
cal production. We must, however, part. 

On the way from Kenilworth to Warwick, Guy's Cliff, a pretty 
country seat, is charmingly situated on the banks of the Avon. 
Baron von Gersdorf was on friendly terms with Sir Henry Percy, 
the possessor, we therefore stopped and went in. The host received 
his majesty with pleasure; the lady of the mansion and her daughter 
were most agreeable persons, who had lived long in Italy, whose 
minds were filled with thoughts of that never-to-be-forgotten corner 
of the world, and who had collected many memorials of their resi- 
dence there around them. This charming place, however, is in itself 
agreeable enough to afford all the means and elements of a cheerful 
life. The ornamented castellated residence is surrounded by a park, 
in which there are many lofty pines, cedars, and oaks; by the river 
side picturesque rocks meet the eye, covered with ivy, and inter- 
mixed with lime trees and oaks; in these rocks, too, is shown the 
cave in which, according to the tradition, Guy, first a bold knight, 
and afterwards a pious hermit, is said to have dwelt. Henry V. 
founded a small chapel therein to his honour, and this chapel after- 
wards became the kernel of the present small castle. 

We proceeded further, and soon reached the celebrated Warwick 
Castle, and that, too, in a beautiful clear evening; and it was 
really as if to see in one day the contrast between the perfectly 
maintained and splendid edifice, and that of a castle completely fallen 
into ruins, but still exhibiting all the beauties of nature. We first 
entered through a lofty gate, which was opened to our knock, then 
passed through a long walk cut out of the rock, and covered with 
trees in full leaf, and after this arrived at the castle itself. Above 
the green moat, now planted with lofty trees, are seen the ivy-covered 
towers and turrets of the castle; we passed through a dark gate, with 



WARWICK CASTLE. 177 

a portcullis, and finally arrived at the open green court, surrounded 
by the buildings of the castle. We alighted at the entrance; the 
owner, the Earl of Warwick, was absent in London, but w T e were 
immediately conducted into the hall of the castle, splendidly wain- 
scotted with cedar, and adorned with suits of armour and paintings. 
It is hardly possible to get a correct idea of this antique and noble 
sort of splendour anywhere else than in England. The lofty Gothic 
windows look upon the Avon, on a rocky bank high above which 
the castle is situated ; all around the apartment are articles of furni- 
ture, beautifully carved, a high and splendid fire-place promises an 
agreeable warmth during the colder season, around the walls are 
pieces of armour and ancient weapons, and from it a corridor opens 
upon the other inhabited rooms of the castle, furnished in the most 
•different styles. Each is decorated in some peculiar way, and several 
very good paintings are preserved there. Among the portraits in 
these rooms are some especially deserving of notice. There are seve- 
ral paintings by Van Dyck, particularly one of Richard, the painter, 
by Rembrandt, there is a portrait of Admiral Van Tromp — a 
seaman and commander every inch. Also some pictures by 
Rubens, among others a couple of lions. A much less exact copy- 
ing of nature than a great and general conception of the whole. 
There were also some pretty things by Holbein, particularly a por- 
trait, which is called Luther's, but which represents some one totally 
unknown to me. Besides these, how many other things does one 
find here? — old weapons and armour, some natural curiosities, rare 
forms of drinking vessels, and similar objects. 

Here, too, one might find materials for the most extensive de- 
-ecriptions, for the most various remarks. I return, however, to my 
previous observation, that the impression left on my mind by 
Kenilworth was, on the whole, a purer, a more powerful, and, in 
fact, a more poetical one than that produced by Warwick. But 
here one must live some time, in order fully to appreciate it ! In 
what different lights must these surrounding woods appear in the 
morning and in the evening; this court-yard, with its old towers, 
its pines, its cedars, and its oaks, even the whole effect of the castle 
itself, particularly if any great event has happened during one's 
stay ! 

When we had visited every thing in the interior of the castle, had 
descended into the old dungeons, and ascended Guy's Tower (which 
latter offers a magnificent view of the country, and is situated just 
opposite to Caesar's Tower, the oldest part of the castle, with its 
remarkable turrets), we proceeded to take a walk in the park. 

We were shown first, in the central part of a large greenhouse, 
the celebrated Warwick Vase, found at Tivoli, in Hadrian's Villa, 
and restored and erected here under Hamilton's direction. After 
having previously seen a copy of this work of art at Woburn, and 
thus got a general idea of its form, the original was doubly interest- 
ing to me. The style is rather heavy, but this suits its size very 

N 



178 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

well (it holds 168 gallons). Upon the whole, there is but little sculp- 
ture on it ; the best is, undoubtedly, the representation of the comic 
masks on the front part. Much of it is quite modern, for this 
splendid vase was found in several pieces. 

The park is extensive, and contains some beautiful trees, particu- 
larly cedars. On the Avon, beside the rock on which the castle is 
built, stands a splendid specimen, upwards of 200 years old; the 
effect of the dark green of its foliage, and of its fan-like branches 
hanging down over the water, was very fine. We were rowed over 
the Avon, in order to enjoy the view of the castle from the other 
side. I had just time enough to make a slight sketch of the view. 
A moonlight view on the quiet Avon, on the opposite side the 
mighty castle upon its rocky height; to the left, the lofty cedars; 
to the right, a little water-mill. I could hardly fancy a more 
romantic picture. 

But time pressed, and we were obliged to return; we again 
ascended the bank, and entered the terrace before the castle by a 
postern gate; our travelling carriages had already been drawn up, 
and had driven on before. We followed slowly through the dark 
gate, and turning round once more, enjoyed the view of the en- 
virons and lofty towers, the old walls covered with ivy, passed 
through the long passage in the rock, and saw in the hall of the 
porter's lodge several old weapons, and an iron kettle, of which the 
old man related several strange tales. We then entered our car- 
riages, and came hither, where we arrived when it was already dark. 
There is here a very elegant hotel, for it has been the fashion for 
several years to spend the out-of-town season at the saline springs of 
Leamington, and, as if by enchantment, a very elegant little town 
has sprung up around them. 



XXXIX. 

Oxford. June 27th — Evening. 
This morning afforded me the opportunity of a walk through 
Leamington. The town appears to have attained its present size 
and elegance within a few lustra. Its springs are noticed as early 
as the sixteenth century, but have only become fashionable and 
much frequented for about sixty years. They belong to the class of 
aperient bitter springs, and are drunk tepid, although they are na- 
turally cold. Everywhere we saw elegant houses and plantations; 
the bath-room, where the water drinkers were walking about, listen- 
ing to the music of a band, reminded me forcibly of Marienbad. A 
church in the new Gothic style had just been completed, and we 
looked at the interior arrangements of it, with the closed pews 
usual in England. We also saw a tolerably elegant concert-room in 



STKATFORD-ON-AVON. 179 

the High-street, in which the organ, so much admired in England, 
was of course not wanting. 

On our return to the hotel, we found our carriages in readi- 
ness, and drove back to Warwick, to take a view of the old Gothic 
church there, called St. Mary's Chapel. Even externally it is quite 
a model of the Anglo-Gothic style; the gently sloping roof, the 
large and beautiful window in the choir, and the high, square, half- 
completed tower. In the interior is a beautiful monument of Thomas 
Beauchamp, created first Earl of Warwick, in the reign of Edward 
III., and who died in 1370. The sarcophagus of white marble, and 
beautifully adorned according to the prevailing fashion of Gothic ar- 
chitecture, merits a particular description. Above it are the marble 
statues of the earl and his countess, larger than life, hand in hand — he 
in complete armour, with a barred visor, and a collar of steel wire — 
she in a peculiar projecting cap. At her feet lies a lamb, at his a bear. 
The church has been twice burned since that time, and was last 
rebuilt in the reign of Queen Anne. Particularly neat, and at the 
same time rich and elegant, are the interwoven and entwining orna- 
ments of the Beauchamp Chapel in this same church. Here is to 
be seen the monument of the last Beauchamp, who was Earl of 
Warwick, the well-known governor of France, during the reign 
of Henry V. He, too, is represented in complete armour of gilt 
bronze, surrounded by a balustrade of gilt metal railing, upon a 
richly gilt sarcophagus. Not far from this monument is that of 
the Earl of Leicester and his countess, and also that of his brother, 
who was created Earl of Warwick. The whole chapel with all these 
monuments, its antique splendour of architecture, and its beautiful 
stained glass windows left a deep impression. 

We now proceeded on our way, and my mind was powerfully 
affected as we came near to Stratford-on-Avon, the birthplace of 
Shakspeare. The country is here flat and well cultivated; we see 
nothing but fields, farm-houses, and meadows. The road was for 
a considerable distance bounded by elm-trees, and there were very 
probably some among them which date from Shakspeare's time, or 
even before it. Before arriving at Stratford, we passed by Charle- 
cote, where that Lucy lived, the enemy of the poet, who, for the 
sake of a few head of deer, and an ironical poem, persecuted him, 
and drove him from Stratford. I looked into the park: even yet 
the spotted fallow-deer were to be seen straying around, as they are 
to be seen in all parks, and as they had tempted the unlicensed 
sportsman ; the property still belongs to a Lucy (G. Lucy, Esq.), 
so that this place and this family, which has never produced any 
celebrated individual, has remained uninjured, and still exists, 
whilst Shakspeare's family has died out, but has been rendered im- 
mortal by its one celebrated member. This contrast afforded me 
matter for thought. How often do we find similar cases in the 
world. The empty, merely material being, still continuing to be, 
and yet arriving at no real existence, whilst the higher and really 

n2 



180 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

powerful genius vanishes in a material point of view, but in another 
sense, arrives at its true and eternal existence by this very means. 

At last we arrived at this little town, containing hardly 5000 in- 
habitants. Stopping and alighting at the hotel, we were conducted 
through the house in order to reach the street in which Shakspeare's 
house is situated. As we passed through the inn, I remarked a pecu- 
liar method of increasing the renown and spreading the fame of the 
immortal poet ; every room had the name of one of his plays written 
over the door, so that the traveller had the opportunity of choosing 
whether he would lodge in " Macbeth" or " Romeo and Juliet," 
in the " Tempest," or the " Midsummer Night's Dream." We had 
not proceeded far down the street into which we had thus been 
conducted, when we stood before the low and unpretending house 
in which Shakspeare is said to have been born. A narrow wooden 
stair leads to the little room blackened by time and smoke, now 
inhabited by a poor old woman; and when with his majesty I as- 
cended this old staircase, and entered the small space in which, 
according to the tradition of the place, this William, the conqueror in 
a higher sense than his namesake, first saw the light of the world, 
I could not repress my feelings ; tears rushed into my eyes, and I 
was obliged to turn away my head to conceal my emotion. An 
old portrait of Shakspeare stood in the corner, and beside the small, 
half-closed window lay a thick volume, in which strangers from all 
parts of the world have inscribed their names. 

The clergyman of Stratford, who had saluted us yesterday in 
Kenil worth, now advanced, and according to his judgment there 
can be no doubt that the poet was actually born here. He promised 
to show us the notice of his baptism with the signatures of the wit- 
nesses in the church register. For the present he offered to con- 
duct us to his grave. We took him with us in the carriage and drove 
to the churchyard. 

A crowd of people pressed forward to get a sight of the king, 
and a portion of them entered the church, the approach to which is 
by a green covered path, along with us. The church itself is situated 
among lime trees upon the banks of the Avon ; it is very pretty — 
old — Gothic — with a wooden roof. Some old men with staves in 
their hands walked before us, and we thus advanced silently and 
solemnly to the altar, followed by the people; close to the altar is 
a stone, covering the grave, distinguished in no other way than by 
the well-known inscription : — 

" Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbear 
To digg the dust enclosed here ; 
Blest be y e man y* spares these stones, 
And curst be he y l moves my bones." 

About a man's height, above this stone, is a little niche in the wall 
containing a bust of Shakspeare.* The church was full of people 

* This bust was probably made from a cast of the face after death. See on 
this subject an interesting paper by J. Bell, in the Athenceum of 1845, No. 924. 



BLENHEIM. 181 

when I bent over the stone and copied the old inscription in my 
tablets, and then all slowly left the sanctuary. 

We walked across the churchyard to the Avon, which flows by 
slowly and peacefully with its yellow waters. Every thing here has 
the character of quiet — of repose ; I thought of the words " Es bildet 
ein Talent sich in der Stille," 

" Talent is produced and called forth in quietness." 

This illustration was exceedingly interesting to me. 

The clergyman then accompanied us to his house. It is not far 
from the school where the poet is said to have received the first 
elements of his ^education, and close to another old ivy covered 
church. He conducted us into a drawing-room, where his whole 
family was drawn up to be presented to the king, according to 
English custom, and he then produced the church register, in 
which, bearing date April 26, 1564, was inserted the names of the 
persons who were the godfathers and godmothers of the young Wil- 
liam. On the same day of the month of the year 1616, his burial 
is mentioned. The old mulberry tree, which Shakspeare is said to 
have planted, no longer exists; the clergyman showed us one of 
its descendants in his garden. 

We then took our leave of this simple, quiet place, with a pecu- 
liar feeling of emotion, and drove on through a country exhibiting 
chalk layers and strata of the upper green sand. On the road lay one 
of those thoroughly English villages, high church, old elms with 
a full foliage, and pretty farm-houses in the midst of their stack- 
yards full of closely pressed, business-like stacks of hay, from which 
portions of fodder are cut out precisely like a piece of bread from 
a loaf. We saw a farmer just riding into one of these yards, he was 
a handsome well-made man, well dressed, with long leather gaiters, 
mounted on a handsome chesnut horse. The whole scene reminded 
me of so many English prints, in which these sorts of country scenes 
are so often represented. 

At last we turned off the road, and stopped at a lofty park-gate; 
it was opened, and we entered Blenheim, a very extensive posses- 
sion of the Duke of Malborough. We had a considerable distance 
to drive before approaching the castle ; meadoAvs extended in every 
direction, here and there were groups of oaks, with deer generally 
lying at the foot of them. The column erected in honour of the 
great Duke of Malborough rises far above the surrounding shrubs ; 
finally, we approach the palace built in the style of Versailles, and 
stopped at the outer gate. The duke is at present here, and we 
sent in a message to inquire whether we could be admitted. An 
answer in the affirmative was immediately returned, the carriages 
drove across a large courtyard before the front of the castle to 
its entrance in the middle of the front, and the duke received 
his majesty at the steps, to conduct him himself through the rich 
saloons, and show him all the treasures which they contained. 

This property, as is well known, was presented to the great Duke 



182 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

of Marlborough of the time of Queen Anne, and called Blenheim in 
memory of the celebrated battle. Parliament granted half a million 
for the building of the palace, and Vanburgh was the architect; 
the Belgian and Dutch cities anxiously endeavoured to gain favour 
in the eyes of the all-powerful general, by presents of the most 
splendid works of art; it is easy to conceive, therefore, that really 
first rate objects of art are contained here, to which, as to several 
other collections, Waagen's book on England's treasures of art 
served as a very useful guide. 

Even the lofty entrance hall, with its columns and statues, 
produces a powerful effect. Among the pictures I can only notice 
a few. The gallery, no doubt, requires a longer an,d more attentive 
study, in order to appreciate it thoroughly. I first noticed some of 
the extraordinary productions of Rubens and Van Dyck. By the 
former, that master of such varied powers of production, whose 
various and manifold greatness is only to be fully understood in 
England, is here a bacchanal piece particularly remarkable, a picture 
representing the fullest enjoyment of life. The painting is very 
large, the figures not quite the size of life. The principal group in 
the foreground is a young and handsome woman, mother of two 
fauns, bending down over the children, who are lying on the 
ground, and suckling them both at once. A brown Silenus looks on 
with pleasure, fauns and satyrs stand around. The very perfection 
of health, and the over-fulness of life and existence, bursts forth 
from the whole conception and colouring of the piece. Another 
picture by Rubens, representing the artist and his wife, is splendid. 
The position and dress of the figures put one in mind of the two 
figures descending the flight of stairs in Rubens' " Garden of Love" 
(in the Dresden gallery). His large Andromeda is also very fine; 
properly, however, it is nothing but a study of a handsome nude 
woman. Less important are two pictures of the "Holy Family;" 
and yet one of them is remarkable for the manner in which the 
children are treated. Besides these there is here once more his 
" single portrait," and excellently treated. The most beautiful 
and most remarkable picture of Van Dyck's is his portrait of 
Charles I. on horseback; a splendid and exquisitely treated work. 
How nobly treated is the powerful light chesnut horse, with his 
broad chest, and the king with his still, serious, and somewhat 
melancholy expression of countenance. But the gem of the whole 
collection is the Raphael of the Ansidei family, of which Passavant, 
in his work on Raphael, has given an engraving, or rather an out- 
line. The picture was an altar-piece, painted by Raphael, in 1505, 
for the church of St. Fiorenzo, at Perugia, in consequence of a 
bequest from the Ansidei family. It represents in the middle 
division a Madonna and Child upon a throne, both contemplating 
an open book, which the Virgin holds. On the two sides are seen 
St. Nicholas de Bari, also reading, and John the Baptist. The 
figures are not quite the size of life. The treatment of the 



PICTURE GALLERY AT BLENHEIM. 183 

subject reminded me of the " Descent from the Cross" in the 
Borghese gallery, before I knew that it was only painted two years 
before that picture. I wrote down directly in my tablets " transition 
from Perugino to an independent style," and even if I were to use 
more words, I could hardly now express my opinion of the picture 
better. The school and the shell of the master are here nearly got 
rid of, and thrown off, and Raphael's own large clear eyes are seen. 
How nobly serious are the mother and child, who both appear to 
discover in the little book wonderful and curious secrets ! — How 
powerful and clear are the figures of the Bishop and of St. John, 
and how pure and well conceived the whole tone of the picture, the 
blue sky, the serious style of building, and the landscape beyond ! — 
This picture and the cartoons in Hampton Court, should make 
England a shrine of pilgrimage to painters. 

After this painting I mention no more of those exposed to view 
in the public rooms. We were next conducted through the other 
rooms of the castle, but found almost every part in disorder, and in 
process of reparation. The library is large and handsome, but here, 
too, every thing was in confusion. The books appeared to have been 
little used. In an ante-room were a number of small paintings in oil, 
Teniers' miniature copies of paintings in the Vienna gallery ; a most 
comical idea, only to be accounted for by the price given by an 
Englishman. Then came a large closed room, containing a number 
of large pictures, ascribed to Titian. They are said to represent 
love passages between Mars and Venus, and are not considered very 
decent; but they are painted without any inspiration, and are not 
well enough drawn for Titian. 

We finally visited the chapel, which contains the large marble 
tomb of the Duke of Marlborough and his wife. The style is that 
of the time of Louis XIV., the separate portions splendidly executed, 
but the whole exaggerated, and old-fashioned. 

The duke then conducted us through some parts of his palace 
destined for household purposes. One gets a tolerable idea of the 
almost extravagant opulence which is here displayed, when I say, 
that in a large vaulted hall for preserving milk, cream, and but- 
ter, a splendid fountain has been erected, to throw up the clearest 
spring water, which falls down along several basins, growing gra- 
dually larger, until it comes to a large basin at the bottom, which 
is so arranged as to have upon its brink vessels and pans for con- 
taining the cream and butter, which thus in the warmest weather 
are kept at the degree of coolness so necessary to these useful kinds 
of food. In any other place, this fountain would be used to orna- 
ment the entrance avenue, whilst here it merely serves to cool a 
dairy ! 

We next partook of luncheon, at which the numerous rare and 
valuable sorts of wines caused us to draw the same conclusions re- 
specting the good state of the cellars, as we had already arrived at 
with respect to the opulence of the family from the splendour of the 



184 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

building. We then proceeded to take a walk in the park, or rather 
in that part of it which is enclosed as private grounds. We wan- 
dered about for quite an hour, up and down hill, round a little lake, 
and over several bridges, and rejoicing in the prospect of some 
splendid groups of trees, large shrubs of rhododendron and lauro- 
cerasus, and oaks probably many centuries old. We had several 
very fine views, too, of the other park, particularly that part pre- 
served for game; and at oar return a salute of twenty-one guns 
from cannon of considerable calibre was fired in honour of his 
majesty. 

The duke had presented his two sons to the king, and they and 
one of their relations accompanied us in all our walks through this 
immense park. They were just returned from the exercises of the 
yeomanry, cavalry, which had been held in the neighbourhood. 
This very ancient institution in England, is somewhat the same as our 
communal guards ; all the younger branches of the wealthy families 
serve in it, and are exercised from time to time. They are called 
out and put under arms on occasion of any tumults or disturbances; - 
on other occasions the infantry only meets once every two or three 1 
years, the cavalry once every year, and at that time exercises for 
about a week, as if in the field. The sons of the duke served just 
like any one else. 

Towards seven o'clock we drove off to Oxford, situated about ten 
miles off, the entrance to which is more imposing than that of Cam- 
bridge, although the population is rather smaller. Just before 
coming into the High-street, the attention is attracted to a lofty 
Gothic column, with three statues; this is the monument (re- 
cently erected) to Latimer, Ridley, and Cranmer, who suffered death 
as heretics in the reign of Queen Mary. The High-street itself is 
adorned with splendid old Gothic colleges, and richly ornamented 
churches — the whole breathes of antiquity ; indeed, one college is men- 
tioned as having been founded at Oxford, by Alfred, in the year 
727. In the eleventh century, Canute, King of the Danes, resided 
here; and in the twelfth century, Richard Cceur de Lion was borrt 
here, during his father Henry II.'s, residence in this city. 



XL. 

Oxford, June 27th — Evening. 
His majesty having preferred to take up his quarters in an hotel,, 
the vice-chancellor of the university, Dr. Wynter, appeared this 
morning early in the reception room, to offer himself as our guide 
to the remarkable objects in Oxford. The doctor was preceded 
by four beadles, two with silver maces, and two with golden onesj 
they all wore the black gown, and Dr. Wynter w r ore the square cap$ 



OXFORD. 185 

which we had also seen at Cambridge. We began our progress at 
nine o'clock, and continued it till near two. 

Oxford contains twenty colleges, in which the arrangements are 
similar to those of Cambridge, but which were, generally speaking, 
founded at an earlier period. University College is generally 
considered the oldest, and is reputed to have been founded by 
Alfred; according to the more probable account, however, it was 
founded in 1249. Merton College, founded by the Chancellor Wil- 
liam de Merton, about the year 1200, was the first which collected 
its students into one building. We visited this college, and most 
of the others. Several of these buildings are of the fourteenth, 
fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries, and are of substantial old Gothic 
architecture, and look really very pretty, with their ivy-wreathed 
pointed columns, buttresses, and arches; thus, for instance, the 
garden side of Exeter College, thus St. Peter's College, with its 
beautiful tower, close to the bridge over the Isis — thus, too, the 
beautiful tower of Magdalen College, the principal spire of which, 
surrounded by smaller spires, gave me quite the idea of a beautiful 
calcareous formation. Some of the colleges are newer, particularly 
Christ Church, which has been partly completed very recently, and 
in which about two hundred students, principally of the best fami- 
lies, live. In this college there is a sort of picture gallery; generally 
speaking, however, mere rubbish; there is only one head, ascribed, 
and no doubt correctly, to Montegna, which I should wish to save, 
if a deluge were to come upon the collection, as it would deserve. 
I must, at the same time, remark, that these colleges are not all de- 
voted merely to purposes of education; All Souls, for example, is a 
rich foundation for forty noblemen, who, without being bound to 
any particular studies, enjoy the right of chambers and commons, 
even without the necessity of residence. The Hon. C. A. Murray,, 
master of her Majesty's household, whom we used to see every day 
at Windsor, and at Buckingham Palace, was a fellow of this college. 
These colleges are generally very pleasant to live in, have large 
gardens, and, generally speaking, a large common hall, built in the 
old Anglo-Gothic style, with a handsome wooden roof, and adorned 
round the walls with paintings and coats of arms. The young- 
people and the fellows dine here together, and the whole manner of 
life surrounded by such still and romantic buildings of ancient date, 
in a place kept free from the noise and bustle of English industry 
and traffic, must have a great effect in preserving a serious and 
penetrating mind in this intelligent England, which here is con- 
tinually renewed and restored. 

During our progress we came to the botanical garden where Dr. 
Daubeny is professor. The garden cannot boast of any great splen- 
dour, but it appears to contain much that is interesting. One of the 
most remarkable plants in England, the little, insignificant-looking 
Sibthorpia JSuropcea, is here, and sufficiently compensated me for my 



186 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

visit ; and as I snail hardly ever look for it in its natural place of 
growth (the bogs of Ireland), I took a little branch of it with me in 
my pocket-book. 

We also visited the theatrum anatomicum, the whole arrangements 
of which brought back the times of Vesal to my mind. Above the 
professor's table hung a human skeleton, and a figure showing the 
muscular conformation of the human subject, so that they could be 
let down and drawn up again by cords: the latter was that sort of 
preparation which Albin was celebrated for, and is such as to 
cause a feeling of disgust in an uninitiated spectator. All round 
the theatre, behind the amphi theatrical seats of the audience, were 
skulls and anatomical preparations, every thing quite in the antique 
style. Professor Kidd, a good-natured old gentleman, quite corres- 
ponded with these ancient treasures. He may, probably, formerly, 
have had some talents, or at least some liking for personal activity 
and inquiry; at a later period, without any excitement from with- 
out, in a university devoted almost entirely to philology and theo- 
logy (which is, indeed, no universitas) and without sufficient inward 
power and excitement, the stagnation of all philosophical study of 
natural history soon put a stop to his activity. As I intended to 
pay him a second visit, we did not remain long, but passed on to 
the cathedral, the earliest part of which is of the eleventh century. 
Its interior produces a grand and solemn effect. Heavy Norman 
columns support a vaulted roof, partly built in the semi-circular 
arched style, a mysterious twilight breaks upon the statues of armed 
knights, stretched upon the monuments in the smaller chapels; 
only the roof and the more minute ornaments of the windows are 
of a later period, having been added by Cardinal Wolsey. 

From thence we went to the celebrated Bodleian Library, the 
hearth and focus of all Oxford learning. The number of the bound 
books is said to be 200,000 volumes, but the principal riches of 
the library are its codices, and a whole room full of Lybian, Persian, 
and Sanscrit MSS. Some of the most remarkable of these were 
shown to me. Among them is a MS. of the four Gospels of the 
sixth century — Greek and Latin — but, what is very curious, only 
one word in each language is written in each line; also the Codex 
Lordiensis, and some beautifully illuminated Psalters of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, some curious specimens of early printing, 
&c. The number of MSS. is said to be 30,000. In the same 
building, there is a small collection of antiques, and the celebrated 
Arundel collection of inscriptions. Not far from this building is the 
Kadcliff Library , a foundation of about a hundred years old, named 
after Dr. Radcliff, who left 40,000/. for the erection of this building, 
presented his library to it, and left funds for its successive increase, 
and for a salary to the librarian. There appear to be several of the 
latest works on the natural sciences here. The building is a tolera- 
ble imitation of the Pantheon, and the museum is merely a dome 



ASHMOLE AN MUSEUM. 187 

supported on columns. It contains a number of casts of celebrated 
antiques, tlie Laocoon, the Apollo, &c. We ascended to the roof 
of the dome, and enjoyed a splendid view of Oxford in the glorious 
sunshine. Immediately opposite is the pretty old Gothic college, 
with the extraordinary name — Brazen-nose College ; not much further 
off, Magdalen College, with its beautiful Gothic tower : some very 
pretty and interesting pictures might have been taken from this spot. 

I must not forget to notice the very beautiful church of New 
College. This college, although called New College, is one of the 
oldest, having been founded by William de Wyckham, Bishop of 
Winchester and Lord Chancellor of England, in the reign of 
Edward III., in 1378. It is one of the richest of the colleges, and 
the church is considered the one in Oxford most splendidly adorned. 
The kino- was received here with the full tones of the or^an, and 
the entrance into the re-echoing vaults, softly lighted up by the 
painted windows, was very solemn. The richly adorned golden 
crook of the bishop's crozier is still shown. We concluded our 
progress at the above-mentioned pointed column, in honour of the 
three victims of their faith, and at the same time looked at a building 
now in course of erection, intended for modern languages, painting 
and sculpture, founded under the munificent bequest of the late 
Sir Robert Taylor, aided by a further bequest from Dr. Randolph. 

We then returned to St. John's College, of which Dr. Wynter 
is master; and after having partaken of luncheon, his majesty, with 
the two other gentlemen of his suite, drove out into the country to 
visit a seat of the Duke of Buckingham, whilst I remained in 
Oxford, intending to devote my afternoon to seeing some other 
scientific institutions. 

Professor Kidd first took me to a museum of natural history 
(and in some sort of antiquities also), which is considered as the 
oldest of the kind in England, and is called the Ashmolean Mu- 
seum, from its founder, Ashmole. What most interested me there, 
was the remains of that extraordinary bird, the Dodo {Didus 
ineptus) which seems to have disappeared from the earth within 
two hundred years. The complete stuffed specimen was in pos- 
session of the celebrated traveller and natural historian, Tradescant 
(probably a Dutchman by birth), who lived in Lambeth, and this 
specimen with other natural curiosities, came to Ashmole at his 
death ; and the Dodo, along with the rest of Ashmole's collection, 
was brought to Oxford in 1689. Here it was to be seen in the 
museum till 1752, when it fell to pieces, and only the head and 
the two feet could be preserved. One of the feet is now in the 
British Museum. An old representation of the bird of the size of 
life (which has been copied very frequently in works on natural 
history) was presented to Dr. Kidd by a Dr. Darby, and he sent it 
here. A plaster cast of the head has been made, which was pre- 
sented to me ; the foot here retained is the left, and I pointed out to 
Dr. Kidd a remarkable formation in the bony nerves of the muscles, 



188 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

by which the claws were bent * It is not impossible that the 
gigantic bird of New Holland, the bones of which have been 
described by Owen, might still have lived in historical times, and 
have been a contemporary of the Dodo. It is singular at the same 
time, that no collector has been able to find any other remains of the 
Dodo in the Mauritius. 

Besides this, however, the treasures of natural history contained 
in this collection, betray a certain ancient and old world character. 
One breathes here the atmosphere of the innocent times of Linnaeus, 
in which the whole animal kingdom was so easily comprehended 
at a glance, in which it was not necessary for a man to devote his 
whole life to obtain a knowledge of merely a part of the Ichneu- 
mons and beetles which at present exist on the earth, in which, 
instead of the thousands of Entozoa, only five or six existed, and in 
which Ehrenberg's world of Infusoria was entirely hidden from 
view. There is, however, certainly enough here for a beginner, and 
several interesting skeletons and skulls. Among the other curiosi- 
ties, the British antiquities particularly attracted my attention. 
The most remarkable among these appeared to me to be a little mosaic 
representing Alfred's patron saint, a rock crystal set in gold, per- 
haps to be worn as an amulet. The workmanship is very old, and 
the inscription is said to mean, " King Alfred caused me to be 
made." As a Northern ornament 1000 years old, it is certainly 
very important. Besides this there are several Roman antiquities, 
dug up in various places, and among the curiosities of art, an enor- 
mous magnet, set in iron, under a glass case made expressly for 
it. It supports a weight of 1 60 pounds, and its supporting power 
has been increased by twenty-five pounds since it has been here. 
Among all the phenomena of elementary motion, this slow and 
silent increase in the attractive power of the magnet, has always 
appeared to me one of the most wonderful. 

From this museum we returned to the anatomical collection, 
examined Dr. Kidd's long unused microscope ; I showed him 
some of the latest improvements, and roused in the old professor 
the spirit of inquiry and of discovery. He was much delighted 
at my communications, complained bitterly that so little interest 
for these subjects was exhibited in Oxford, and gave hopes of re- 
newed activity. These emotions were to me affecting, and made 
me wish to see something of the old gentleman in his own family. 
I accompanied him, therefore, to his house, where, after having 
been so rapidly hurried from place to place, I found myself all at 
once in the midst of the quiet life of a family, small, and living* 
upon a small income. His wife and three younger daughters were 
occupied with work, and received me with great politeness. A 
Mr. Wilson (a relation of the English painter, Wilson), husband 

* The bony nerves are divided into several parts, connected together by joints* 
This is an arrangement which I have never found elsewhere in these bones. 



RADCLIFF LIBRARY. 189 

to a fourth daughter, the eldest, entered while I was there, and 
showed me an album with some drawings by his wife. The young 
lady had in earlier life found great pleasure in drawing, and there 
were in her album many fantastical compositions, somewhat in 
Flaxman's style: the strict rules of drawing were wanting. 

I had frequently occasion to-day, during our walks through 
the town, to make the observation, that the people of Oxford, ex- 
ternally, are very far from handsome; perhaps they are in mind so 
much the handsomer. 

We separated at last, and I returned to our hotel, after having 
bought some views of the town. I soon, however, quitted it again, 
in order to take a solitary walk, according to my custom, in the 
twilight, between eight and nine o'clock. Now, indeed, in the 
reddish evening light, illuminated, too, by the first quarter of the 
moon, these antique buildings were perfectly beautiful. How pic- 
turesque were the gray tinge of these old ornaments, the stains of 
time on the old towers, the green of the ivy. I remained long 
standing on the stone bridge over the Isis, by St. Peter's College ; 
then by the Magdalen College, with its beautiful tower. Every 
thing was so still. Light clouds partly veiled the ruddy west ! — 
Beautiful pictures everywhere ! 



XLI. 

Salisbury, June 29th — Evening. 

I CONCLUDED yesterday with a solitary walk in Oxford, and I 
commenced the morning of to-day in a similar manner. In the most 
splendid morning sunshine, I crossed the meadows and wandered 
along the bank of the Isis, through the poet's walk, with its lofty 
alley of limes, and then again between the college buildings back to 
Radcliff Library, of which Dr. Kidd is the librarian. He surprised 
me by showing me my large works, especially the copper-plates, laid 
together, in order to prove that particular attention had been here 
paid to them, and then explained and pointed out to me more par- 
ticularly the arrangements of this library, especially intended as a 
collection of works in the departments of physics, natural history, and 
medicine. It is rich in books, and has means enough of increasing 
its stores. I could not but wish, that a great portion of it were 
transferred to Dresden, because it is here very little used. I also 
looked through the last part of Audubon's splendid work, which con- 
tains such beautiful drawings of the aquatic birds of America, ex- 
amined some admirable sketches of humming-birds, by Viellot, and 
recommended some recent German works for purchase. 

We left Oxford at ten o'clock. The day was warm, the road in- 
different ; it led again into a chalk district like that around Dover. 



1 90 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

We afterwards passed over extensive districts of waste downs, till in 
the neighbourhood of Marlborough we drove through a wild park, 
called Usbury Forest, which contains some splendid trees, especially 
of oaks, beech, and whitethorn. During our drive, I perceived the last- 
mentioned description of tree, often completely overgrown by the 
honeysuckle in full blow, which imparts its fragrance to, and winds 
through, so many hedges and bushes in England. In a part of the 
forest bordering on the downs, I was surprised to see the ground 
in all directions burrowed by rabbits, and these pretty little gray ani- 
mals peeping out from among the bushes and running along the way- 
side in multitudes. It suggested to me the descriptions of the an- 
cients, which I had read, of the vast numbers of rabbits in Spain, 
and reminded me of the beautiful relief bust of " Hispania," in the 
Louvre, to which a pair of rabbits is given as attributes. 

The country became more a series of low flat hills, and finally we 
drove across the pathless downs, on which the postilions were left 
wholly to their own knowledge and discretion, and a person might 
sooner have believed that he was driving over the desert steppes of 
Northern Asia than in the centre of England — the most civilised 
country in the world. 

What did these desert downs prognosticate to us ? They prepared 
us for contemplating, without distraction of mind, that most singular 
and mysterious of all the antiquities of England ; they prepared us 
for examining Stonehenge, long known from numerous descriptions 
and yet never seen, so often and variously described, and never yet 
explained, never carefully preserved, and yet, even now, for the 
most part, undestroyed. 

The sun was already far advanced in his course, not a single tree 
obtruded upon the view, not a village or hamlet was visible upon 
the waste downs, here and there a few fields, but scarcely any thing 
was visible but the wide interminable downs covered with short 
grass, furnishing a scanty pasture for a few wandering sheep. From 
afar, we began to perceive a dark mass, somewhat resembling ruined 
walls, on the surface of the flat extensive hills, and as we approached, 
we became able to distinguish the gray upright stones, which consti- 
tute that singular primitive circle so rich in traditions, and called 
Stonehenge. 

We alighted, and proceeded towards these singular grave-stones 
of a long bygone race of men. It would have been impossible to have 
arrived at this extraordinary monument in a more favourable moment. 
In the calm solitude of the declining evening, enlivened by the 
song of the soaring lark alone, in this desert place, and in the 
midst of this complete repose, these large masses of stone, placed in 
a circle, and resembling strong and short Egyptian columns, appeared 
to me like the hieroglyphics of the history of England, and this view 
of them produced a singular effect upon my mind. I had already pre- 
viously seen many similar circles of stones and monumental remains 
in the island of Riigen, also upon desert heaths and by the resound- 



STONEHENGE. 191 

ing sea, but such enigmatical monuments of primitive ages I have 
never elsewhere seen. 

Having realised the idea of the place in general, I next en- 
deavoured to obtain a clearer notion of it by considering it in detail. 
It is obvious that the whole is to be regarded as a circular sacred 
place of about 300 feet in circumference. It consists of a double 
row of upright pillars, which are connected at the tops by large 
stones laid across, and extending from pillar to pillar. The space 
between the exterior and interior circles is about eight feet wide; 
the pillars are from seven to eight ells long, and stand from 
six to seven ells from each other. The material of the stones is 
quartz, and is so hard, that I found great difficulty in chipping off a 
few pieces, even with a hammer. Of the outer circle seventeen 
pillars are still standing, and seven fallen; of the inner, eleven are 
standing, and eight fallen; and in many the cross stone still rests 
upon the two uprights. On examining the work, and considering 
the extraordinary hardness of the stone, it is impossible to avoid 
being struck with wonder at the execution of the tenons on the 
upper end of the upright stones and the mortises in the transverse 
blocks, which are almost half an ell deep. When in addition to 
this it is remembered, that upright stones of this description, or 
erratic blocks of the same character do not at all occur, and that, 
therefore, these heavy masses were probably dragged to these places — 
the manner of effecting this, however, being quite as mysterious as the 
successful working of the stone, the mystery of the place is increased 
to the highest degree. In Kligen and Scandinavia may be seen in 
all directions granite blocks lying in confusion; some of these may 
have been collected and rolled together in early ages, and set up as 
Runic stones, or laid one upon another, as tombs of the primitive 
heroes, and this explains the possibility of the origin of such ancient 
rude monuments. But the manner in which this Stonehenge has 
had its origin, by what race of the ancient Cymri, or Britons these 
immense efforts have been made, and by whom this great circular 
temple, or sacred field, was consecrated, how the stones were brought 
to their present situation, worked and placed one upon another, are 
questions which have hitherto eluded the most laborious investiga- 
tion and research, and the people, therefore, have made them the 
foundation of multitudes of fabulous traditions, assigning their 
origin and erection to black dwarfs, and other similar absurdities. 

I had just sufficient time to take a hasty sketch of these ruins, 
and whilst so engaged, I could not avoid thinking of my departed 
friend Friedrich, the landscape painter, who, with his deep poetical 
mind, would not have failed to make an admirable but somewhat 
gloomy picture out of this mass of solitary stones, placed in the 
midst of the bare downs by which they are surrounded. Several 
monumental mounds, near the pillars, are still to be seen. Skele- 
tons, urns, and weapons of the earliest structure, have been found 
within them. About a hundred yards distant from the circle, 



192 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

there still stands a single rude column, indicative eitKer of a place 
of sepulture, or being itself a Runic stone; neither this stone, 
however, nor any of the others, bear the slightest trace of Runic 
characters. 

The quiet, mysteriousness, desolation, and, at the same time, the 
picturesque appearance of the place, produced a most powerful 
influence upon us all, and especially upon his majesty, who suc- 
ceeded in making an admirably conceived and extremely well 
drawn outline of the whole ; we took our departure with hesitation 
and regret, and after having entered the carriages, cast many a 
lingering look behind, till at last Stonehenge disappeared from our 
sight — just as history itself has long and irrecoverably lost from its 
territory the account of the origin and early importance of this 
wonderful circle of stone pillars. 

The nearest town, about two English miles off, is Amesbury, 
and from thence one post to Salisbury. The district continues to 
be interspersed with low hills; the twilight was just departing, and 
in the east, the red moon was rising from a violet twilight opposite 
to that derived from the setting sun. We arrived at nine o'clock, 
having had pointed out to us, by the way, a few huts, on a low hill, 
which are called Old Sarum; and, which, up till 1831, had -the 
right of returning two members to parliament. 

Salisbury, the capital of Wiltshire, lies in a country, consisting of 
low hills, and almost destitute of trees; the sharp stone tower of the 
cathedral has a very lofty elevation, and the small houses of a poor 
little town, of from 10,000 to 11,000 inhabitants, cluster around 
the church. 

As the moon shone so beautifully clear through the windows, 
after our late dinner, it occurred to us, that the cathedral would 
afford a charming view on such a night — and the king immediately 
resolved to pay a visit to the church before midnight. To night, 
for the first time, the moon in England appeared to me to shed her 
usual poetical beams upon the earth. I had seen the former full 
moon in the Isle of Wight, and she was wholly without brilliancy 
and effect, and both before and after we had sought for moonlight 
in vain. The effect on this occasion was the more splendid. The 
night was glorious, and as we approached the cathedral, in the 
warm, peaceful, and clear air, the impression made was mighty. 
This large and beautiful structure stands alone, surrounded by grass 
plots and lofty limes; it is in the shape of a cross, with several addi- 
tional buildings; from its centre springs up the lofty and slender 
spire, altogether made of stone. The whole, gives one the idea of 
old German Gothic, and belongs to the thirteenth century. It may 
well be supposed, that the various effects of light must necessarily 
be very considerable; the cathedral, especially when viewed from 
the shady side, from which the large gloomy mass contrasted 
strangely with the clear sky and the interior of the church, seen 
through the lofty windows, appeared full of moonlight — at one 



SALISBURY. 193 

place, the moon herself was seen through the windows of the oppo- 
site side. The side of the cathedral, lighted by the moon, was 
also very beautiful, and our late evening's walk was most richly 
rewarded. 



XLII. 

Salisbury, June 20th — Noon. 

The moonlight walk of yesterday evening was followed by an 
early sunlight walk this morning. The impression made by the 
church, which forms a double-armed cross, was splendid also by day, 
in the very clear morning. In particular parts there is a certain 
heaviness, which even occasionally borders on ugliness; but the 
effect of the whole still remains, as that of a beautiful work, founded 
on one grand design, and consistently carried out. On this occasion 
the doors were opened, and we entered the long and very lofty 
arched aisles of a genuine German-Gothic dome. 

The erection of the church was commenced about the year 1220, 
and completed between 1250 and 1260. The lofty stone spire was 
added 200 years later, and the four high pillars at the great cross 
arms of the church, which support its weight, have visibly de- 
viated somewhat from the perpendicular. The cathedral contains 
some curious monuments; of which the most remarkable is that of 
the first Earl of Salisbury, which dates in the thirteenth century. 
The recumbent figure is carved in stone, clothed in chain armour, 
and holding a long tapering shield. My attention was next attracted 
by one which is completely modern — that of Lord Malmesbury, by 
Chantrey. The conception is both original and simple, two things 
which, in modern works of art, very rarely occur. The artist has 
represented his subject, as one may conceive him to have appeared 
during the closing period of his life. He is represented as lying 
upon a couch, with a close-fitting night-gown, and the lower part 
of the body covered with a quilted counterpane, which has furnished 
the artist with an admirable opportunity for displaying his skill in 
the arrangements of the folds of drapery. The head is sunk 
towards the breast, in a thinking attitude. He had been reading; 
but the arm with the book is laid down, and the spectator can 
easily imagine, that the half-reposing, half- suffering figure is quietly 
reflecting upon what he has just read. The image of a noble, 
intelligent man, who, in the midst of bodily sufferings, still continues 
to apply himself to the higher objects of mental development, 
is here so admirably delineated, that I must pronounce this work, 
which is also beautifully treated in marble, in a statuary point of 
view, one of the most peculiar and remarkable of modern times. 

o 



194 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

Adjoining the church there are very perfect cloisters, with highly- 
adorned Gothic roofs, open window arches, and free ornamental 
stone nrullions. Had we been able to have visited the cloisters yes- 
terday evening, in the moonlight, the effect must have been in the 
highest degree splendid. Connected with the cloisters, there is a 
chapter-house — a lofty empty hall — also of Gothic architecture — 
and remarkable construction. This hall is octagonal, with beautiful 
high windows, and its vaulted roof is supported in the centre by a 
single slender pillar. Unhappily, this pillar also has been forced 
from its perpendicular, and the whole is, in many respects, in a 
state of decay. Some works were being carried on in this building. 
The church, unfortunately, lies very low, so that when the small 
hill-streams, by which the town is watered, overflow, the water often 
reaches and enters the church itself. Every thing, therefore, has a 
moist appearance, the walls are spotted with green, and the floors 
have suffered severely. The whole church, with its accessory build- 
ings, well deserves to be made the subject of a detailed series of 
architectural engravings. Such a work would furnish many very 
interesting subjects to men of science in the character of the single 
ornaments, and relations of the arches, the patterns of the windows, 
doors, &c. &c. The gable over the main entrance is particularly 
richly adorned, and presents a most picturesque appearance. The 
construction of the lofty stone tower is also peculiarly remarkable. 
It is regarded as the highest spire in England, being about 400 feet 
above the surface of the ground. 

I afterwards took a solitary walk, in the fine summer weather, 
beyond the limits of the town, to the heights which lie above, and 
from them, the cathedral first appeared in all its grandeur. It rose 
free from the surrounding groups of lime-trees, far above all the 
small houses, and its lofty stone spire sprung up aloft from its centre, 
like a slender lily. 

Weymouth, same day — Evening. 
When I returned towards noon, from my walk in Salisbury, I 
found that his majesty had determined on making an excursion 
to Milton House, a seat belonging to the Countess of Pembroke, 
and only a few miles distant. Here we again met with one of those 
rich and charming residences with which the whole island of Great 
Britain is filled. On entering the house, the visitor first passes 
into a lofty stone hall, richly adorned with suits of armour and 
statues. Among the armour is the rich suit of the first Earl of 
Pembroke; and just opposite, one not less rich, which had been 
worn by a French knight whom he conquered. The hall contains 
a number of other pieces of armour and weapons, grouped as 
trophies, as well as some fine specimens of sculptures. I was par- 
ticularly struck with a youthful Bacchus, which, in as far as it is 
antique, must be called enchanting ; opposite to it stands a figure 



MILTON HOUSE. 195 

with a cornucopia, which is deserving of high commendation. 
This is followed by a gallery of antiques, which runs round the 
whole court; it contains mult a sed non multum. Occasionally 
something good, but only exceptionally. The various apartments 
of the house are also filled with pictures ; but those of great value 
are fewer in number than in many other residences of a similar 
kind. There is among the rest a very remarkable piece, which 
dates from the fourteenth century, and which was long regarded 
in England as the first oil-painting, being executed before the time 
of Johann van Eyck; it is, however, certainly executed in distemper. 
It represents on one side, on a gold ground, Richard II., when 
young, before a bishop; and on the other, angels in white gar- 
ments, and with large blue swallow wings; the figures of the 
whole are small. The execution is very neat, but too obviously pains- 
taking, and without any particular beauty. There is also an en- 
tombment, the style of which strongly recalls that of Hemling (or 
Memling); but it is certainly not by Albert Dlirer. Apiece by 
Rubens, representing four naked children playing together, is very 
splendid ; the colouring is beautiful, and the flesh full of life. The 
collection contains, besides, several pictures by Van Dyck. There 
is one especially deserving of notice, above twelve feet long, and 
nine broad, representing the whole family of an Earl of Pembroke, 
in which some splendid heads are portrayed. The picture stands in 
great need of being restored. 

Whilst we were engaged in examining the pictures, some of the 
family of the countess who were in the house, were informed of the 
arrival of the illustrious visiter. The Hon. Mr. Herbert and his 
sister, a beautiful woman, of a genuine noble English figure, imme- 
diately came, in order in person to show the park at least to his 
majesty. The grounds adjoining the house are distinguished by 
the complete Italian style of their arrangement and vegetation. 
Beautiful pines, evergreen oaks, limes and cedars, form splendid 
groups, and admirably correspond with several of the buildings, 
which are executed in the true Italian garden style. A threatening 
storm soon hastened our return — it, however, speedily cleared off, 
and at three o'clock we left Salisbury in order to direct our course 
more and more towards the south coasts of England. Our road for 
some distance led through a barren district — extensive downs stretched 
along the wayside — and we first entered a pleasant, green, well- 
watered valley on our approach to Dorchester. At a later part 
of our journey we again came to high tracts of country without 
trees, and suddenly the sea lay spread out before us — under a 
cloudy evening sky; — bays penetrated into the land, and promon- 
tories, especially that of the Isle of Portland, where the beautiful 
Portland stone is quarried, stood boldly out into the sea; in short, 
the country all at once assumed a grand and imposing character. 

We drove farther and farther down towards the coast, and at 

02 



196 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

length reached the small sea-bathing town of Weymouth, which 
consists of a long line of small, pretty dwelling-houses stretching 
along the shore. The harbour was spread out before us in the calm 
evening, almost as smooth as a mirror; luckily the hotel was situ- 
ated close upon the sea, and my room opened upon the peacefully 
slumbering waters. As the evening darkened, I stood at the 
window and listened to the slow and weak roll of the waves upon 
the beach — and the slender crescent moon in unexpected beauty 
appeared above the azure clouds, and her light played far and wide 
upon the dark green waters. How often had I longed to behold 
this beautiful sight, and now it was full before my eyes; and thus 
it is in life — its highest charms often come upon us wholly unsought 
and unexpected. 



LXIII. 

Exmouth, July 1st — Evening. 

In the morning early in Weymouth, the sea still lay before my 
window of a splendid mingled pearly grey and chrysopras green — on 
the left the chalk cliffs stretched away to the extremity of the bay 
—and on my right lay the small town scattered along the shore, 
terminating just opposite, with a watch-house on a height. Several 
small vessels were lying at anchor in the offing, and the bathing- 
machines were standing along the shore ready for the bathers. The 
sky was somewhat overcast — the sun, however, at last forced his 
way through, and shone brightly. The whole scene gave the full 
impression of a beautiful calm sea-piece. I took advantage of the 
early morning hours, to realise the impression of this charming 
scene by a colour drawing. I had not enjoyed an opportunity of 
visiting a scene of this description since the time in which I had 
been on the Bay of Naples. My attempt was successful, and the 
effect on the whole good. After finishing my sketch, I went 
down to the strand, in order to breathe and enjoy the fresh sea 
breeze. There is a peculiar pleasure in breathing the fresh sea air. 
That of the Alps is also glorious, but I cannot give even it a pre- 
ference beyond that of the sea coast. Let every one rejoice who 
has often breathed them both. 

I stood long contemplating those clear waters, and watching those 
regular pulsations with which the gentle rippling waves constantly 
advanced on the small pebbles of the beach. Machines with bathers 
were being constantly drawn into the water, and I would have had 
the greatest desire to have plunged into the pure element before 
me, but we took our departure as early as eight o'clock, in order 
to visit several of the small sea-bathing towns along the southern 
coast. 



LYME REGIS. 197 

We pursued our way under a warm sun for many hours, among 
barren hills, formerly the mere sand-hills of the coast. Afterwards 
we again came in sight of the splendid horizon of the blue sea — 
the hills of Devonshire rose up to our view, and we at length 
reached Lyme-Regis, situated on the coast between lofty masses of 
rocks, and especially remarkable as being the scene where so many 
fossils exist, and particularly the beds which contain those singular fossil 
sea-lizards, to which the name of Ichthyosauri and Plesiosauri have 
been given. The road first descends rapidly towards the shore, 
and then ascends a steep hill into the little town. We had alighted 
from the carriage, and were proceeding along on foot, when we fell 
in with a shop in which the most remarkable petrifactions and 
fossil remains — the head of an Ichthyosaurus — beautiful ammonites, 
&c, were exhibited in the window. We entered and found the small 
shop and adjoining chamber completely filled with the fossil pro- 
ductions of the coast. It is a piece of great good fortune for the 
collectors, when the heavy winter rains loosen and bring down large 
masses of the projecting coast. When such a fall takes place, the 
most splendid and rarest fossils are brought to light, and made 
accessible almost without labour on their part. In the course of 
the past winter there had been no very favourable slips, and the stock 
of fossils on hand was, therefore, smaller than usual ; still I found in the 
shop a large slab of blackish clay, in which a perfect Ichthyosaurus 
of at least six feet, was imbedded. This specimen would have 
been a great acquisition for many of the cabinets of natural history 
on the Continent, and I consider the price demanded, 151. sterling, 
as very moderate. I was anxious, at all events, to write down the 
address, and the woman who kept the shop — for it was a woman 
who had devoted herself to this scientific pursuit — with a firm hand, 
wrote her name, " Mary Annins," in my pocket-book, and added, 
as she returned the book into my hands, " I am well known 
throughout the whole of Europe." 

From the hill above, the view over the town beneath, in the clear 
sun light, and its gardens, with their high laurel hedges, towards 
the splendid azure sea, which, in the distance, commingled with the 
clear sky, without any distinct outline, and of the lofty reddish- 
black coast walls, was enchanting, and presented to the eye a picture 
completely southern in its character. The sea was beating below 
on the dark-coloured beach, partly covered with sea- weed, and the 
stratification of the coast further above exhibited alternations of the 
yellowish nagelflue and black clay, with occasional layers of chalk; 
the strata of the bold coast, in this part of England, produce very 
picturesque effects. 

There were, besides, some very pretty dwellings by the way side, 
one of which particularly attracted our attention, in consequence of 
the handsome gardens by which it was surrounded, and the neat 
house. The owner, who was an officer of the Coast-guard, stationed 
here for the prevention of smuggling, invited us, in the most friendly 



198 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

manner, to enter, and conducted us to a most charming open lodge, 
situated on the declivity of the hill, towards the sea, from which one 
of the most delightful views was opened to us, over this world of 
wonders, which it is possible to conceive. It was, however, impos- 
sible to remain long. In another shop, in Lyme Regis, we had met 
with some drawings of a great land-slip, which had taken place, only 
a few miles distant from the town, and not far from the public road. 
The appearances were very extraordinary, and the whole was well 
worth a slight deviation from our way. The king, therefore, re- 
solved to visit this land-slip, and, by means of a cross road, we soon 
reached a farm house, where we left the carriages, and proceeded 
on foot towards the object of our visit. The slip took place in 
December, 1839. The coast, at this part, chiefly consists of chalk, 
mixed with an immense quantity of flint, often of marl and conglo- 
merate of limestone, a species of nagehiue. The landslip was similar 
to, and arose from, the same causes as that which occurred at Goldau, 
near the Righi, and which I had seen some years before. Here, 
however, the slip had a more extraordinary appearance; the coast 
reached an elevation of from 500 to 600 feet close to the sea, and from 
200 to 300 yards of the surface of the land had been precipitated to the 
shore. As I stood, the steep, almost perpendicular precipice towards 
the sea, was before me ; to the right lay the extensive separated 
mass of ground, divided into several deep trenches and ravines, with 
wedged shaped elevations between. Trees and hedges had been 
carried down with the soil in which they grew, and continued in 
the abyss into which they had been precipitated; new shrubs, also, 
had taken root beneath, and the sea beat against the lowest extremity 
of the fragments; in short, the view might properly be called magni- 
ficent and peculiar. The relation of a horrible event, which had 
occurred two years before, contributed to strengthen the impression, 
which the view of the place naturally made upon the mind. A young 
man from Hamburg, as I was told, had made an excursion to the 
place on horseback, accompanied by other foreigners and tourists, 
in order to see the remarkable phenomenon. It happened to be at 
the time when Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were making 
a trip by sea along the coast, and the steamboat, on board of which 
the queen was, hove in sight at the very moment in which these 
tourists arrived at the farm house where we left the carriages. The 
young man sprung upon his horse, in order to gallop rapidly to the 
hill on the coast, from which the royal yacht was visible. Being 
imperfectly acquainted with the locality, he rode directly forward to 
the edge of the precipice, towards the sea. He came upon the 
brink of the abyss before he was aware ; the horse, in order to avoid 
the precipice, started aside : but the unfortunate rider, by the force 
of his vis inerticB, was thrown from his seat, and, probably rendered 
helpless by terror, was plunged headlong into the dreadful abyss. 
When reached he was found dashed almost to pieces, still breathing, 
but in a few minutes life was extinct. 



SIDMOUTH. 199 

Having gazed for some time from tlie very summit of the steep 
precipice upon what may be called this world in ruins (our position 
called to my recollection the Kbnigstuhl of the Stubbenkammer in 
Rugen), we descended with some effort and labour under the 
burning sun along the side of the precipice, and afterwards walked 
leisurely over and through the wonderful labyrinth of ruins ; it was 
as singular as it was beautiful. A multitude of the beautiful and 
large-leaved blue Iris Jcetida were in full flower among the bushes, 
and every now and again there opened up to our view some beau- 
tiful vistas towards the glorious blue sea, with its brown and blackish 
shore. We here met with the white-thorn hedge, which had been 
suddenly carried down with the land on which it grew, and above 
us we saw the portion from which it had been violently separated. 
It continued to grow in its new position, like all those common 
natures, to which it is indifferent where they live, if they have only 
means of nutriment. At last, after a laborious ascent, aggravated by 
the heat, we reached the summit, and after some very acceptable 
refreshment, entered our carriages, and drove to Sidmouth, another 
of those sea-bathing towns on the southern coast, which is much 
visited. 

Sidmouth, like its neighbouring towns, is celebrated for the mild- 
ness of its climate. It is much more protected by the heights behind 
than Weymouth, and presents magnificent views of the sea and 
rocky coasts. The new, red sand-stone formation, forming extremely 
picturesque precipices, commences here, and by its intensive brown- 
red colour, affords a very favourable contrast with the white sand of 
the shore, and the azure sea. I was very well pleased to find that 
that there was some difficulty in obtaining the requisite number of 
post horses, and availed myself of the delay to ramble along a piece 
of coast, which presented picturesque studies of extraordinary beauty. 
Why cannot I remain in such an enchanting country for some or at 
least for a single day ! I was particularly struck with one charming 
view; properly speaking, a picture in a picture. The white sand of 
the shore forms a basin full of the clearest and purest sea water ; the 
lofty precipice of red and rugged sand-stone, which formed the coast, 
was distinctly and beautifully reflected from its surface ; in addition 
to this the coast stretched away behind the sand-hills, and the glorious 
blue sea beat upon the shore ; nor was there any want of accessory 
materials, for, near the shore, lay a small vessel, laden with coal, 
and a waggon and horses stood alongside the vessel, in the shallow 
water ; labourers, covered w r ith coal dust, were busy in conveying the 
coals from the ship into the waggon, which was drawn with great 
effort by the snorting horses, through the shallow, foaming waves, 
to the shore. A pair of sea eagles took their flight from the rocks 
above me, screaming as they flew ; beautiful sea-weeds lay scattered 
about the shore, and peculiar plants, in- great variety, hung down 
from the crevices of the rocks, especially close to the small water 



200 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

veins, from which there was a continuous dropping. I could scarcely 
resolve to separate from the beauties around me. 

Horses were, however, at last obtained, and put to. We again 
proceeded up a steep hill, the great declivity of which was studded 
with a number of pretty little habitations, many of them built in a 
peculiar style, with several gables, and ornamented with flag-staffs. 
At the top, the road passes through a deep cutting, and, after a short 
drive, we arrived at this place, which takes its name from its situa- 
tion at the place where the river Ex empties itself into the channel. 
Exmouth is also very much visited by those who wish to enjoy the 
benefits of sea air and bathing. In my "Road Book of England," 
Exmouth is said to be " the oldest and best frequented watering- 
place in Devon ;" and from the height on which our small hotel is 
situated, it can clearly be perceived that the wide bay, with its 
numerous and boldly projecting promontories, must be a place 
in which ships can lie in perfect safety, sheltered from every 
storm. We went down to the shore, and found it covered with the 
finest sand, in which here and there were specimens of the violet 
Convolvulus (Convolvulus Soldanella), and the blue flowering 
Eryngium maritimum , and multitudes of shells of various colours 
The evening had become gloomy, but calm and warm; merchant 
vessels at anchor, were scattered about in the bay ; small fishing-boats 
were cleaving the glassy waters, enclosed by the beautiful projecting 
headlands ; whilst two ships, with their full-set sails, flapping loose, and 
scarcely able to catch a breath of wind, were being towed out to sea 
by a fishing -boat. The whole scene was charming; and when we 
remembered the noon-tide heat, the cool sea air proved doubly de- 
lightful and refreshing. 



XLIV. 

Plymouth, July 2nd — Evening. 
Exmouth bay penetrates deeply into the land, so that it would 
have added greatly to the distance to have driven round; the 
carriages were, therefore, early in the morning put on board of 
boats, and thus conveyed across the water to a sandy promontory on 
the opposite side, from which they were drawn by horses, sent for 
the purpose, to the high-road on the further side. We, ourselves, 
passed the bay in a small row-boat, enjoying the delightful morning 
air, and glorious sunlight reflected in all directions from the clear 
waves. Just opposite there lies a height, called " Pleasant Hill," 
from which the view of the neighbourhood was truly delightful; 
it was, however, still more charming when we went down to the 
wide sandy beach, and proceeded to the place, at which the bold 



TEIGNMOUTH — TORQUAY. 201 

and lofty conglomerate rocks came close up to the sea, where the 
foaming tide rushes into the cavities, which the violence of the 
waves have formed in the friable rocks. Some time still elapsed 
before the carriages arrived, which I employed in taking a sketch 
of a portion of the coast, The forms and colours belonged to the 
genuine picture style — magnificent and imposing. 

About ten o'clock, the carriages were ready; the road follows 
an ascending direction for a short distance — passes through a deep 
cutting, and again comes to the coast at Dawlish. The situation 
of this little bathing-place is extremely delightful. An amphi- 
theatre of red walls of rock, here and there covered with luxuriant 
vegetation, and projecting beyond each other like the side scenes of 
a stage, surrounded the little bay, along the shore of which great 
pyramidal masses of rock presented themselves to the eye ; a number 
of pretty little houses in the fore-ground, and near the shore, a 
coast-guard station, for the prevention of smuggling. The man on 
the look-out stood with a telescope in his hand, instead of a gun ; 
and near at hand were boats drawn up upon the shore, which could be 
immediately manned and pushed into the water, as soon as any 
thing suspicious came in sight. The whole was very new and 
peculiar; but our eyes continually reverted to the splendid blue sea, 
the masses of steep red rocks, the singular ravines and breaches 
formed in the rocky walls, and the distant blueish coast. 

Again we proceeded through a hilly country, across a cultivated 
district, and tracts rich in vegetation, till we reached Teignmouth, 
a watering-place upon a still larger scale than those through which 
we had passed. A number of houses with columns in front, and 
the Bath Hotel, form a terrace fronting the sea. Before the 
terrace is a large grass plot; then come the sand hills, against 
which the sea beats, and on both sides an extensive coast stretching 
to a distance on the left towards Dawlish, and on the right, a series 
of progressively ascending and then rapidly descending rocks. 

The sky which had been hitherto so clear, here became overcast, 
and we drove through the midst of heavy rain through the town 
to the iron bridge over the Teign — up an ascending road, and lost 
sight of the sea for a long distance, — then penetrated into a richly 
wooded rocky valley, which became deeper and deeper, till at last, 
on our exit from this gorge, Torquay appeared in view. The strata 
of stone here changed to a hard limestone resembling black mar- 
ble, and the houses of the little town itself are built close to, and 
in some measure high up against the rocks. We only stopped to 
change horses — we had merely an opportunity of taking a hasty 
glance at such parts of the town as lay near the hotel. There is a 
small harbour in the middle of the town, which was at the moment 
dry, and two or three small trading vessels were heeled upon the 
beach in order to be repaired : without the harbour, several boats and 
small craft were at anchor ; around the place some elegant shops, 



202 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

exhibiting articles made of the beautiful polished marble of the 
district. We then drove along the bay of Torquay ; here, too, the 
sands were dry in consequence of the ebb, and numbers of waggons 
were employed in bringing away the sea wrack, probably to be 
used as a manure. As we proceeded, we entered further into the 
hilly district, whose irregular outline bore testimony to the hard 
nature of the rocks by which it was formed, and at length, on 
descending a very steep hill, we came to Kingswear, on the Dart, 
from which the carriages with the servants were sent forward to 
Totness, along the bank of the river, whilst we entrusted ourselves 
to the Dart itself, in a small row boat, and proposed to go by water 
to the same place. The Dart is here about four times the width of 
the Elbe, at Dresden, and presented a very pretty appearance, as 
the old town of Dartmouth, which lay on the opposite side, on a 
wooded hill, was reflected in its clear smooth waters. The king 
was anxious to see the actual embouchure of the river, and 
the boatmen, therefore, first rowed southward between the high 
rocks of both banks, till we began to be very sensible of the swell 
of the sea. To the right lay Dartmouth Castle, very picturesquely 
situated upon rocks, brown with sea wrack, and St. Patrick's Chapel; 
to the left, and somewhat further off, Kingswear Castle appeared, 
also built upon rocks, but in ruins. Across the sea, we had a full 
view of the Start Point with its light-house; around us, in all 
directions, small fishing-boats under sail, rode over the swelling 
waves — and the whole was charming in the highest degree ! — 
Our men then rowed back, and we now enjoyed a delightful view 
of the scenery of Dartmouth Castle and town, and of the whole 
rocky but richly wooded shores of the bay. We stopped for a few 
minutes at the town, because the boatmen said they required 
longer oars to pull against the stream, and I was delighted thus 
to have an opportunity of seeing the manner in which the 
houses of such people are constructed in these small sea-coast 
towns. Small old houses are situated so close on the banks of 
the Dart, which, like the Thames at London, is here more a 
branch of the sea than a river, that ladders reach from the doors 
of the houses immediately down into the water. We were 
taken to a landing-place, at which a number of small boats were 
lying together ; the boatmen landed, climbed up the ladders, 
made some changes in their dress, and brought longer oars. They 
again clambered down into the boat, whilst several of their wives 
standing at the doors kept gazing down with curiosity at the 
strangers beneath. At length we pushed off and proceeded further 
up the stream. 

Every thing around breathes the air of the most peculiarly de- 
voted sea life. Some boys were pushing about in a yawl, and 
amusing themselves by sailing a small boat with full spread, trian- 
gular linen sails, which the light wind drove merrily onward, till 



DARTMOUTH — TOTNESS. 203 

the boys rowed after, and brought it back again, merely to repeat 
the sport. Large boats also passed us close by ; and when one bears 
in mind, that in such amusements and in such labours of the com- 
mon sailors and boatmen, those mariners are formed with whom the 
fleets of England are manned, by which she carries on her wars, 
and makes distant regions of the world tributary to her sway — these 
apparently trivial things assume a high and significant importance. 
The Dart affords a safe refuge for ships which are compelled to look 
for shelter in the Channel, and has room enough to contain 500 
sail. The sailors and boatmen who live here have, therefore, the 
most various opportunities of employment, and it was a matter of 
particular interest to me, after having seen the great arsenals of the 
navy in Portsmouth, and the great heroes of the fleet in London, to 
be able to cast a glance here upon the ordinary occupations and 
course of life of the common seamen. The sail up the placid waters 
of the Dart, to Totness, about ten miles distant, is very remarkable. 
The wooded hills on both sides approach nearer and nearer to the 
banks, and seem sometimes to enclose the bay, as if it were a lake. 
During our little voyage, the sky became overcast, the wind rose, 
and our boatmen put up two small sails, such as may have been used 
in the infancy of navigation, one of which was held by a servant, 
whilst Baron von Gersdorf steered, and the two boatmen pulled the 
oars. On the banks of the river there are numerous small parks 
and country houses, one of which, Green way House, was pointed 
out by the sailors as having formerly been the residence of Sir 
Walter Raleigh; and here tobacco is said to have been first smoked 
in Europe — on which occasion I did not fail to reflect, with what 
reverence and piety some of my friends, who are zealous smokers, 
would have greeted the place. As we proceeded, it became more 
and more solitary — nothing but green wooded hills on each side, 
and a broad and almost stagnant water. At some distance, there 
were two boats employed in catching salmon. Our boatmen called 
to the men to exhibit some of their take, and they right cheerfully held 
up some of the large and silvery sparkling fish to our view. The woods 
clothe the hills to the water's edge ; the water itself contains sea- 
weed, and tastes brackish, but has a turbid and stagnant appearance. 
Herons every now and again rose from the banks, flew for a short 
distance, and alighted again amongst the reeds; the impression 
upon my mind was very singular. Somewhat in this manner, I 
bethought me, must it be, when people land upon a newly-discovered 
country, and sail up such a bay into a wild and lonely soli- 
tude. The Romans, perhaps, may have in this manner entered 
the Thames — and even have sailed into this very stream — and 
what has not passed over these coasts since that period ! Almost 
800 years ago, William the Norman landed not far from this very 
place. 

Thus we proceeded farther and farther ; the banks became 



204 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

again more cultivated, the bay more like a river, and continually 
narrower ; and at length Totness appeared in sight. Even here there 
is still a yacht, and slight remaining traces of sea-water. A bridge 
closes the further navigation of the stream, and we landed at 
the garden steps, at which we found the carriages had already 
arrived. I confess I experienced a singular feeling, when I re- 
flected that a person coming, as it were, from America, might land 
here, as in jest, at the garden steps of a little river. The whole 
bay is one of the best examples of those which form the most com- 
plete intermediate link between the open sea and the interior 
country ! 

Whilst the horses were being ordered and put to, we rambled 
up the street of the little town. It is a small quiet place, and yet 
its intercourse with distant regions of the world is made obvious 
in many ways. It struck me with surprise, on passing a shoemaker's 
shop, to see a pair of small Chinese ladies' shoes lying amongst the 
variety of wares exposed for sale. In what shop in any small 
town in the interior of the Continent could such a thing be seen? 

The evening had again become very beautiful, only somewhat 
hazy in the west. The roads were full of life, particularly of 
persons upon horseback — not only men, but women also and boys. 
It continually recalled Italy to my mind, when I saw a horse with 
a basket swung at each side — as on the mules in Naples — and a 
woman seated between, riding boldly on. The boys also ride 
their ponies with great courage, which, although small, are lively, 
and go at a rapid pace. In a word, whether on horseback or ship- 
board, the English know how to get forward ! The build of the 
people, too, is here very fine; faces with fine features, and healthy, 
vigorous children, everywhere present themselves. The sun had 
set, a hazy evening glow veiled the west, and Venus became for a 
moment visible, but following close upon the sun. It was such an 
evening as invites to meditation. Such was its effect upon me, as 
I sank into the corner of our comfortable carriage ; and I was only 
recalled to myself and to the world, when the sudden extraordinary 
appearances of the rocky masses burst upon my attention in the in- 
creasing darkness, as we passed the stone quarries near Plymouth ; 
soon after the lights of the town became visible. We always expe- 
rience a singular sensation, on entering a new and strange place in 
the obscurity of night ; all kinds of figures rise before us, and we 
find it impossible to discern their significance or distinguish their 
form. Fancy becomes lively, and gives them sometimes one cha- 
racter and sometimes another. Thus it was on this evening, as we 
drove into the streets of this celebrated naval harbour. Here a 
canal was to be seen. Among the dark masses of houses, the masts 
of some merchant ships suddenly shot up ; there the gas-lights were 
reflected from a basin, and near at hand the large skeleton of a 
ehip upon the stocks ! We drove on through the streets, still be- 



PLYMOUTH* 205 

coming more and more noisy, till at length we approached a large 
building with a portico, consisting of a double row of columns — can 
it be a theatre or a museum? It is the Royal Hotel, which, indeed, 
contains a theatre and a ball-room; but even this large building, 
filled to overflowing as it was with strangers, could with difficulty 
provide accommodation for his majesty and ourselves. 



XLV. 

Liskeard, July 3rd — Evening. 
The occurrences of this day have left behind a certain satisfaction, 
which I can only fully explain by calling to mind how many days 
past my mind and eyes have been wholly occupied with the scenery 
of nature, whilst to-day a change has taken place, and numerous human 
individualities and circumstances have been brought objectively 
before me. So much, however, is certain. Whoever has had great 
experience in self-contemplation as well as in intercourse with the 
world, can never feel his mind sufficiently deeply impressed, to say 
nothing of satisfied with the charms of natural scenery, but man and 
the depths of his own mind and soul must necessarily become more and 
more the chief objects and study of his existence. It is singular, when 
in this respect we look back upon the Greeks, and think of the rela- 
tion in which they stood to nature, with the simple and yet deeply 
meditative manner of their existence. They possessed all the organs 
for the enjoyment of the external elements of nature, but they 
were far from indulging in that sentimental adoration which in 
recent times has degenerated into a sort of worship of particular kinds 
of scenery and countries. This species of glorifying nature, which 
leads multitudes of idlers from time to time up mountains and into 
valleys, in order to enable them to utter a few worthless common- 
places on the charms of scenery, was at that time, and even in the 
middle ages, something altogether unknown. I am well aware that 
this tendency of the age is connected with much that is refined and 
thoughtful — that it is grounded upon a really deeper insight into 
nature, and tljat the idea of the external life of the earth has made 
a deeper impression upon mankind ; but these more elevated feelings 
and this deeper experience are, relatively speaking, the property only 
of the few, and do not invalidate the conclusion, that among the 
incapable many, this tendency has degenerated into an actual cari- 
cature. And even the few who have this experience know well, 
that a single conscious intelligence is elevated far above all the suns 
and stars that roll and shine in unconscious splendour — far above all 
the rocks, mountains, rivers, and waves of the ocean, that exist with- 
out conscious thought — nay, that properly speaking, that sea of 
unconscious growth and decay, first attains to an actual existence by 



206 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

means of the conscious mind receiving the unconscious into itself; it 
is somewhat as Gothe expresses himself in that splendid passage con- 
cerning Winkehnann: " For whereto serves all this display of suns 
and moons and planets, of stars and milky way, of comets and ne- 
bulas, of worlds created and still starting into being, if last of all 
there is not a happy human being, unconsciously rejoicing in his 
existence?" I now revert to the history of the events of the day. 

As early as half-past eight o'clock I took a solitary ramble about 
the streets of Plymouth. It was a beautiful bright morning, but 
all was very dull in the streets and on the public places, to which 
the closed doors of the houses greatly contributed. The English in 
general are by no means early risers. Eight o'clock, even in the 
busiest hotels, is very early, and a regular treaty must be entered 
into to get a comfortable breakfast before nine o'clock. The case 
is the same in all ranks of society; even the working classes are 
not fond of early hours, and in the higher ranks of society the 
morning hours can, of course, be only figuratively spoken of. In 
return, however, not only do evening parties continue till early in 
the morning, as is also the case elsewhere, but even serious business ; 
for example, the sitting of Parliament is sometimes protracted to 
four or five o'clock in the morning. I walked through several 
streets, but found nothing particular to look at; examined some 
of the little new gray houses, read some handbills, in which vessels 
were recommended to emigrants to America, and travellers to 
Cairo, and then returned to the colossal Royal Hotel. 

Shortly after, I accompanied the king on a short walk to a lofty 
point above the harbour. We saw from this point the large and 
extensive bays formed by the embouchures of the Tamar and the 
Plym, the grey and reddish marble rocks of the coast, and the 
several forts and works; further to sea stretched the long break- 
water with its lighthouse, which preserves the bays from the violence 
of the sea; and higher up, on the horizon was to be seen the long 
ridge of the Dartmoor hills, the highest in Devonshire. In 
the other direction was situated Devonport, the harbour of Ply- 
mouth, on a bay which penetrated somewhat deeper into the land. 
A wood of masts furnished evidence of the activity of the place, 
which carries on the principal part of its commerce with the West 
Indies and the Mediterranean. Close under our fegt were to be 
seen a number of curiously shaped rocks, covered below water- 
mark with brown and yellow fucus ; and in the clear waves, which 
beat with a gentle swell against the coast, boys were bathing. 
Boats and vessels of various sizes were passing to and fro; the 
view was grand and extensive, and the air of the sea was parti- 
cularly refreshing. 

On our return we found Admiral Sir D. Milne, the Governor 
of Plymouth, waiting to conduct his majesty over the docks at 
Devonport. We followed in another carriage, and passed through 
rows of workshops similar to those in Portsmouth, but not so per- 



PLYMOUTH. 207 

feet, and not put in action by steam. Steamers are not built here ; 
large foundries, in which anchors are cast, rope- walks, and skeletons 
of ships the height of houses, are to be seen here, as well as large 
ships laid up in dry docks to be repaired. 

Sir Samuel Pym, governor of the docks, and Sir H. Murray, 
commander of the garrison, with several other officers, accompanied 
his majesty. Close to the docks is situated a little hill, planted 
with myrtle, hypericum, and ivy, upon which there is a sort of 
hermitage, dedicated to the memory of George IV., who used 
often to sit there. We next drove to the admiral's house, where 
we were to take lunch. The house is beautifully situated, and in 
a commanding situation, high above the harbour; before it is the 
signal terrace, bristling with cannon; further out is to be seen the 
breakwater, and beyond this the blue sea. The family of the ad- 
miral, all born in Scotland, were present. Besides the mother, 
there were two amiable and graceful daughters, the elder of whom 
soon commenced a conversation with me. Their brother, Captain 
Milne, who was also present, is captain of the Caledonia, a ship 
of 120 guns, now lying off the breakwater, and is to sail to-morrow 
for Gibraltar; a young relation was also present, a boy of about 
thirteen, but a midshipman, and about to sail for India in a few 
days. Thus I had to-day a representation of a naval life, and its 
effects upon human relations in general, before my eyes; the same 
that I had yesterday seen in miniature in Dartmouth, and had 
considered, as it were, at its commencement. 

Before the windows of the drawing-room ran a gallery or bal- 
cony, from which we had the most beautiful view of the neigh- 
bourhood. The park of Mount Edgecumbe was particularly pointed 
out to us, which, with its woods and buildings, lined the opposite 
shoie; a splendid telescope was also set up, that we might see 
something of the Caledonia from here, although we intended to 
see more of her at a later period. 

During lunch my amiable neighbour talked much to me of Scot- 
land, which she said she liked better than any place else, and dwelt 
on her happy life there with her parents ; although in these more bus- 
tling scenes, amusement and interest were not wanting, she still longed 
to be again in her Scotland. This naivete, united with the simpli- 
city and openness of the whole family, made a most agreeable im- 
pression on my mind. Even the meal itself partook of the same 
character of simplicity and nationality, with its excellent beef, cold 
meat, green peas, dried potatoes, and excellent claret and champagne. 
1 found here the kind of manners, neither too shy nor too forward, 
which belong to no particular nation, but are universal, and which 
cause men to feel as one of the same country, and, therefore, almost 
immediately at home. 

We now rose and descended to the port, where the well-manned 
Admiralty barge was waiting for us. We first passed across the bay 
to visit the breakwater, a colossal work, begun in 1812, and not yet 



208 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

finished, and which has required a sum of 20,0007. almost every year. 
This breakwater is certainly one of the most enormous works of 
modern times. Composed of immense squared blocks of rock, it is 
about a mile long at the top, where it is intended as a promenade, 
fifteen to eighteen feet wide, and about twenty-five to thirty feet 
above high- water-mark ; it slopes towards the water on both sides, and 
towards the open sea it is still further protected by rough masses of 
rock. 

We approached the breakwater and ascended it, just at the point 
where, close to the entrance to the port, stands the new lighthouse, 
only just completed, and built of the best granite. This was as- 
cended : it was very interesting to me to get a good and clear idea of 
the whole internal arrangement of such a lighthouse, and of the 
nature of the existence of the men employed in it. The house is 
very slender, entirely composed of square pieces of the best granite, 
closely fitted together, and about four stories high. It contains 
merely the spiral stairs and some vaulted chambers, containing the 
necessary provision of oil, wicks, &c. , and of food for the two men 
employed to watch the light ; and at the top the colossal lamp, made 
in Paris, fed with the purest train oil, and provided with a piece of 
machinery, which supplies the oil according as it is necessary, and 
communicates with the men by means of a bell when the vessel 
containing the oil is empty. The most remarkable part of it is the 
external cylinder, two feet in diameter, and above three feet high, 
ground in a peculiar way, and of the purest glass, in which the French 
manufactories are still superior to the English. These crystal sur- 
faces thus placed at various angles, are found to throw the rays from 
the internal cylinder, half of white and half of red glass, in all di- 
rections through the windows which surround the whole. It is found 
that the light produced by train oil produces a great effect at a con- 
siderable distance, by means of this arrangement; gas is said to give 
a brighter light at a less distance, but not to be visible so far off. If 
this assertion is well founded, it is a property which would appear 
to refer to some qualitative relations of light, which have not yet 
been considered. 

The external windows are carefully covered with green blinds by 
day, as otherwise, the rays of the sun reflected by the cylinder, 
would infallibly kindle the larnp. At night, on the contrary, the 
light is so bright, that the sea birds, attracted by it, frequently fly 
with such violence against the windows as to break them. 

The dreadful loneliness of the two beings who live here, was quite 
clear to my mind; I fancied their situation in stormy nights, when 
the foam is dashed over the windows of the light room, when the 
storm rages, and when by day they look over the raging sea from 
such a height. And yet this is quite a comfortable position com- 
pared with that in the Eddystone Lighthouse, which is situated so 
far out to sea, on a small rock, that it could only just be seen with 
the telescope as a line on the horizon. 



PLYMOUTH. 209 

The building thus constructed in the midst of the sea, is said to be 
well worth seeing, but we must have had a steamer here in readiness 
to be able to get there in a short time. We therefore went back 
again along the breakwater, in order to see the place where the vio- 
lence of the waves had made a breach even in this immense work. 
We found a number of workmen occupied in repairing the damage ; 
enormous iron cranes were employed in lifting immense pieces of 
rock out of ships, and placing them in the necessary positions; 
stonemasons were at work, others were employed in fastening 
large iron cramps ; the destruction was very extensive. Whoever 
wishes to get a correct idea of the force which the waves exert, 
will here find an excellent opportunity for so doing. Stones of 
from sixty to eighty tons' weight had been hurled out of their places, 
and in the last year only, it happened that the hull of a stranded brig 
had been cast by the storm right over the breakwater. 

For myself, I was much interested in observing the damage, not 
caused all at once by a storm, but by degrees by the animal world 
in such immense works. I saw a number of blocks of stone, which had 
lost their hold from being pierced through and through by the little 
Pholades ; the firm, blackish limestone in particular — a sort of com- 
mon but very hard marble — was bored in many places so as to look 
like a honeycomb. One of the officers caused a workman to knock 
me off a piece of this, cursing at the same time the damage that 
these insects, as he called them, did, without paying particular regard 
to the distinctions of natural history. Many of these little shell-fish 
were still to be found in the hollows of the stone, and it formed peculiar 
matter for consideration to perceive that it is exactly this limestone 
which consists principally of shells in another form, which the fish 
of the present world destroy. In a physiological point of view, 
the manner in which these little mollusca are enabled to produce 
these effects still requires much explanation. 

We were now to pay a visit to the Caledonia, a ship of war, just 
ready for sea, which lay not far from the breakwater; we returned, 
therefore, to our boat, and proceeded to this floating fortress. We 
came alongside under the guns of this mighty vessel, the ladder 
hung down, we entered at the small port of the main- deck, where 
the captain and officers received the king, and conducted him to the 
quarter-deck: here the men were drawn up under arms, and the 
ship's band struck up " God save the Queen." It produced a pecu- 
liar effect on me thus to ascend the dark stairs in the interior of such 
a mighty, wooden building, and then to step out upon the quarter- 
deck, and to find the men under arms in the midst of ropes and 
cannon; and the effect was increased, because in this case no pre- 
parations had been made to receive his majesty, as had been done on 
board the Victory (on the contrary, from respect to his incognito, no 
salute was fired, and there was no formal parade), but we saw merely 
a vessel prepared for battle and victory, armed in the latest style, 
and just about to sail. We now proceeded to view the internal ar- 

P 



210 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

rangements. First, the cabin of the commander and the rooms ap- 
propriated to the lieutenants. The latter produced a remarkable 
effect : they are at the same time rooms for cannon, and near the 
slight bed stood a cannon on its low carriage in each. Above the 
port-hole is the small window, beside it a little book-shelf, and this, 
together with a table and chair fastened to the floor, constitutes the 
whole furniture of these small apartments. Such an existence be- 
tween cannon and bed, which latter may easily, under such circum- 
stances, become their bier, is certainly peculiar, and leads one to 
expect a peculiar life. We then visited the decks, where cutlasses 
are placed all round in such a manner as to be immediately at hand 
in case of a battle ; we next saw the cannon and every thing required 
for their use, the arsenal, the kitchen, and the surgery, and we were 
about to pass into the hospital, but were requested not to do so, as 
the death of a patient from consumption was momentarily expected. 
We thus descended to the fifth deck, and here, as in the upper ones, 
every thing was in the neatest condition possible. The lower part 
of the whole ship was filled with the iron water tanks, which I have 
already noticed, out of which, that is, one after the other, the water 
can be pumped up to the upper decks, and to the kitchen, by means 
of a leather hose. One of the tanks was opened, and we were pre- 
sented with some glasses of the water. It was quite fresh, clear, and 
sweet. We then returned to the captain's room, and thence, before 
leaving the vessel, we passed along the gallery, which runs all round 
the stern of the ship. A peculiar looking apparatus here caught my 
eye. It consisted of two hollow iron balls fastened together by a 
cross-bar, from the middle of which an iron tube descended per- 
pendicularly ; the whole fastened to a windlass by ropes. I in- 
quired its use, and was told that the iron tube contained the com- 
position used for Bengal lights, and that in case of any accident or 
attack by night, this composition was set on fire, and let down to 
the surface of the waves, where it floated, thus lighting up a con- 
siderable extent of water. In a word, such a ship is as perfect a 
specimen of an organisation complete and perfect in itself as can 
be found, to serve the great objects of a state. Of course, every 
thing in this floating community, consisting merely of men, is 
under the strictest subordination and the most passive obedience, 
depending upon the word of the captain alone. 

The sky had become cloudy during the time we were on the 
breakwater, .and now a misty rain was falling, veiling land and sea. 
The Admiralty boat had been provided with a covering for our 
return, by hoops being set up and covered with sails, and we then 
proceeded to Mount Edgecumbe, situated opposite to Devonport, a 
property belonging to the nobleman of the same title, and celebrated 
as affording a delightful point of view. As soon as we landed we 
found light carriages in waiting to convey us through the park to 
the heights. There were quantities of fallow deer all around. The 
view from above of all the various bays, of Devonport with its har- 



PLYMOUTH. 211 

bour and forts, of Plymouth and the mountains behind it, was 
splendid. Unfortunately, the sky was gray and rainy. This point 
must be so much the more interesting, because the immediate neigh- 
bourhood also is very interesting. In front the rocky ridge descends 
rather steep to the sea, and is covered on the top with quite a south- 
ern vegetation. Pines, cypresses, cork-trees, arbutus, laurel, and 
Portugal laurel, cystus and hypericum calycinum, forming the under- 
wood. In fine weather, and with a bright sun, one might think 
oneself on the Gulf of Naples. On the other side of the height are 
tracts quite wild — heath, moors, pine forests. A number of half- 
wild horses were grazing up above, and a few galloped for a long way 
beside us; plenty of game at the same time. A large Newfoundland 
dog hunted out a couple of fawns. In these scenes we found that 
contrast between the highest cultivation and entire wildness and 
barrenness which I have so often had occasion to remark in England. 
The excellent old Admiral Milne, notwithstanding his eighty-one 
years, insisted en accompanying his majesty everywhere, and walked 
about even in the rain uncovered. 

After descending again from these pretty plantations, we found 
near the house the proper gardens, with greenhouses, fountains, and 
a rich orangery. In a beautiful summer, all this promises a most 
delightful retreat. Unfortunataly, the state of health of the owner 
is not such as to permit him to enjoy it, and he was obliged, years 
ago, to seek an alleviation of his sufferings in the medicinal springs 
of Germany, but unfortunately without effect. 

We had now to take measures for our further progress, as the 
king had determined on visiting the Land's End, and we were, 
therefore, obliged to take leave of our friendly hosts. We again 
took our seats in the admiralty barge, and passed over to Start 
Point, whither our carriages had already been conveyed — this little 
trip, too, was interesting, we passed by several dismasted men-of- 
war, and saw, among others, the San Joseph, the large Spanish 
ship taken at the battle of Trafalgar; and the harbour and town, 
seen over the green sea, offered some very pretty views. 

We now landed, paid our respects, and I had particularly to take 
leave of the admiral's staff-officer, Mr. Kemble, with whom I had 
conversed much, and from whom I had received much information. 
We then quickly entered our carriages, passed through a hilly 
country, thickly planted with trees, during an almost continuous 
rain, along a road which wound very much, in order to avoid the 
marshy bogs frequent along this coast, and which frequently stretch 
far into the land. Liskeard, a little old town, on a road not often 
travelled, ended our day's journey. What sort of lodgings a nu- 
merous party would have got in Germany, in a town of the same 
size, need not be gone into; here, on the contrary, we had very 
comfortable apartments; here we had plated candlesticks and silver 
forks at table, and in a short time were enjoying a good dinner, 
with excellent attendance. 

P.2 



212 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

XL VI. 

Penzance, July 4th — Evening. 
This day began with warm sunshine in Liskeard, then changed 
into violent rain, and ended with a beautiful serene evening. We 
Walked a little way from Liskeard early this morning, waiting for 
the carriages to overtake us; and I was obliged, in consequence of 
our not being quite sure of our way, to enter the little shop of a 
Quaker, in order to make inquiries. It was interesting to me to 
have an opportunity of observing one of this sect of Christians, who 
are very numerous in this part of the country. The man in his 
old-fashioned coat, and broad-brimmed hat, looked like honesty 
itself, but dry, and notwithstanding all his Christianity, quite de- 
voted to gain. Through a hilly country, well planted with trees, 
we arrived in the middle of the rain at Bodmin, a town formerly of 
some consequence, containing a priory, a cathedral, and thirteen 
churches, but which has now lost much of its importance. While 
the horses were being changed, we had time to see the principal 
church, the only one now left, a very pretty old Gothic building; 
the large square tower in the front of the sloping roof is very pic- 
turesque, and is adorned with figures placed in niches in the wall, 
representing God the Father, the Virgin and Child, and several 
saints. Opposite the church is a capacious market-house, large 
enough to contain the several stands for the sale of articles of daily 
use, partly below, and partly upon a lofty gallery. The English, 
it must be confessed, are far before us in these convenient arrange- 
ments for the sale of daily necessaries. Here commonly one sees, 
even in small towns, neat and covered market-places, whilst a market 
with us presents, in bad weather, the most disagreeable, and even 
dirty appearance. Hence through Truro to Redruth, beyond 
which we entered the region of the copper and tin mines. Even 
before this we had seen several shafts, and on one occasion had 
passed a place in a waste and deserted heath, where porcelain earth 
is dug up, which is partly used in a pottery established close by. 
Beyond Redruth, on the contrary, were the regular works, which 
employ many workmen, and where, particularly lately, since more 
attention has been paid to the mining operations, the population 
has greatly increased. This too, was the district, the richness of 
which in tin, rendered England so celebrated among the ancients. 
We entered one of the largest of the works, where the copper ores 
are first roughly extracted by the hand of man, and afterwards 
benten out, ground, and stamped, by steam. Another steam-engine 
puts the baskets in motion, which are continually descending into 
and ascending from the shafts. The motion is communicated to 
more remote shafts by means of chains, which run over wheels 
placed at equal distances, in order to avoid as much as possible 
the loss of power by friction. Whilst we remained at the works, 



MAZARION — MOUNT ST. MICHAEL. 213 

500 work-people were engaged in the afternoon, under-ground. 
Men and boys entered at one place, women and girls at another. 
Much of the labour of the works is also performed by girls or 
women ; we saw whole rows of girls occupied with iron hammers. 
Notwithstanding this, their appearance was cheerful, and their health 
vigorous, and the whole form of handsome build. The clear gain 
in copper was estimated at 2000/. per month. This country is 
completely within the district of the primitive mountains; and just 
opposite the works lies a barren hill covered with granite rocks, and 
crowned by an old castle in ruins; not far from thence a park ap- 
peared to commence (probably Tehidy Park, the seat of Lord de 
Dunstanville), and from the summit of a hill within its bounds 
there arose a lofty, columnar, but tasteless monument. 

The character of the country changes more and more as the 
narrow south-west point of England is approached. On the horizon 
in the west, the ocean is already seen, the trees become smaller 
and of stunted growth, and the evergreen oak is of frequent oc- 
currence. The habitations are for the most part poor; but stout, 
portly children run about the roads, and girls of line ruddy com- 
plexion often appear at the doors of the huts by the way-side, 
dressed like towns-people, with necklaces, and their hair fixed in 
locks upon the crown of the head. In the neighbourhood of the 
mines, a great number of new and very pretty houses stand by the 
way-side, which are occupied as dwellings by the miners. The 
rearing of pigs seems to be universal, for numbers of animals of 
this description were everywhere to be seen, especially of a black 
race, similar to those which are to be met with in such numbers 
around Naples. In addition to this, the roads are worse in this 
part of the country than elsewhere, and the postilions also; al- 
though the horses and harness are always good. 

At length we came in sight of the sea to the south, and a sin- 
gular pyramidal rock with a castle rises to the view on the coast; 
we were now at Mount Bay, and soon arrived at Mazarion, the oldest 
town on this coast, and in the district, in which, according to some 
accounts, the Ictis of the Romans was situated, known as the 
earliest market for tin.* 

The rock lying right over against it in the sea, now first ap- 
peared in all its singularity. This is Mount St. Michael, formerly 
a place of pilgrimage, at which many miracles were worked, but now, 
with its old castle and church, it is merely a place of resort for tourists 
and painters. Seen from the shore, it presented a delightful view ; 
before us the waves of the surge breaking on the black, sharp 
rocks; beyond, the azure sea; opposite, the wonderful rock, with a 
small harbour beneath, and the ancient walls upon its summit ; 
while to the right and left stretched a crescent of bluish heights 

* Diodorus Siculus, and Strabo, have distinguished it by this name, which, ac- 
cording to others, was given to the Isle of Wight. 



214 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

to a great extent along Mount Bay. A four-oared boat having 
been procured, we were carried on men's backs through the foam- 
ing surge, and paddled across to the small harbour, which is capable 
of receiving large merchant ships. At low water, it is said to be 
possible to go over from Mazarion to the island on foot. 

We first took a ramble upon the short grass with which these 
granite ruins are covered. Beneath these lies a consecrated church- 
yard, to which bodies were formerly, and are sometimes even now, 
brought for interment from a long distance, and at a great cost; 
and this singular rocky island possesses many attractions for such a 
purpose. Seen from the eastern side, the castle and church on 
their lofty elevation, with their gray walls and flowering elder- 
bushes, present a wondrous spectacle. In decorative scenery, I 
have sometimes seen such things represented, but I have seen it 
here in nature for the first time in my life. On the southern side, 
our attention was fixed on, and our eyes delighted with the mighty 
surge, and the splendid roll of the sea, with the clear dark 
green play of its waves, and the glorious foam on the gray granite 
rocks. We mounted from rock to rock in order to enjoy this 
splendid spectacle from all sides, and in so doing, obtained sight 
of a vein of copper, which ran through the granite close to the sea. 
The play of the waves, and the chlorine of the sea, had effected a 
chemical solution of the copper, and the borders of the stone were 
coloured copper-green. To find and see this useful metal thus 
free and pure, was also a remarkable and new phenomenon. 

Two paths were pointed out as leading to the castle, one easy of 
access, but circuitous; the other leading directly from the sea, over 
the rocks — the same pursued by Cromwell's soldiers when they 
scaled the little fortress by night, from which, however, Charles 
II. had previously escaped. The king preferred the latter, and 
we successfully made our way to the top, over the round rocks 
and pieces of dry, sloping grass, but not without danger; at length 
we reached the ground, immediately in front of the small portal of 
the castle. 

Our guides gave two or three loud knocks with the iron knocker, 
when the door was opened by a stern old housekeeper in deep 
mourning, in figure and features not unlike the ghost of one of the 
ancestral mistresses of the ancient Burg. She and her two servants 
alone inhabit the little castle, and show the singular rooms of this re- 
markable structure to the curious stranger. The chambers are small, 
but habitable ; nay, fitted up with some degree of splendour ; and 
in the evening light the extensive prospect over the wide ocean, 
as seen through the small windows, gave to every thing a most 
peculiar character. Nor is there any want of old dark passages, 
which afford the fullest scope to the fancy. In a kind of cup- 
board in one of these, the skull of a Dane is preserved, who is 
said to have fallen here in single combat with an Englishman; and 
all kinds of marvellous stories are related of the last of the St. 



PENZANCE. 215 

Aubyns, to whom the castle belonged. We were next conducted 
to the chapel, which is very old — built in the Gothic style — and 
having a small gallery in front, which affords a most splendid view. 
Last of all, we mounted the platform of the square tower near the 
chapel, from which the view is still more extensive, because it en- 
ables the spectator to see across the whole breadth of Cornwall, 
and beyond it, the Atlantic ; and through the telescope, distinctly 
the foaming surge of the sea upon the northern coast. 

We now left the castle, and descended by the easier path to the 
harbour, from which the view of the rocks and castle is also very 
peculiar and picturesque. The boatman now awaited us with a very 
different countenance from that which he had previously exhi- 
bited, for the quality of the visiter had somehow reached his ears. 
He called Old England to witness that if he had known this be- 
fore, he would, as a matter of course, have procured a six-oared 
boat; and he now landed us very skilfully on the beach, between 
two projecting rocks, so that we were able conveniently to leap out 
on the sand, and at the sight of the gold which he received, his 
inspiration rose to a loud hurrah, in which he was heartily joined 
by his companions. 

The evening drive to this place along the sea, beating in long- 
rolling waves on the flat coast, was short, but very delightful. Pen- 
zance, as it appears, is a lively place, with some 9000 inhabitants, 
and a pretty harbour. There was a great deal of noise in the 
streets, and in the evening we observed, as we drove through them, 
that the market for fish and meat, was still going on by gaslight. The 
hotel, too, is spacious and good, and affords some pleasant views of 
the distant harbour. Late in the evening the moon shed her beau- 
tiful silvery rays upon the surface of the waters. How willingly 
would I have seen the surge under St. Michael's Mount, in the 
bright moonlight ! 



XLVII. 

Launcestoii, July 6th — Early. 
A remarkable excursion was yesterday's ! It conducted us to 
the granite rocks, by which England on the south-western extremity 
is protected against the Atlantic ! We set out from Penzance at six 
o'clock in the morning, an extraordinary early hour at an English 
hotel, and in two light carriages were driven first through deep 
valleys well wooded with oak and elm trees, and then across a range 
of bare and barren downs ; here and there scattered habitations met 
our eye — the country became always more and more barren, having 
only occasional enclosed patches, on which a few cattle were feeding ; 
at length a village, and then a wide barren plain, which brought us 
to the Logan rock. 



216 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

We now came in sight of poor and small huts, built of rough stones 
placed one on another, inhabited by fishermen and agricultural 
labourers. The houses for their cattle are curious, consisting merely 
of a row of granite blocks set up one upon another and forming the 
walls, whilst the roof is composed of twigs and straw, covered and re- 
tained in its place by a straw net, held down by stones as a protec- 
tion against the violent storms which sometimes occur. Some 
boatmen came to conduct us to the spot where the coast has given 
way towards the sea, and the granite rocks are more clearly seen. 
The Atlantic stretches its blue waves far into the distance, and the 
roar of waters was heard at the base of the cliffs ! A large rock is 
here somewhat isolated from the rest, nearly opposite to it is another 
ridge, and upon this stands the Logan rock, a detached mass of stone, 
containing about eighty tons ; a few people climbed up it and actually 
put the immense mass in motion from its perfect equilibrium. One 
might make numerous curious observations by following out this 
idea, that it is only that which is in perfect equilibrium which can 
move without falling; whilst a massive weight, which lies firmly 
fixed, if it is moved, must also fall. For this very reason, some sort 
of apparent instability is quite natural to that genius which feels 
perfectly secure in itself. 

The weather, which had at first looked doubtful, began to clear 
up more and more — sunbeams made their way through the clouds, 
and the contrast between the brown rocks overgrown with sea- weed, 
and the clear blue of the sea, became every moment more striking. 
I had time to make a slight sketch of this extraordinary rock before 
we returned; we examined with somewhat more attention those 
curious huts of stones, in which muscles and sea urchins were ex- 
posed for sale, and then drove off to the Land's End. In about 
half an hour we reached that waste and desolate piece of heath, 
upon which only a single house stands — the extreme western point 
of England, and of Cornwall in particular. We descended from the 
carriages and advanced towards the sea. A glorious sight ! three- 
fourths of the horizon the Atlantic ocean. The granite cliffs gradu- 
ally sink down in steps to the bottom of the promontory, where the 
clear bluish-green waves break over them. Gray and black sea- 
mews (Larus ridibundus and Lestris parasitica) fly screaming round 
the rock. The solitude, the melancholy notes of the mews, the im- 
mense surface of the ocean, all this produces a curious effect. We 
descended still further — a splendid ridge of rocks was before us, 
high cliffs to the right and left; in front, cliffs covered with the 
white breakers of the ocean; further off, the single rocks, with the 
Longship's lighthouse in the midst of the waves — far and near 
numerous ships — the scene here is splendid, magnificent, really 
Ossianic ! 

We then descended carefully on the other side, over the sloping 
grass, till we arrived at a rock, over which we looked, and saw per- 
pendicularly down into a cavern, where the breakers rush in, dash- 



the land's end. 217 

ing the spray over the rocks — further out are caves and bays, 
and other projecting rocks. The weather, meantime, had become 
quite fine, and the colour of the sea was most splendid. What a 
different scene was this to that which I had beheld from Arcona, in 
the island of Riigen. Life certainly, in every respect, conducts us 
from a lower to a higher grade. 

To the north of this point are several large copper works on the 
coast, the passages of which, in some places, extend more than 
2000 feet under the sea, and these, too, were to be visited. We 
again got into our carriages, and drove for about an hour over heath 
and moor land, only cultivated in small patches^ and past several 
immense masses of rock. We then passed through St. Just, princi- 
pally inhabited by the workpeople in the various mines and smelt- 
ing houses, and were surprised at the neat appearance of the houses, 
and the handsome figures and features of the inhabitants, particu- 
larly the fulness and freshness of the young girls, reminding me of 
Ossian's ' high bosomed daughters of Morven.' A little further, and 
the extraordinary scene of the mines on the sea-shore spread itself 
out before our eyes; smelting-houses, steam-engines, the chains 
passing over wheels and into the various shafts, every thing, in fact, 
which in our mining districts one is accustomed to see in desolate 
heaths among mountains, grew out as it were here from the granite 
cliffs and between the rocky clefts on the sea-shore. The works are 
called Botallack mines, and are the property of the Earl of Fal- 
mouth; above 100 workmen, who are changed every eight hours, 
were now in the depths, not only under the earth, but under the 
sea. In those mines many girls are employed, and we saw num- 
bers of these, sometimes really pretty creatures, employed in ham- 
mering the ore, which is continually placed before them, and con- 
tains generally half copper and half tin. The produce is consider- 
able, for after all the expenses are paid, and the eighteenth part of the 
clear profit given to the land-owner, there remains, on the average, 
a sum of 24,000/. a year, to be divided among 145 shares, so that 
each possessor of a share receives yearly about 245/. 

One of the overseers had recognised the king, and anxiously ex- 
plained and showed every thing; he pointed out to us the lofty 
pumps, the machine for drawing up the iron buckets from the shaft, 
described and showed us the several stages in the progress of the 
copper, and then took us to his office, where the plans and sections 
of all the horizontal and transverse shafts were hung up. It was 
quite delightful to look out of the little window of this room upon 
the curiously-formed rocks and the wide blue sun-lit sea. The man 
uncorked some excellent Champagne, and revived and inspired by 
its influence, we sent a cheerful " Gluck auf" to all our dear ones in 
our own country from this rocky cliff. 

Certainly this situation is quite a peculiar one. One of its curio- 
sities is the singular red colour communicated, by the iron and copper 
contained in the dust, to all the wood-work, and even to the work 



218 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

people ; and what must be its appearance during storms ! High above 
the sea was the smithy, and yet, during storms, the spray had been 
dashed over the chimney. 

We took our leave at last,' and returned by a shorter route to Pen- 
zance. Only when quite near the town we again entered green 
valleys, and the impression of Italy was strong on my mind, when I 
perceived the town with the white walls and gray flat roofs of its 
houses, and fringed with green meadows, stretching along the bright 
blue bay; and beyond it were seen Mount St. Michael and the 
bluish coasts of Mount's Bay. This is certainly one of the most 
pleasing parts of England; celebrated men, too, are not wanting; 
Humphrey Davy was born here. The streets were crowded with 
people, and the king was everywhere saluted with loud cheers. 

Now a hasty meal and then into our carriages. We again drove 
along the sea-shore, as it was now ebb-tide, and the communication 
was open between Marazion and St. Michael's; not far from St. 
Ives we passed a deep bay formed by the sea, between rocks of cre- 
taceous formation, and arrived at Truro and Bodmin, where crowds 
were everywhere assembled. From thence we had a long way to 
Launceston, and not a very agreeable one; it passed principally 
through one of those high marshy moors which one would least of all 
expect when travelling in the most civilised country in the world. 
These districts have really something melancholy in them, and 
when in the twilight a damp cold air blows over the heath, one 
might almost fancy oneself travelling over the steppes of Siberia. 
The sun sank rayless into a thick belt of fog on the horizon, we 
wrapped ourselves well up in our cloaks; sometimes a solitary herd 
of cattle or flock of sheep met us on the lonely road ; here and there 
a few cattle or horses were grazing where there was a little grass ; at 
last it became quite dark; my companion told stories of his cam- 
paigns ; about eleven o'clock the partial circle of the moon made its 
appearance, dark red in colour, and after passing through some 
villages we arrived at Launceston about midnight. Notwithstanding 
the lateness of the hour, crowds of people were waiting round the 
hotel, and we were fortunate enough to be able to get some tea, 
which had a very agreeable effect upon us all. 

This morning the sky is slightly obscured by clouds; before my 
windows is an old ruin, consisting of a few round towers covered 
with ivy, situated on a little hill. It is said to be the remains of a 
castle, and its first foundation is ascribed to the Britons. The place 
seems, in other respects, small and inconsiderable. 



DARTMOOR — EXETER. 219 

XL VIII. 

Bristol, July 6th — Evening. 

This has been merely a day of travel, in which a great portion of 
England has been traversed, partly by rail, partly by post. We left 
Launceston at nine o'clock ; the old castle could be seen from a great 
distance in the valley, along which our road led us. We afterwards 
passed through hamlets and villages, not at all corresponding with 
our ideas of English neatness ; we also heard Welsh here and there, 
and the people are not handsome; riding, among the women, is still 
very usual. We occasionally met well-dressed farmers' wives, fre- 
quently with a basket, mounted on tolerably large horses and quite 
alone. This northern district of Devonshire appears to be one of 
those where the old race has preserved itself in considerable purity, 
and by no means to its advantage. We had hardly seen in the 
whole of England such a poor looking and dirty village as Oak- 
hampton, for example, about half-way between Launceston and 
Exeter. We were now in the region of the carboniferous limestone, 
to the right lay the granite range of Dartmoor, the height of which 
rarely exceeds 2000 feet, and waste slopes with masses of rock, and 
covered with the shadows of passing clouds are to be seen in the 
distance. 

Towards three o'clock we arrived at Exeter, the principal town of 
Devonshire, of which, however, we only saw as much as could be 
seen in a hasty drive through it to the railway. It seems to be a 
handsome town, increasing and developing itself more and more. 
Buildings and beautiful shops, in the London style, were every- 
where in the course of erection. A large street with a considerable 
ascent, has a particularly elegant appearance. An extensive build- 
ing in the Doric style, has also been erected here, for a vegetable and 
meat market, and for other commodities ; certainly one of the most 
important buildings which a town can possess. We drove out of the 
town down hill, and came into the green valley of the Ex, the 
mouth of which had pleased us so much at Exmouth ; its communi- 
cation with the sea has been so maintained by means of locks, that ships 
of 150 tons can come nearly up to the town. In this valley is the 
(as yet) tolerably quiet railway station, at which the Great Western 
Railway ends for the present: it is, however, to be continued as far 
as Plymouth, and it will then be possible to travel almost the whole 
breadth of the south of England on one railway. We were only 
just in time to have our carriages put upon the trucks, and attached 
to the train. We set off. A loose screw, intended properly to se- 
cure the travelling carriage on the truck, gave me some uneasiness 
when we thus started off against the wind, but as I afterwards dis- 
covered unnecessarily. Some distance further, in a valley, our train 
was obliged to stop, because a luggage train was on the rails and 
could not get off. There were three locomotives there together, 



220 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

blowing and steaming, but it was of no use. At last every thing 
was arranged, and we darted off again. A long tunnel was traversed, 
and after this the marshy land begins extending towards the sea, 
into which, however, ridges of hills push forward, rendering an- 
other tunnel necessary just before arriving at Bristol. Beyond this 
tunnel the line makes a considerable curve, and Bristol, dotted with 
tall chimneys, and covered with a cloud of smoke, lay before us. 
The station is very large and of a peculiar construction : several lines 
meet here. The large structure is built externally in the Anglo- 
Gothic style, with towers and turrets; the waiting-rooms for the pas- 
sengers are arranged in a particular manner; for as the line is 
on a level with the first floor of the building, the passengers' 
luggage is weighed, and then let down through a trap-door, and 
delivered to the owner, who has meanwhile descended by the stairs 
to the lower floor. We had time to observe these proceedings, 
whilst our carriages were being taken from the trucks and post 
horses sent for; we then drove to the city, through it, and to Clifton, 
which, although situated on the heights, forms, properly speaking, 
only one town with Bristol. This place looks remarkable and im- 
portant. It unites the characteristics of a large commercial town, 
and of a rich and populous city. There, too, the communication with 
the sea, is by means of the Avon,* which, falling into the Bristol 
Channel — another of those bays or inlets of the sea which we have 
before mentioned — is the great vein which gives life and activity to 
the city. A single slight change in the earth, by which this open- 
ing might be closed up, or filled with sand, in such a manner as not 
to be cleared out again, would make all this splendour vanish. As 
it is, however, a number of merchant vessels are to be seen upon this 
river, which is, nevertheless, very small ; and the trade with the West 
Indies, Newfoundland, and Spain and Portugal, is so considerable, 
that seven or eight years ago, Bristol paid custom dues to the amount 
of 1,073,100Z. in one year. 

We drove across the bridge over the Avon, which was full of 
vessels to the right and left of us, and then along a wide and hand- 
some road, leading up hill, containing handsome shops, and some 
elegant public buildings. At the top of the hill Clifton extends 
itself, with several long rows of buildings under the same roof, but 
each consisting of several separate houses. We saw a church con- 
siderably advanced towards its completion, the style of which is 
entirely Gothic, and new houses are being built everywhere. In 
the Bath Hotel we found a very comfortable lodging in a small 
house of our own, and in the midst of welcome letters from home, 
I enjoy a quiet evening, after a somewhat stormy and hasty day. 

* Not the Avon of Stratford. This name is common to several rivers in 
England, because Avon in Gaelic signifies water or river. 



CLIFTON. 221 

XLIX. 

Bristol, July 7th — Evening. 

This day being Sunday, made a slight pause in the haste of our 
journey. This morning early I took a walk upon the downs of 
Clifton, adorned with some plantations, and not far from our hotel. 
Below me was the deep valley of the Avon, to the left the enormous 
masses of the limestone rocks of Clifton; opposite me the more 
wooded side of the river ; beneath, the river, upon which were a few 
merchant vessels and steamers, which keep up the communication 
between Bristol and the sea ; to the south and to the north distance ; 
in the latter direction, a part of the Bristol Channel was visible — 
the whole illumined by the rays of the morning sun, made an im- 
posing picture. A suspension bridge has been projected, to cross 
the Avon at this considerable height, and two colossal pillars, in- 
tended to support the weight of the bridge, have been already 
erected; the actual execution of the project, however, seems at a 
considerable distance. 

The afternoon was destined for a drive to Bath. At one o'clock 
we took up his majesty at the Catholic chapel, and then, in a warm 
sunlight, drove in the direction of the Avon, near the railway which 
unites Bath with Bristol, The river is here somewhat of a similar 
character to its namesake at Stratford and Warwick, winding along 
through meadows and between lofty elms; the country, however, is 
enclosed between more lofty hills, and much less rural, being filled 
with parks and country houses. Not far from the town we remarked, 
in a hollow of the range of hills, a churchyard, with a large iron 
gate, with several monuments and separate buildings, all in the 
same antique style, and of the same yellowish stone — shaded by 
dark green cedars and lime-trees on a grass-green ground. It gave 
me the idea of being a share concern — the buildings are in some- 
thing the same style as the railway station. 

After a drive of not quite two hours, we arrived in Bath. It 
presents an agreeable appearance to the eye, being built on the steep 
declivity of a hill, following all its windings, and interspersed with 
crescents and squares planted with shrubs and covered with grass. 
It was for a long time the fashion to pass the out-of-town season 
here ; and the town certainly owed its rise and its consequence more 
to this fact, than to its mineral springs, which are said to have 
been known to the Romans. This fashion, however, exists no 
longer, and Bath is now rather considered as a place of residence for 
people of demi-fortune, younger sons of old houses, and persons 
of similar condition. 

We had first some visits to make, and it was particularly inte- 
resting to me to be presented to an old lady ninety-two years of age, 
a Lady L., who had long lived in Dresden, been much at court 
there, and even now kept up a correspondence with friends in that 



222 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

city. Such persons have always interested me, particularly in a 
psychological point of view. Women of this kind, who have 
lived much in the world,. and have not been too much bent down by 
bodily ailments in their more mature age, often retain a vivacity of 
spirit, which forms a remarkable contrast to their ideas, which they 
have generally brought with them from earlier times, and which 
have remained stationary, and, therefore, no longer correspond with 
the ideas of the world as it at present exists. There is something 
ghostly in thus hearing opinions expressed and defended, which have 
long been considered as dead and buried. A natural historian may 
even compare his sensations with what he would feel if one of the 
Plesiosauri or of the Dinotheria were to appear again in life. I 
found this state of things with this old lady, who perfectly remem- 
bered the Seven Years' War, and Frederick the Great, and Vol- 
taire; the whole of the nineteenth century must appear to her 
as a sort of useless appendix to the eighteenth, as a sort of de- 
structive article of luxury, so that the opinions of men of the pre- 
sent day must appear to her merely in the light of the half-crazy 
dreams of an unsettled mind. She seemed to experience none of 
the common inconveniences of great age, with the exception of 
being rather hard of hearing, and lived in a very pretty house, in a 
crescent, with a good view of the neighbourhood, and a small park 
attached to it: I could not help remarking, in connexion with her 
conversation, that a similar vivacity and activity of spirit is rarely 
to be met with in men of the same advanced age. Perhaps, on the 
other hand, it may be easier for the man, if his spirit do retain its 
activity, to take in the advances of the world, and in an advanced 
age to be able to comprehend the present as well as the past, nay, 
even to remain open to receive impressions as to the future. 

After this and another similar but less interesting visit, we pro- 
ceeded to see some of the curiosities of Bath, and drove first 
to Lansdowne Tower, a villa "furnished with a tower in the neigh- 
bourhood of the city. We drove up to the top of the hill, in a 
hot sun, for not only are the treasures of art contained in the 
tower highly spoken of, but the view from it over the rich and 
agreeable valley, the character of which may be best expressed in 
one word, by calling it a fashionable district, is especially celebrated. 
Unfortunately, our visit suffered shipwreck against the presbyterian 
strictness of the English Sunday. The old housekeeper, dressed 
in mourning, who hardly opened the door after repeated knocking, 
was proof against royal names, as well as against guineas; she said 
it was a holy day, and the tower could not be shoion. 

We, therefore, drove down again, and ascended the hill on the 
opposite side, to the college for priests, Prior College, or Prior 
Park. This park lies very high, and was first laid out by one 
Allan, about 100 years ago, who had gained great wealth by 
being possessor of a stone quarry at a time when a great deal of 
building was going on in Bath, and by means of certain peculiarly 



BATH. 223 

laid down railways invented by him for the transportation of the 
stone to the city. The locality is very pretty, and the style of the 
plantation is that of Palladio : — a large building with a portico sup- 
ported by columns, and a very handsome flight of stairs, fronts the 
park, which stretches down the hill; the grounds are full of beau- 
tiful trees, and lower down the hill contains a little pond, beside 
which, in order to increase the effect of the view, a little house, 
but divided and arranged like a large building, has been con- 
structed. Galleries and out-buildings adjoin the principal build- 
ing on the right and left, and opposite to it is seen the other side 
of the valley, with its numerous houses and gardens, the whole 
produces a highly poetical impression. 

We must not forget, indeed, that it has served as a habitation 
to poets and men of learning. Pope lived some time here, as also 
Fielding, who describes the whole neighbourhood in his " Tom 
Jones ;" and besides these authors, in a house in the park, Weston. 
About fourteen years ago, when Bath began to grow less fashion- 
able, the whole park was bought by the bishop of the district, who 
here erected a Catholic seminary, which is conducted on en- 
tirely Jesuitical principles, and most probably by none other than 
Jesuists. There are here sixty boys and thirty students, of whom, 
however, a small number may devote themselves to some other 
employment than the priesthood. We visited the dormitories, 
the professors' and scholars' rooms, and the dwelling of the bishop, 
who happened to be absent. Every thing was very cheerful, and 
almost rather temporal than spiritual. There was a collection of 
natural history, a chemical cabinet, a fencing-room, a billiard-room, 
a gallery of paintings by the scholars, &c. We were told also that 
Shakspeare's plays were sometimes represented here; and all this 
seemed to me to accord very well with the system of the Jesuits, 
the object of this society having always been education for the 
world, in order to rule the world. 

The establishment seems, however, to be gradually increasing ; a 
church was in progress of erection, and my attention was directed 
to the limestone found in the neighbourhood, and employed for 
the ornamental work, which, when taken from the quarry, is quite 
soft, and very easily worked ; but by exposure to the air, becomes 
perfectly hard. I took some pieces of it with me, and found it 
to consist almost entirely of small, nearly microscopic shells, prin- 
cipally Polythalamia. The hardening process must be the same as 
that of the stalactites — viz., evaporation, and drying up of the 
limestone particles which contain water. 

We now descended, and left our carriages at the entrance to the 
baths, in order to take a view of them internally. Even here every 
thing was shut up because of the Sunday, but gold soon opened the 
doors. These baths which are certainly among the most efficacious 
of all English waters, are of a temperature of 117° Fahrenheit; 
the warmest springs contain lime, some salts, and a little iron. 



224 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

The patients drink them, and bathe in them. In the bath-room 
there was a sort of exhibition of modern paintings and stuffed birds; 
every thing very elegant. The bathing-rooms and the large basins 
for the general class of bathers, were very well arranged. I was 
particularly pleased with a piece of mechanism intended for the 
use of very weak patients. It consisted of a wooden arm-chair, 
so placed, that after a patient had been undressed in the chair, the 
whole contrivance could be lifted up, turned round so as to be 
just over the bath, and then let down altogether; and afterwards 
drawn up in the same manner. This is an arrangement par- 
ticularly to be recommended in Teplitz, our special bath for in- 
valids. Various baths of all kinds were to be had here ; and also 
sofas, warming apparatus, &c. ; in a word, every thing that a patient 
could require in such an establishment. 

Not far from the baths is the beautiful Gothic cathedral, and we 
did not fail to take a short view of the interior, as the service had 
not begun. A wide open Gothic doorway, through which the 
evening sun was shining, conducted us into the richly ornamented 
vestibule, in which were several busts and monumental inscrip- 
tions; from this place, small doors to the right and left led into 
the body of the church, which is large and roomy, but without any 
peculiarities of construction. 

We then commenced our return to Bristol, where we arrived 
towards evening, and where we found the streets full of pedestrians. 
During the day, on account of its being Sunday, this busy town, 
containing 200,000 inhabitants, appeared quite dead and deserted. 



L. 

Chepstow, July 8 — Evening. 

To-DAY has been really a rich day ! First, in the morning, we 
visited some of the curiosities of Bristol ; then our entrance into 
"Wales, and in the evening, perhaps, the most romantic of all 
English ruins ! 

The morning in Bristol was employed in visiting the Docks, and 
particularly that greatest of all steamers, the Great Britain. It 
has been built by a company, and is intended to sail between Liver- 
pool and North America. The engineer who has directed the 
building, and who speaks German very tolerably, conducted the 
king through the whole labyrinth of the interior, and gave us the 
most interesting details concerning it. The vessel is entirely built 
of iron, and the material alone, exclusive of the iron -work con- 
tained in the machinery, weighs 1800 tons. She is as long as any 
vessel of war, for her deck, from stern to stern, measures 320 feet. 



CLIFTON. 225 

A peculiarity about tlie vessel is the manner of progression. She is 
not impelled through the water like other steamers by paddle- 
wheels at each side, but by means of an Archimedean screw intro- 
duced in the keel and under the rudder. The force of this frag- 
ment of a spiral when acting on water I have long understood, 
and that this form of wheel, instead of that of paddle-wheels 
on each side of the vessel, was not immediately adopted for steam- 
boats, only proves how difficult it is for the human intellect to 
seize the easiest and best means at once. The iron thread of the 
screw is to revolve fifty times in the minute, with a diameter of 
sixteen feet, and it is expected that this pressure will be powerful 
enough to propel the vessel with sufficient speed. She does riot, 
however, entirely depend upon the propeller, but is furnished with 
six small masts, to which sails can be attached to drive on the 
colossus in a favourable wind. The internal arrangements are very 
elegant and comfortable. Two decks contain large saloons, sur- 
rounded by smaller cabins, so that several hundred passengers 
can easily be accommodated ; the greatest care has been taken to 
insure a good kitchen and every comfort for the passengers: the 
two steam-engines are each of 500 horse-power, and 150 men 
are to serve as crew, machinists, stokers, &c.; so far every 
thing seems to be as it should be. There are only two small 
points to be mentioned : first, it appears doubtful whether the 
vessel, when completed, can ever be got out of the narrow dock 
and along the Avon into the sea; and this appears doubtful even to 
those who understand the matter; and, secondly, whether a ship of 
such dimensions is fit for sea-service at all. It is feared, and as it 
appears not entirely without reason, that if the vessel were to be 
raised at once under the bows and under the stern by two waves, 
the weight of the machinery in the centre might possibly break 
her in two : and it is, indeed, believed that the President, though 
not so large as the Great Britain, must have been lost in this 
manner. At any rate, it would appear necessary to be particularly 
cautious in the first few trips.* 

As a termination to our visits in Bristol, we drove to a park 
at no great distance. 

The park is the property of Mr. P. Miles, merchant, and member 
of parliament, wdiose father had collected a number of beautiful 
pictures. The park is exactly opposite Clifton Hill, and if ever 
the suspension bridge over the Avon is completed, it will be 
quite close to the town. We drove through a beautifully-wooded 
park to the entrance of the elegant building. A capacious hall re- 
ceived us on our entrance, and in several rooms and saloons some 
really distinguished treasures of art w T ere to be seen. And, first, a 
splendid picture by Rubens, representing the Conversion of St. 

* I see, however, that the first trial trip of the Great Britain has proved per- 
fectly satisfactory. 

Q 



226 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

Paul. This is one of those mighty paintings, which rather prove 
the power of production contained in the human intellect, than 
produce any agreeable effect on the spectator. Such pictures put 
one in mind of the observation of an author to a prince, who spoke 
lightly of the powers of an author: " My lord, a clever man can 
make a drum out of a pen and a sheet of paper, which will be 
heard a very long way off." In a similar manner, one is astonished 
in some pictures of Rubens, how a clever artist, with a piece of 
canvass and some colours can produce a work, from which the inter- 
nal productive power shines out into many centuries ! If this 
picture had been painted by any one else, for instance by a painter 
of the modern French school, one could only call it a picture of 
much theatrical effect, with its falling and rearing horses and its 
strong light; but with Rubens, it produces just the effect in the 
mind that we feel on witnessing an action causing violent movement, 
it shows us something happening at the same moment. It must 
still be confessed, that the whole history of such a conversion, by 
means of thunder and lightning, has in it something improbable* 
and unpsychological, inasmuch as the real rise of such a perception 
intended to last for all eternity, can never take place in such a manner; 
this perception must be a still approach of the soul in its inmost 
relations to God ; but, at any rate, the question is not here of such 
a perception, and Rubens was therefore probably right enough in 
considering the matter as he has done. It need not be added, that 
no one could see in the face and figure of Paul stretched on the 
ground, that any great change is taking place in his mind. With 
respect to painting, however, this picture certainly ranks among the 
best, either by this artist or any other. 

There are also to be noticed, two pictures of Raphael's, although 
not belonging to his best. One of these, a Virgin and Child, is 
something in Leonardo da Vinci's manner; the other, a Predella 
of Raphael's earliest period, represents Christ bearing his Cross, and 
contains some very beautiful figures. 

A Worshipping Madonna, by Velasquez, is also remarkable, less 
on account of the holiness and beauty of the expression, than as dis- 
playing a splendid study of drapery. A Cleopatra, by Guido, and 
two pretty landscapes, by Gaspar Poussin, deserve notice. There 
are a couple of very pretty pieces, by Claude; the one, a larger one, 
of which the style is grave, representing in a rich country, two 
galleys on a piece of water, passing through a wooded valley : the 
other, a smaller one, represents a herd of cattle passing through a 
stream. There are also some splendid pieces by artists of the 
Dutch school, particularly one by Gerard Dow, representing a 
woman listening to the opinion of a physician concerning his patient. 

After we had attentively considered all these beauties, we re- 
turned to our hotel and prepared for our departure. We drove over 
Clifton Hill, stopped a short time on the summit and walked a little 
way through a park to a point, whence a good view of the Bristol 



THE OLD PASSAGE. 227 

Channel and the Avon was to be obtained. Well-wooded country 
in the foreground, and blue mountains losing themselves in the dis- 
tance, offer, even in the gloomy weather we have to-day, a very 
pretty picture. The road after this point, passes over wide marshy 
meadows, and we finally arrived at the Old Passage, the point for 
crossing the channel, which is here about a mile, or a mile and a half 
broad. The passage is performed by means of a steamboat. The 
surrounding country has a very peculiar appearance. The boatmen's 
houses are situated upon a high bank of sandstone, and as it was now 
pretty much ebb, the strand could be seen free from water, but covered 
with thick mud. A paved dam projects far into the bay, and con- 
ducts to the ferry; between the separate blocks of stone, and im- 
bedded in mud, are found masses of the blackish fucus ; the water of 
the bay rises and falls in short irregular waves, and is, like the mud, of 
a yellowish colour, like that of a stream swollen by rain ; the sky is 
gloomy; the opposite shore is already somewhat dim, and the out- 
lines of the Welsh mountains are hardly to be distinguished. 

The carriages were driven to the dam; there the horses re- 
turned: we descended, and the carriages were pushed down to the 
ferry by the sturdy boatmen with less trouble than their considerable 
weight had led us to expect. It was easy to see that we had been 
expected, and we heard that a sort of private line of telegraphs 
exists from Bristol to the other side of the bay, consisting merely of 
moveable tables of white and black fastened upon some of the loftiest 
houses. Signals, therefore, for the ferry, post-horses, or lodgings, 
can be easily conveyed to the other side of the bay, and we reaped 
the fruits of this arrangement to-day in saving very much time. As 
soon as we were on board the wheels of the steamer were set in 
motion, and we crossed the channel in a short time (little more than 
a quarter of an hour). I was particularly occupied with the peculiar 
properties of this bay, and entered into conversation with the captain 
of the ferry-boat, who informed me of every thing very exactly. 
Between these coasts, gradually diminishing in width, which con- 
tain the waters which flow into the Bristol Channel from the At- 
lantic, and finally lose themselves in the Severn, the most remark- 
able and almost unique relation exists,~viz., that between the lowest 
and highest states of the tide, which amounts to the enormous differ- 
ence of sixty feet. Between this height, therefore, and the ebb tide, the 
rushing of the waves changes every day twice. At that time (about 
five o'clock) it was ebb-tide, towards one o'clock, it will be high tide, 
and again to-morrow at one, P. M. After about six hours, therefore, 
the water will again rush in which rushed out six hours ago ; and as the 
region of red sandstone commences about here, it is easy to think 
how much is washed off and carried away during this rapid rise and 
fall of the tide. This, therefore, is the cause of this continual ex- 
citement, this state of perpetual disturbance, this never-ceasing ycl- 
lowishness of the water. Much in the same way that mind which is 
perpetually being dragged hither and thither by opposite feelings, 

Q2 



228 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

can never arrive at any clear conclusion. The more I understood of 
this phenomenon the more pleasure I found in contemplating these 
yellow waters; and, notwithstanding its troubled character, on the 
whole, it presented many interesting sketches. The long line of 
the water, the rocky banks on the shore, the fishers' nets extended 
along poles to dry, the long dams, the single fishing boats, all formed 
a very characteristic scene. 

On the opposite bank post-horses were already waiting, and before 
long we were in the neighbourhood of Chepstow. The hills began 
to be higher, limestone rocks became visible, and the road conducted 
along a steep rocky bank to the valley of the Wye, on which river 
the town lies. An iron bridge is there crossed, and not far from it,, 
upon a steep bank, lies the ivy-covered ruin of the old Chepstow 
Castle. 

For the present we drove through the rather poor-looking town, 
and passed on to visit the rocky valley of the Wye, and Tintern 
Abbey. The road first passes along the wooded and overgrown 
rocks, which rise above the valley of the river. The river also par- 
takes of the singular fluctuating character of the water in the Channel, 
at present exhibited in the state of ebb-tide, and, therefore, appeared 
so singular with its wide muddy banks. At one point, a rock, clothed 
with green, towers up in a very picturesque manner — the ebbing river 
lies deep in the valley — whilst, over an opposite cleft in the rock the 
yellow Bristol Channel is seen stretching afar. The views here are 
really grand, and partake of the character of mountain scenery. 

We drew up at Tintern Cottage — a small house of entertain- 
ment, at which tourists and visiters from Chepstow assemble. The 
arrival of the exalted traveller did not remain unknown to them, a 
stout " hurrah" was accompanied with the exhibition of colours 
quickly prepared, of cloth and of green boughs. By means of stairs 
cut in the rock we ascended through bushes to a still higher 
bold projecting rock, and there found a point of view which af- 
forded a still more extensive panorama of the bold hilly scenery, 
and these rocky valleys, than the former. Longer stay, however, 
became impossible, as the day was rapidly declining, and we had 
still to see Tintern Abbey. We, therefore, returned quickly to the 
carriage down a steep grassy path, and drove at a rapid pace along 
a descending road towards the ruin. At length, on passing round 
a bending in the way, there lay before us the imposing structure 
without a roof, its walls overgrown with ivy, and hollow, empty, 
but beautifully adorned Gothic windows. The view of the gables 
and Avails of this ancient abbey, seen even from without, produced a 
powerful effect, but when the doorkeeper opened the church-door, 
on our close approach, and its whole magnificent nave was all 
at once laid open to our view, with its large, rich, and open 
eastern window at the end, with its columns in the purest Gothic 
style, and the green ivy entwining and covering the whole edifice — 
the floor, instead of carpets, covered with the dark green of newly 



TINTERN ABBEY. 229 

mown grass; the scene operated with an enchanting effect in the 
evening light, and was deeply affecting, almost even to tears. Any 
thing so perfect in its kind, so truly poetical, had never before been 
presented to my eyes. Add to this, its lonely situation, in a peaceful 
green valley, by the side of a beautiful stream, and the songs of the wild 
wood-birds resounding in our ears ; the impression was in the highest 
degree peculiar. The effect became deeper and more and more im- 
pressive as I wandered under these arches and among its columns. 
The noble architectural structure as a whole is, no doubt, calculated 
to work with powerful influence, but the peculiar effect produced 
upon my mind was only explicable to me by reflecting upon that still 
more powerful effect of the contemplation of a general free life of 
nature, the seal of that higher consecration with which the whole was 
impressed. Again the recollection of Friedeich was pressed upon 
my mind. Here was the reality of the very thing after which he 
had so zealously striven, in all the fulness and truth of nature; why 
was he not permitted to see something so perfect in its kind; and 
how singular that one is obliged here again to say, that the genuine 
and true reality proves itself at last higher and more mighty than any 
thing which fancy ever can or has imagined. 

At every step a new picture presented itself. Vistas through the 
.rich, open windows, overhung with ivy. Accessory buildings in 
rich clair-obscur , sometimes overgrowm with young sprouting branches. 
Old monuments, together with immense stems of ivy, and columns en- 
twined with its thick and close foliage. On the columns where the cen- 
tral tower formerly rested, as in Salisbury, a young and slender ash had 
taken root and sprouted up, its top scarcely reached to the height of 
the side walls of the church, but its fine, green leaves waved, like 
the green standard of hope, over the peaceful resting-place of the 
-departed. It was in all respects extraordinary. 

The evening twilight drew on apace; a splendid faint evening 
glow shone with a melancholy effect through the arched window 
over the entrance. What a glorious scene must this be under the 
.clear moonlight ! 

I can truly say, that never did the interior of any perfect church 
-ever produce such a grand and solemn impression upon my mind, as 
this edifice half in ruins. 

The abbey was founded by Walter de Clare, in 1131, and the 
building of the church was probably commenced as early as 
.the twelfth century; under Henry VIII., the abbey was secularised, 
and became a ruin in the time of Cromwell. It now belongs to 
■the Duke of Beaufort, who bestows the greatest attention on the 
care and preservation of this most beautiful of all ecclesiastical 
ruins. 

We drove back to Chepstow late in the evening. I sank into the 
corner of the carriage, gave free course to my thoughts, and my 
"reflections upon these last impressions were many and various. 



230 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND, 

The train of wonderful thoughts was only disturbed by the noise 
of the people, and the hurraing, as his majesty approached the 
hotel, recalled me to a sense of what was going on. 



LI. 

Merthyr Tydvil, July 9th — Evening. 

This morning early we took a walk to the old Castle of Chep- 
stow, now in ruins. From without, in the sunlight of the morn- 
ing, the old turrets, the weather-beaten windows, and the high 
archways, had a very picturesque effect; and so, too, the interior, with 
its old courts, its fallen-in rooms, and its walls thickly covered with 
ivy. A velvet-like turf covered the ground almost everywhere in 
the ruins, and those curious, leafless, parasitic plants which only 
grow upon the roots of other plants, were springing up in all 
directions. The castle has long been a ruin ; the last prisoner of any 
importance, confined here more than twenty years, was Henry 
Martin, one of the judges of King Charles I. 

Shortly after, returning to our hotel, we entered our carriages, 
and drove over hills and through valleys to Newport, where we 
arrived about noon. This town is situated on the Usk, not far 
from its junction with the Bristol Channel. As we entered the 
town over the bridge, the walls of an old castle, with its strong 
towers, looked quite romantic; all poetical or historical enthu- 
siasm was, however, banished, when we heard that these interest- 
ing-looking old towers were now used for a brewery. We walked 
through the town whilst the horses were being changed. The 
houses are small, but the streets wide, and every thing appears to 
mark a place of quickly growing importance, particularly in con- 
sequence of its trade in iron and coal. We were told that although 
the town only contains 20,000 inhabitants, it was able to spend 
22,000/. lately on some improvements in its docks. Here the 
only question seems to be in what direction the vein of commerce 
extends ; according to this, towns or whole districts rise or fall. 
At the other end of the town was an old church, situated on a 
little hill, among large lime-trees; and before again entering our 
carriages, we enjoyed from this point a pleasing view of the town 
and neighbourhood, and a portion of the Channel. 

From Newport, the road winds more and more through the 
Welsh mountains, and the indications of the iron mining opera- 
tions, so amazingly important to England, become more and more 
frequent. At one of the posts, Caerphilly, we came upon an ex- 
tensive, but quite ruinous old castle. It was something like the 
mighty castles of Germany, and must have been blown up, for 



MERTHYR TYDVIL. 231 

large masses of brickwork and portions of the towers had been hurled 
into the fosse. The whole looked rather waste than beautiful — 
first of all, an agreeable arrangement of the whole was wanting, 
and then the ivy was absent, which so beautifully clothes English 
ruins in general. 

As we approached Merthyr Tydvil, the iron-works became more 
numerous; we saw everywhere smelting-houses and forges, little 
railways and canals for the conveyance of the iron from one place to 
another. In one valley we saw below a canal, and a railway for 
locomotive engines; higher up, the road upon which we were, and 
still higher, a tram-road for the conveyance of materials and work- 
men belonging to the mines. We met on another occasion, on 
such a tram-road, a long train of black coal-waggons, and others 
covered with workmen black and brown with dust — a curious 
sight ! And what mountains of dross were piled up. Certainly, 
the quantity of iron produced in these mountains must be enor- 
mous. 

The race of people which we found here, is very much the reverse 
of handsome ; the women wear men's hats on their heads, or black 
straw hats, and along with this, a very awkward, ungraceful dress. 
I was reminded once or twice of the women of Unalaska, men- 
tioned in " Cook's Voyages." 

All other considerations however vanish, when one comes to un- 
derstand the size and extent of the iron- works themselves. The 
first we visited, in which six blast furnaces were at work, presented 
an extraordinary sight. Above the flaming chimneys of the blast 
furnaces the heated air trembled, and made the outlines of the 
mountains of dross behind them appear wavy. I could not help 
imagining these mountains of dross to be volcanoes, and the blast 
furnaces little burning craters on the sides of the larger ones. The 
impression produced was a much more powerful one, when we went 
further and took a view of the great iron- works belonging to Sir John 
Guest and Company. One could easily have believed oneself trans- 
ferred to the blazing city of Dis, mentioned by Dante ! We were first 
conducted to the mines, the immense quantity of coal and iron pro- 
duced by which rendered all this possible. Some idea of this quan- 
tity may be obtained from the fact that in the last five weeks 
36,000 tons of coal have been dug out, sometimes 1500 tons in a 
day, and that all these coals are employed in the works. Close to 
this mine is that from which a similar quantity of ironstone is pro- 
duced. The cost, of course, is enormous ! The works employ 
about 6000 work-people daily, and the wages of these workmen, 
with food, &c, amounts to about 26,000/. a month ! The subter- 
ranean works also cost enormous sums, and the overseers who ac- 
companied us, estimated the cost of the wood- work alone in this 
mountain, which is as full of mines as a honey-comb is of cells, at about 
half a million sterling ! Yet the enormous profits cover all this. 
To understand this, we must consider that coal costs only one-ninth 
of what it costs in London, and again, that the ironstone is found 



232 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

close to the coal; the ironstone found here is, however, not sufficient, 
and more must be brought from other places. In this manner alone 
can iron be produced at such a cheap rate, as to make it possible for 
English iron, even after paying a considerable duty, to be sold on 
the continent at a price with which the iron masters there cannot at all 
compete, who are therefore ruined by these foreign producers. 
This simultaneous formation and production of ironstone and coal 
interested me also in a geological point of view, for I was thus re- 
minded, that even now, in marshy meadows, iron is being continu- 
ally formed in the shape of ironstone during the course of the life of 
plants, and of Infusoria ; and that probably it can only be thus 
explained, if iron ores were in former ages of the earth produced 
at the same time as the gigantic ferns and Equiseta. 

I was also much interested in standing at the double entrance 
to the shaft, and observing how, set in motion by a steam-engine, 
and conducted along a subterraneous railway, on the one side a 
row of empty waggons, and a number of workmen, with miners' lamps, 
were conveyed into the mountains; whilst, on the other side, shortly 
after, a number of waggons loaded with ironstone and coal, and with 
other workmen, came out from the cavern. The carelessness with 
which the workmen acted, sufficed to show the influence of daily 
exposure to danger. Several of the men came out of the sloping 
shaft, quite without holding, and standing upright upon the rope 
which drew the wao^ons out of the centre of the mountain. The 
slightest inclination to either side, in the darkness of the cavern, 
would have been sufficient to precipitate the man from his posi- 
tion, and he would have been crushed to pieces by the next waggon. 
This carelessness is, however, not merely manifested in such exhi- 
bitions of skill, but is even shown in a similar manner in the inte- 
rior. Hence, notwithstanding Davy's safety lamp, accidents are 
continually occurring from cold damp. Only this morning three 
workmen were killed in this manner, in one of the workings. 

We next passed into the perpendicular shafts, in which, by- a 
very ingenious process, the weight of a descending bucket of water 
is made to raise a bucket full of coal. When the water-bucket 
arrives at the bottom, the water is poured out, and the weight of 
the coal-bucket raises the other bucket to the mouth of the pit ; there 
it is again filled with water, whilst the other vessel is filled with 
coal, and this process is continually repeated. During the few last 
days this part of the works had been brought to a stand-still, in conse- 
quence of the continued heat, which had dried up the supply of water. 
We next went to the blast furnaces, not less than eighteen of which 
are employed in these works; and the most of these have been con- 
tinually in flames for a period of some thirty years. On descending 
from the heights, we came almost upon the broad summit of one 
of these flaming chimneys, surrounded with a gallery. A furnace 
of this kind is certainly different in one respect from a volcano; 
it casts nothing out, but must, on the contrary, always be fur- 
ished witli some more fuel. I inquired as to the proportions in 



MEKTHYR TYDVIL. 233 

which the ironstone is melted; I was told it was three-parts iron- 
stone, three parts coal, and one part limestone. Thus the flame 
is constantly kept up, and the metal, when melted, is allowed to col- 
lect below; after a certain time the reservoir is opened, and a stream 
of melted metal flows out. It was a remarkable existence above on 
this gallery, close to the flames, and in a suffocating heat. We 
soon retired, and descended under the blast-furnaces, between 
steam-engines (of which about thirty are at work at once), and 
beween immense iron cylinders into which the air is forced by those 
machines destined to keep up the draught, and whence it passes 
through long pipes in the ground, howling and whistling, to ar- 
rive at the furnaces. Finally, in honour of his majesty, one of the 
reservoirs in the blast-furnaces was opened before the regular time, 
and the metal, the blackness and hardness of which we admired, 
flowed out like a rudely spring in the golden sunlight, and ductile 
as oil, into the furrow T s of the mould, in which it cooled into long 
bars. One of these blast furnaces was remarkable for some secret 
apparatus by which the dross w r as immediately and effectually sepa- 
rated from the metal. 

We next passed to the hammering and rolling w r orks, where 
just at the time, a number of rails, ordered for Russia, were being 
made. With what extraordinary swiftness a bar of iron was made 
into a rail ! Hardly ten minutes were employed, and the rail lay 
on the ground quite ready, but still red-hot. The mass of white 
hot metal was seized with tongs, and dragged out of the fire to 
the hammer-works, and then to the several rollers placed at dif- 
ferent distances from each other, and moved by steam, through 
which the bar was successively dragged till it was of the required 
thinness. It was, finally, drawn through cranked rollers, and the 
metal, still red-hot, assumed the form of the rail, as if it had been 
wax; the rail was finished, and it was now only necessary to clip 
the edges with a large pair of shears, as one would clip a piece 
of -paper, and it was then complete and ready, after cooling, to 
take its place in a railway. 

Whilst we were observing this process, which was going on in 
various portions in twenty places at once, we were surrounded by 
numbers of the black inhabitants of the works, and so crowded, 
that we sometimes hardly knew where to step, in order to avoid 
the sparks, the bars of red-hot iron, and those parts of the floor 
which had become heated by the passage of the hot iron. I con- 
gratulated myself, on our return, at having gained the open air 
imsino'ed. 

We had at first intended to proceed that evening, but his majesty 
determined on staying the night in Merthyr Tydvil, to observe the 
effect of all these fiery furnaces in the dark. We therefore went out 
again after ten o'clock, and were first conducted to a height above 
the town, whence we had a view of five or six of these works, 
where fires are constantly kept up by night as well as by day. One 



234 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

might imagine oneself in the land of the Cyclops. The effect was, 
however, most impressive, when we descended into the nearest 
works, with their six blast furnaces and smithies filled with 
flame and sparks of fire. Whilst viewing in the dark night, 
behind these glowing works, the high volcanic looking cones of 
those mountains of dross which I have noticed, wonderfully illuminated 
by the red flames, one's fancy might easily represent, at one time 
a blazing fortress, at another a burning castle, at another the fiery 
city of Pluto, as represented by Dante. What a contrast between 
this evening, with its fiery glow and its noise of steam and of 
melting iron, and yesterday evening, with its mild radiance and 
Tintern Abbey. 



LII. 

Aberystwith, July 10th— -Evening. 
This has been a day of continuous travel, conducting us through 
the centre of the Welsh mountains to the sea. We left Merthyr 
Tydvil shortly after six o'clock, and soon after passed over the Alp- 
like range of limestone, into the region of the red conglomerate, 
and then into the pleasing valleys of Brecon. This Brecon seems 
to be the place for tourists, who wish to ascend the neighbouring 
mountains, and to edify themselves by the contemplation of nature. 
A capital hotel opened its gates to us, not far from which is an old 
church thickly overgrown with ivy; the prospect towards the 
mountain range with its various . effects of light and shade, was 
very inviting — but all this cannot detain us — and swift horses 
convey us to Rhayader. There, one is quite in Wales; the lan- 
guage becomes less intelligible, and thickly interspersed with terrible 
gutturals ; the names of the places are difficult to pronounce, and 
the dress is different. It was market day in this dirty little 
village, in which the post-house seems to be the only house of 
any size. In the middle of the unpaved square was a sort of open 
bazaar, where poor-looking people offered for sale shoes, woollen 
wares, disagreeable-looking pastry, fruit, &c, surrounded by people 
from the neighbourhood. The women's dresses were of cloth, and 
they wore men's hats with caps under them ; the men mostly wore 
old frieze coats. We did not delay long here. The valleys 
become deeper, the mountains higher, and we also had a taste of 
real Welsh mountain weather. »A thick wetting mist with a cold 
wind approached us, covering every thing in its veil — we drove on 
further into the mountains, passed several small huts, where miser- 
able children begged with a sort of regular chaunt, and at last 
reached Aberystwith Cottage, a very comfortable inn, not far from 
the really romantic Devil's Bridge, which connects the sides of a 



ABERYSTWITH. 235 

precipitous ravine, and under which a waterfall tumbles down into 
the valley from rock to rock. We had hardly half dried ourselves 
at the kitchen fire, when the fog gave way a little; we seized our 
umbrellas, and rushed out to see the waterfall, though everything 
was dripping with rain. At first we took a view of this mountain 
torrent from a projecting rock, and admired it falling down deeper 
and deeper between the green rocks on each side — we then climbed 
down a slippery rock in the neighbourhood of the Devil's Bridge 
itself, and approached close to one of the falls. It offered really a 
splendid study for a landscape painter, with its clear waves, its 
beautifully broken rocks, and the foliage growing around it. We 
returned to the inn, made a hasty dinner, and then proceeded on 
our journey, whilst the weather continued to improve. It was, 
however, nearly dark when we reached this watering place, where 
unfortunately the inn was nearly all occupied by tourists, so that it 
was not till after some trouble we could obtain lodgings, which we 
did at last in one of the neighbouring houses. Asa sort of com- 
pensation for this, a serenade was given to the illustrious guest, who 
was soon recognised — spite of his incognito, and at a late hour of the 
night, " God save the Queen" was sung. 



LIII. 

Bethgellert, July 11th — Evening. 

As I went out of the hotel early in the morning, in Aberystwith, 
the splendid green sea lay before me, and its mighty waves beat on 
the shore; a great variety of brown and gray fuel were thrown out 
on the sandhills which formed the strand, whilst to the left, on a 
bold promontory, stood a ruined castle, whose dark walls formed a 
good contrast to the colour of the sea, reflected from its broken 
waves. As I walked up and down in front of the hotel, I was soon 
accosted by a boatman, who asked me if I was not disposed to 
enjoy a bath on this fine sunny morning ? True it is, that I ear- 
nestly longed to plunge into the refreshing waves, but here too, 
time was too limited to suffer me to indulge my inclination. 

When we were afterwards at breakfast, a multitude of boatmen 
and townspeople collected before the house with music and all sorts 
of flags; they erected their standards, among which the royal 
ensign of England floated at the top, and with such music as the 
place could afford, they favoured his majesty with a serenade, and 
concluded by a hearty hurrah. The scene had an extremely pretty 
appearance as viewed from the window. In the foreground, the 
assembled boatmen and people with their waving colours, behind 
them the yellow sand, and further in the distance the splendid 
smaragdine sea. 



236 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

When the carriages were brought to the door for departure, the 
people did not fail to accompany the exalted traveller with their 
colours and music, and salute him by a continued round of 
hurrahs. The multitude thronged around, the postilions could 
only go at a walking pace, and we thus proceeded till we reached 
the bounds of the town, when the people drew up on both sides, 
and suffered the carriages to proceed amidst an unceasing volley of 
cheers. In short, this old town was not willing that a king should 
be allowed to pass, notwithstanding his incognito, without every 
testimony of respect and honour, which it was in the power of the 
people to bestow. It is probably long since it has been visited by 
a monarch. Such visits, however, may not have been so unusual in 
former times. Aberystwith Castle was built by Gilbert de Strong- 
bow, in the year 1109, and repaired or renewed by Edward I, the 
conqueror of Wales, in 1277. It is said to have been, at that 
time, a strong fortress, and formerly the seat of Cadwallader, a 
prince of the country. It was destroyed under Cromwell. As we 
ascended the hills, we commanded a beautiful prospect over the 
town, the surrounding neighbourhood, and the sea. We did not, 
however, remain long in this higher region, the road soon sank 
again as we descended towards the valley of the Dovey, and a 
pretty single-masted coasting vessel presented a finished picture in 
the narrow bay with lofty elm trees on its shores; whilst, in the 
distance, extensive and lofty ridges of mountains bounded the 
view, with all the variety of lights and shadows reflected from the 
passing clouds. We soon reached the small town of Machynch- 
letli, situated on a mountain stream, which empties itself into the 
bay, at no great distance from the place ; and from this time for- 
ward, the mountain scenery became continually grander and more 
picturesque. As we left Machynchleth on foot, an elderly man 
joined us on the road, who gave us a very intelligent account of 
the place and neighbourhood. He told us much also respecting 
the language of the country; the peculiarly sharp guttural pronun- 
ciation of the cli — and many other interesting points of a simi- 
lar description. Many of the names of places in Wales are 
wholly unpronounceable by a stranger. The road, on leaving 
Machynchleth speedily becomes a mountain pass — and the traveller 
finds himself in a completely Alpine district; the forms of the 
mountains are bold and rude; the neighbouring hills run up to 
a lofty elevation of slaty rock; a small mountain lake appears; 
Alpine meadows covered with a few scattered sheep occupy the 
slopes of the mountains ; the clouds draw round their tops, and the 
whole scene is changed. Soon, however, the road again descends 
into the beautiful vale of Dolgelly, in which Owen Glendower 
formerly assembled his parliament, in the year 1404. This is a 
central point for tourists in Wales; hard by, Cader Idris, the 
highest mountain in Wales, except Snowdon, lifts its lofty summit 
to the clouds, a delightful and rich vegetation clothes the banks 



TAN-Y-BWLCH. 237 

of the mountain stream which traverses the valley, and the lower 
hills are splendidly decked with red flowering heath, as if dyed 
with carmine ; I can believe, that it would be extremely agreeable 
to pass a few weeks in the midst of this charming scenery. As 
we again ascended, the country soon assumed a desolate aspect. 
We passed many miserable little places on the high plateau, and 
felt the keen cold wind on these elevated plains ; mountain chains 
appeared in the distance, and we were anxious to ascertain the 
precise situation of Snowdon. We addressed ourselves to people 
whom we met on the road, but failed in making ourselves intel- 
ligible — and replies were given to us in a strange and singular 
sounding language. At length the road again descended into a 
delightful valley, richly planted with trees. The name of the 
hotel at which we stopped to change horses, was wholly beyond 
our power of utterance. It is called Tan-y-Bivlch, and was trans- 
lated to us as signifying " Under the Pass." Close to the hotel, a 
very pretty park is situated on the steep declivity of the mountain; 
we were invited to take a view of the grounds, and our time and 
labour were amply repaid. Beautiful beech trees overshadowed 
the path, as we ascended to a very pretty and cheerful country 
seat, surrounded with charming flower-beds, and shrubs of the 
choicest description; beautiful views open in all directions upon 
the valley beneath, and a variety of paths lead through the wood 
up to the mountains, from which there are numerous waterfalls. 
This is a spot admirably calculated to be the scene of a very 
charming existence, if a person were placed in the midst of the 
suitable relations for its enjoyment. 

We did not arrive at this place till late in the evening, although 
there was still light enough to enable us to have a sufficient view of 
the agreeable scenery through which we passed. On leaving Tan- 
y-Bwlch, our road first ascended a steep hill, and then, for the first 
time, the forms of the mountains became grand and imposing: we 
entered upon a singular lonely district as w r e advanced, bold and 
rugged masses of rock on every hand, surrounded by extensive 
stretches of moors and heath, above and beyond which towered 
the lofty summits of the mountains. In the distance, we obtained 
occasional views of the sea, and of the bold promontories of the coast 
projecting far into the ocean, and presenting a magnificent pano- 
rama; at last, on approaching the end of our drive, we entered a 
deep and rugged ravine, w T hich in a short time suddenly opened, 
and we found ourselves at the charming mountain hamlet of Beth- 
gellert. Here, too, the outlines of the mountains around are very 
beautiful. The great peculiarity of this place is, that it is the 
centre, around which some of the grandest and most beautiful scen- 
ery is condensed, without the necessity of traversing that enor- 
mous extent of space, which belongs to the Alps. Here a rock 
on a small scale, can be, and is, precisely what a mountain on a large 
scale is there. In addition to this, the whole outlines of the dis^ 



238 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

trict are very beautiful, and, to those who have leisure, present 
many inviting and admirable subjects for the pencil. 

Great poverty seems to prevail in the mountains. On our way 
hither, we saw many most miserable stone huts, and in many a 
lonely dell, thin lines of smoke arose from such huts, behind some 
vast mass of scattered rocks. A few poor cattle appeared here and 
there to pick up a scanty pasture, and numbers of children, begging, 
ran along the roads, endeavouring by their troublesome importu- 
nity to win a trifling alms from the passing stranger. Occasionally, 
too, they offer rock crystals, or other mountain productions, and 
woollen knitted caps, for sale. 

In the midst of all this poverty and wild scenery, there is, however, 
a large and elegant hotel, which makes up forty-five beds. 



LIV. 

Bangor, July 12th — Evening. 
Early this morning, according to our previous design, we made 
the ascent of Snowdon ; the appearance of the weather was by no means 
encouraging, the sky was lowering, and the clouds hung deep around 
the mountain top. Still there was no rain — many signs of a favour- 
able change — and we took our chance of the advantages in our 
favour and set out. We made early preparation for our journey, 
and, at seven o'clock, mounted a light carriage, accompanied by 
a skilful guide. We followed the road towards the foot of the moun- 
tain, as far up its flank as it was accessible to any description of 
carriage. We commenced the ascent. Our path lay for some dis- 
tance over wet pasture and spongy meadows — after which, the path 
became steeper, and occasional masses of bold projecting rocks oc- 
curred. We were not the only travellers, whom the day tempted 
to try their good fortune on the summit of the highest mountain in 
England. Some ladies, mounted on ponies, rode sometimes before 
and sometimes behind us, and several parties followed them on foot. 
The summit of the mountain lay concealed in clouds — the rocks 
stood forth bold and black from the green of the Alpine meadows, 
on which the beautiful yellow anthericum ossifragum grows in 
great profusion, and a cold wind blew from the ravines which skirted 
our path. A young Alpine lark, only imperfectly fledged, flut- 
tered along the ground before our feet, our guide easily caught it 
with his hands, but the old ones flew around, uttering such painful 
screams, that I induced him again to put the poor panting little 
creature upon the grass, behind a large block of stone. When we 
ascended a little further, the view to the westward became par- 
tially free — and we saw the sea, the isle of Anglesey and Caernarvon 



BANGOR. 239 

Castle. As we ascended, however, the clouds again closed around 
us, and finally we found ourselves completely enveloped in the 
penetrating fog of these moist goddesses. The ascent also in many 
places now became difficult; the wind blew cold along the side of 
some rocky walls, or from the depths of some neighbouring ravine — 
the thick fogs continued to roll more densely along the mountain 
sides — but fortunately, so far, they did not thoroughly penetrate our 
clothes with their moisture. 

Still onward, from height to height ! — deep ravines lay at our 
side, the bottom of which, filled with thick fog, yawned horribly 
below. Vegetation now almost wholly disappeared, except merely 
a few rare Alpine plants — and on every side of us rose lofty crags 
of black chlorite slate. Having taken some repose after the efforts 
of the ascent, behind a projecting rock which sheltered us from the 
wind, we again set forth, and in about a quarter of an hour (two 
hours in all) we reached the pinnacle of the mountain — 4348 feet 
above the level of the sea. View there was none I We found re- 
fuge in a small wooden shed, erected for the protection of travellers 
from the rain and wind, in which the host kept up a welcome fire. 
The man presently prepared a singular brown mixture, which he 
sold for coffee, and furnished some grayish oatmeal cake as an ac- 
companiment. There were no spirituous liquors of any description 
to be had, because the occupier, with no small degree of self-satis- 
faction gave us to understand, that his wooden hut was to be re- 
garded as a Temperance Inn. Not far from this mountain hotel, 
which I must state to be the first imperfect house of accommodation 
we had yet met in England, was a small stone hut, in which the 
rest of the travellers, together with their ponies, had found a harbour 
not much better than our own. 

Having spent some time upon the summit, dried ourselves, 
and ranged about among the craggy rocks and through the fog, we 
found our visit was in vain — no hopes of the weather clearing were 
longer entertained, and we prepared to proceed on our descent. 
Before we had descended far from the summit, the clouds presented 
occasional breaks, and we were able to snatch partial views into the 
beautiful deep valleys, which lie between the converging ridges of 
the mountain ; and on one occasion the clouds rose like a curtain, 
and revealed to us a splendid prospect of the sea. In these occa- 
sional glimpses, we perceived for a moment that the declivities of 
the mountain were enjoying the full beams of the sun, and imme- 
diately we were again closely enveloped in our foggy mantle of 
clouds. There was a continual play of currents of air and waves 
of fog with the earth. Such phenomena furnish highly interest- 
ing subjects of contemplation to those who have greater lei- 
sure for their contemplation than we ourselves had. Of such ex- 
traordinary atmospheric phenomena, however, it may be said — 
they show the life of the clouds, but cloud the image of life ! If, 
however, the observation of such phenomena be made the chief 



240 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

object of a whole excursion, they will be found to have something 
in them unsatisfying. The unconscious life of nature always falls in 
value in the eyes of him, who has thought upon and experienced 
the mighty movements and impulses of the mind and feelings. As 
I have already said, what signify earth, and suns, and planets, if 
there were no eye to see, no intelligence to give them life? 

Having proceeded somewhat further on the descent, our guide pre- 
pared to follow a different route in our return, through a deep pre- 
cipitous valley, in which the king immediately acquiesced. The task, 
however, was by no means easy — it involved the necessity of going 
straight down a sharp declivity of the mountain, at least 1000 feet 
high, and very sparingly covered with moist earth and tufts of grass. 
We were obliged to aid ourselves as well as we could by the firmness 
of our tread, taking a zigzag course, and by the appliances of our 
hands and sticks, and at length reached the bottom in safety. The 
path, however formidable to us, would, undoubtedly, not have pre- 
sented many difficulties to a well-trained Alpine hunter; to those, 
however, who are not accustomed to such clambering, it must be 
regarded as making a severe demand upon the exercise of their mus- 
cular power, and as a species of training which, when successfully 
completed, must always result in good. Even on reaching the 
valley, there was no path, and we were obliged to make our way 
over stock and stone, through bog and brook, till we came to a 
lower and a smoother region. During our descent, we were also 
obliged to endure the alternative of heat and cold, of sunshine and 
rain; at length, however, we reached some mines, at which rude 
paths began to appear, and presently after found ourselves at our 
carriages, and drove by another road again back to Bethgellert. On 
this road, too, we enjoyed the sight of some splendid mountain 
scenery. The weather had now become clear and sunny, whilst the 
top of Snowdon still lay thickly enveloped in masses of dark clouds. 
A small lake lay stretched out before us in the vale, full of pictur- 
esque beauty, and noble mountains beside and beyond, rose and 
towered one above another. I heartily envied an artist, who had 
established his studio on the edge of a mountain brook, and appeared 
to be diligently engaged in his work. What a pleasure it must be, 
to be engaged in an attempt to give a faithful delineation of such 
noble forms ! 

About half-past two we reached the hotel at Bethgellert, and our 
mountain excursion w T as at an end. After spending a short time in 
refreshing ourselves, and at luncheon, we took our departure, and 
drove westward through the valleys towards the'sea-shore. The coun- 
try here became much less interesting; but we had ample compensa- 
tion in the ancient castle of Caernarvon, at which we arrived in about 
two hours. The foundation of the castle dates from the time of the 
Romans; it was, in fact, the only station which they possessed 
in ancient Cambria. The present castle was built by Edward I., 
and was the birth-place of his son, Edward II., the first Prince of 



CAERNARVON. 241 

Wales. In order to gratify the wishes of the Welsh and soften their 
repugnance to the English yoke, Edward caused his queen, when near 
her confinement, to be conveyed to Wales, hoping by this measure 
to humour their prejudices, by giving them a native prince to rule 
over them. The castle at present belongs to the Marquis of Angle- 
sey. When we arrived at the hotel, the people thronged around in 
multitudes to see the king, and received his majesty with loud 
hurrahs; and it was with some difficulty that the crowd could be 
kept back, whilst we walked to the old ruins, and entered these 
ancient walls under a salute of twenty-one guns. We no sooner 
entered, than the gate was immediately closed behind us. The situa- 
tion and surrounding scenery of this ancient, extensive, but well- 
preserved castle, are of the most remarkable description. The ex- 
ternal walls are still in tolerable condition, as well as some of the 
inhabited portions of the interior, and the tall slender towers, from 
ihe top of one of which floated the English ensign. We were con- 
ducted through the ruins by a good-mannered young woman. Our 
first visit was to some of the galleries of the walls, from which there 
is a view of the remarkable channel, called the Menai Strait, which 
separates Anglesey from the main land of Wales, of the small town 
beneath, and the heights around. We next walked through a 
number of the old vaulted chambers; and in one of the towers 
there was pointed out to us the small waste place in which the first 
Prince of Wales was born. Our young guide hastened on before 
us like a timid fawn, and conducted us through the old passages, 
and up and down the stone steps in the towers. The timidity of her 
nature was evident, from the shrinking which she exhibited at every 
shot, as a Mr. Thomas, from the opposite heights, caused for the 
second time twenty-one guns to be fired in honour of the king. 
The whole of this castle displays a very peculiar, I might say, de- 
corative character; the court-yard is extensive, the towers and gates 
still massive and strong; and it furnishes, perhaps, the best model 
of what the style of Windsor may have been in the simple and early 
period of its commencement. Time did not allow me to take even 
a hasty sketch of the locality, or a general outline of the castle. 

In the meantime, great crowds of people had assembled in 
front of the castle, impatiently expecting the exit of his majesty. 
One of the authorities came in, and announced to the king that the 
people were anxious to be allowed to take the horses from the 
carriage which had been sent for, and to draw him round the town, 
which, as may be supposed, was declined. 

On taking our departure from the castle, the throng had become 
very great, and it was with much difficulty that the king's equerry 
and myself were able to reach the second carriage; however, we 
speedily found ourselves again at large. 

The road from this place to Bangor runs parallel with the strait, 
and the district is composed of low hills, of which variegated sand- 
stone forms the prevailing material. At the other side of the strait 

R 



2-42 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

lies the Isle of Anglesey, which is also rather flat, and the eye 
reaches as far as the slight elevation in the neighbourhood of Holy- 
head, whilst far to the right there appear other Welsh mountains 
of bold form, and considerable elevation. As the road approaches 
Bangor, it runs near the sea, and brings us close to the end of one 
of the most extraordinary structures of modern times—the vast iron 
suspension-bridge which forms the junction between the mainland 
and the island — universally known and celebrated as the Menai 
Bridge. 

The drivers were ordered to stop, and we dismounted, in order to 
pass over and examine this splendid work, and endeavour to gain as 
accurate an idea as possible of its nature and size. The coasts of Wales 
and Anglesey at both sides of the strait, are rocky, and about 100 feet 
high, and the breadth of the channel by which they are separated, 
is about 1600 feet. The object was to connect the two coasts by 
a bridge, and it has been fully attained. Two very stout columns 
of solid masonry are built in the water, one on each side, over the 
summits of which are stretched the immense chains, from which 
the bridge itself is suspended. The channel between the columns 
is about 600 feet wide, and over this stretches the horizontal line of 
the roadway, which is supported and made fast by means of about 
800 strong iron rods. Each of the sixteen chains which consti- 
tute the suspending power, is stated to be 1714 feet long, and con- 
sists of large massive links, joined and bound together by strong 
iron bolts. These chains pass over the tops of the supporting co- 
lumns, on moveable iron rollers of great strength, and are thus in a 
condition readily to accommodate themselves to the changes of tem- 
perature, without risk. The greatest difference in length between 
the strongest summer heat and most intense winter cold, is said to 
amount to sixteen inches. The work was begun under the direction 
of Mr. Telford, in the year 1819, and finished in 1826. Such is 
the general idea of the whole structure. When seen from the side, 
it is very difficult immediately to form a notion of the magnitude 
of the work ; and besides, the simplicity of the outline gives at first 
an impression of very moderate extent. The feeling is very much 
the same as that with which strangers are impressed on the first 
view of St. Peter's in Rome. They find it extremely difficult to 
believe that a structure of such magnitude is before them. And 
as the banks on both sides are very uniform, it requires to be com- 
pared with some other object — such as that of a large ship sailing 
through beneath, in order to gain a correct notion of its real mag- 
nitude. On viewing the bridge, and passing over it, through its 
long uniform alleys of ever-recurring iron rods, another observation 
forced itself upon my mind. This immense work, which in all its 
parts is regulated by the principle of utility, is totally deficient in 
all the charms of beauty. It cuts the landscape like a black uni- 
form line, concave on one side, and perfectly horizontal on the 
other j and when viewed closely, the columns by which the bridge 



MENAI BRIDGE. 243 

is supported, are wholly destitute of every description of architectural 
or sculptural ornament. Those perpetually recurring iron rods, 
which follow one another in monotonous rows, only serve to suggest 
the feeling of despair to which a painter must be reduced in any 
attempt to delineate the structure, and to give any thing like an 
accurate drawing of this tedious iron lattice-road. True, it may be 
very difficult to combine the demands of taste with the strict prin- 
ciples of utility in such an undertaking, where the grand object is 
strength. There is, properly speaking, a genuine English, dry, 
pedantic character usually exhibited in such structures as this. 
And, after all, what style should art here apply in order to intro- 
duce the charms of beauty into a work of this character? Neither 
the Egyptian nor Grecian style is at all appropriate to works in 
iron — the Gothic is quite as little applicable to such a purpose — 
and I have already remarked that in addition to these three, there 
can be as little pretension to introduce a fourth, really distinct 
from them, as to add a new kingdom to those of the recognised 
mineral, animal, and vegetable ones. This makes the task of the 
architect a very difficult one to accomplish. It is for them to 
see how the difficulty is to be met. 

Having passed over the bridge to the Anglesey side, we de- 
scended to the shore, and took a boat, in order to have a view of 
this immense structure from beneath. By far the clearest idea of 
the vastness of the work is thus obtained — by viewing it from the 
green sea, which flows beneath with a gentle southerly current; the 
true magnitude and proportions of the bridge are then most deeply 
impressed upon the mind — but even here, no idea of beauty is sug- 
gested. Other bridges, with their various arches and ornamental 
buttresses, may, and frequently do present objects of great beauty 
to the eye. This, however, is, and must always remain, a great 
mathematical Jig ure. 

After having thus examined the bridge from all parts of the 
river, we descended into the vast cavern on the Anglesey side, 
in which the ends of the chains are made fast in the rocks far 
under ground. The whole is planned with great ingenuity and 
skill. The rock, which forms the resisting power, is armed, as it 
were, with huge masses of iron, containing deep mortices, into 
which the bolts that bind the ends of the chains, are made fast. 

In this manner, therefore, the sixteen powerful chains are fastened 
in the deep rocks on both sides of the strait — and assuredly no 
human power or weight can be well conceived sufficient to tear 
them from the depths in which they are anchored. Even the long 
Macadamized bridge itself presents such a degree of stability, as to 
be very little moved by the carriages which pass over its surface. 
We were just about the middle of the bridge, when a stage coach 
with four horses drove across — and although the horses were o'oinsf 

O Do 

at a sharp trot, no very considerable oscillation, or movement, was 

r2 



244 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

experienced. And how many coaches of this description pass this 
way ! — it is in fact the high-road between London and Ireland, par- 
ticularly Dublin. The usual route from Dublin is by the steam- 
packets to Holyhead, over the Menai Bridge to Chester, and from 
Chester, by railway, to, or through, Birmingham to London. It 
is, however, at present in contemplation to make a railroad from 
Chester along the coast to Bangor — thus to shorten the distance — 
and enable the journey from London to Dublin to be performed in 
an incredibly short space of time. 

Before leaving the bridge, we had an opportunity of examining 
carefully a wooden model of this great structure, and particularly 
the manner of fastening the chains, as well as the rollers, and other 
arrangements for their motion over the supporting towers, and 
having thus obtained as perfect an idea of the whole as was possible 
in so short a time, we again entered the carriages, and drove the 
short remaining distance to Bangor, where we arrived at twilight. 

Bangor is a small sea-port, containing about 8000 inhabitants, 
who received the king on his arrival with the same enthusiasm 
which had been displayed by the people of Caernarvon. The 
beautifully-furnished hotel at which we have taken up our quar- 
ters, lies on the outside of the town, near the port, presenting an open 
view of the Bay of Beaumaris, and the surrounding district. The 
comforts of this admirable hotel were extremelv welcome to us 
after the ascent of Snowdon, and the fatigues of the morning. 

It is impossible to avoid remarking, that the people on these sea 
coasts of Wales, both in their countenances and figures, afford 
obvious proofs of a higher race and nobler blood than those which 
are found in the interior. The dress also is somewhat more civilised. 
That of the men is especially remarkable for the small grey flat felt 
hat which they wear, whilst the ugly black round hat of the women 
has not yet wholly disappeared. Whether or not this custom may 
have any connexion with the tendency we have observed among 
some of the women to emancipate themselves from the dominion of 
the men, is perhaps a question. In the inn at Bethgellert hung 
the portraits of two ladies, who till their eightieth year were 
accustomed to dress in men's apparel; who lived together on their 
property, engaged in the sports of the field, and were remarkable 
for their humanity and beneficence. They were called the " Ladies 
of the Vale" (Lady Butler and Miss Ponsonby), the elder of whom 
died only about twenty years ago. In the Vale of Llanleerin too 
there died, in 1801, a woman called Margaret or Peggy uch Evan, 
who had for many years lived as a man, engaged in hunting and 
fishing, and was distinguished for her skill in wrestling and Welsh 
music ; she, however, at a later period, married. 



BANGOR. 245 

LV. 

Chester, July 14th — Morning. 

Yesterday morning, the morning of the 13th, the birthday of 
my dear mother, I enjoyed a beautiful view of the little port of Bangor, 
from the garden terrace of the hotel, from which a view is ob- 
tained of the northern opening of the Menai Strait, of the Bay of 
Beaumaris, and the more distant mountains of Wales. The wea- 
ther, too, was tolerably fine in the morning ; but at the time of our 
departure it had become cloudy, and it was raining hard when we 
arrived at the remarkable and extensive Penrhyn slate quarries, 
which are of great importance to the whole of Wales. They are 
situated about six miles to the N.E. of Bangor, on the slope of 
the hill, and have been particularly rich and productive for the last 
fifty years. When one arrives at this quarry from below, it presents 
the appearance almost of a crater open towards the front, along the 
lips of which, twelve or fourteen terraces run, one above another, 
each of which is from forty- five to fifty feet high, and upon which 
the works of blasting and digging are carried on by about 2000 
workmen. The stone is of a reddish-brown ; sometimes, also, 
grayish slate, of fine grain, which splits well into plates, and takes a 
fine polish. The mass never contains organic remains, but is fre- 
quently traversed by strata of quarry or limestone, in which crystals. 
of some metals, principally copper and iron, occur. 

The manner in which these quarries are worked is the following: 
On the galleries, or terraces, large masses of slate are first detached 
by means of powder, and then roughly hewn into shape. There 
are laid along each of these terraces tram-roads formed of rails 
loosely laid down, upon which the masses of slate, in waggons with 
suitable wheels, are thrust along by men to the little houses situated 
on the declivity of the mountain, at the extremities of the galleries. 
Here they are split into smaller plates; and it is curious to observe 
how regularly the slate splits into finer and still finer plates, down to 
the thickness of three or four lines. Several pieces are allowed to 
retain a thickness of an inch or an inch and a half, and are used for 
tables and flagstones, the thinner ones for covering roofs, &c. The 
manner, too, in which they are squared, being cut out at once by a 
sort of hatchet, according to a line made by means of a ruler, is very 
curious. The plates thus formed are distinguished by very amusing* 
names. Thus the largest are called queens, the next princesses, 
then duchesses, ladies, and so on. The enormous quantity of slate 
produced may be estimated from the facts, that a railway has been 
constructed specially from these quarries to Penrhyn harbour, at an 
expense of 170,000/., which every week takes down between 500 and 
600 tons, or about 12,000 cwt. of slate; and that the yearly net 
produce has sometimes brought in as much as 60,000/. to the owner 
of the quarry, Sir Douglas Pennant. 



246 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

The quarrying itself is attended with considerable danger. The 
workmen, when a portion of the rock is to be blasted from the 
upper part of a gallery, are obliged to bore the hole, suspended in 
mid-air by ropes, to load the hole so bored, to set fire to the 
match, and then to place themselves beyond the reach of the ex- 
plosion. They are also exposed to the chance of accidents from the 
falling of portions of the sharp slate; and it was curious, even yes- 
terday — on which, being pay-day, the work was not regularly going 
on — to hear now and then the explosion of the blasting of some part 
of the rock, at the same time that it was almost difficult to pass 
along the galleries, without falling over the little railways or some 
of the sharp pieces of stone. The manner in which Queen Victoria 
was received here, on her visit two years ago, must have produced 
a curious effect. As soon as she arrived, 1300 explosions were 
heard from all parts of the quarry, having been all previously pre- 
pared for this purpose. After having (the greater part of the time 
in the rain) inspected all the parts of this immense quarry, and, 
besides, a saw-mill, for cutting up the thicker plates of the slate, we 
returned towards Bangor, and visited Penrhyn Castle, the property 
of Sir Douglas Pennant, to whom the quarry belongs. In olden 
times, a castle belonging to Roderic Molwynoy, grandson of 
Cadwallader, stood on this spot. It was rebuilt in the time of 
Henry VI. , and has been quite lately (renewed under the direction 
of a London architect, of the name of Hopper) by the father of the 
present possessor. It is a remarkable and splendid building, such 
as could only be completed with a revenue like that proceeding 
from the quarries. 

On entering the park, the castle is seen on a wooded height, 
gray, like Windsor, with large towers and high turrets, without 
any apparent roof, quite like an old fortress. Through the castle 
gate we entered the court-yard, ornamented in the Norman style: 
but this style is much more splendidly and grandly exhibited in 
the entrance hall, from whence staircases conduct to the upper 
rooms. Every thing here is in the Saxon style of building; the 
columns with their curious ornaments, and the upper parts covered 
with arabesques. Tall stone candelabra and a splendid chimney- 
piece, all in the same style, increase the magnificent appearance of 
the hall ; the windows with their round arches are filled with stained 
glass; the staircase winds over arches supported on columns, and 
beside Norman statues; in a word, the whole sight is grand and 
imposing. The internal arrangements of the whole place, the 
drawing and dining-rooms, the library, the bed-rooms, are all on 
a similar scale of magnificence; several wainscotted with beauti- 
fully carved oak : the furniture and beds all harmonising with the 
prevailing style of the building. We remarked a curious object 
in the state bed-room (almost all such castles appear to have such 
a state room, with a bed in it); namely, a bed, of which the whole 
of the bedstead and the posts which supported the canopy were 



CONWAY. 247 

made of the finest black slate, beautifully polished and manufac- 
tured. This reference to the principal foundation of the wealth 
of the possessor, appeared to me to show his gratitude rather than 
his taste. It may easily be supposed, however, that other curious 
objects were to be seen here; among these, we were shown one of 
those curious drinking-horns, formerly general in this district, as 
also in Scandinavia. I was sorry that we entirely lost the view 
from the continued rain ; for this view, both towards the sea and 
towards the mountains, must be of a very splendid description. 
We soon descended from the castle, and drove along the northern 
coast of Wales, towards Aber- Conway. The scenery of the rocky 
coast and of the sea was beautiful ! the foaming breakers of the 
green waves dashed against the yellow sand, which extended to 
a great distance from the shore; to our right, beside the road, 
were dark, solemn-looking oaks, and opposite to us the promontory 
of Great Orme's Head stretching out gracefully into the sea. 
The appearance of the trees along this coast was curious; they 
looked as if burnt up from the influence of the long drought and 
the sea breezes, and generally had little foliage, and that of a dark 
red colour. The works for the future railway are everywhere to be 
seen in progress. We at last arrived at Aber- Conway, a deserted, 
but very ancient little place, surrounded by walls gray with age, 
and presenting altogether a very Norman appearance. The nu- 
merous old houses here would be really a mine for a scene- 
painter; they frequently present a very peculiar, but at the same 
time extremely picturesque style, and the shape of the gable roofs 
and of the projecting windows struck me as very extraordinary. 
These windows are of a prismatic shape, such as I had never 
seen before. Above the town lies an old castle, originally built by 
Edward L, to keep Wales in subjection. Here, too, every thing is 
ruinous and overgrown with ivy. Many towers are still standing, 
and there is much picturesque masonry on the ground, overgrown 
with ivy; and besides, through the now empty arches, some beauti- 
ful views of the town and the little suspension bridge over the 
Conway, which here falls into the sea. I had hardly time to make 
a slight sketch of the ruins, when the carriages again drew up and 
carried us off in the direction of Chester. The road, after passing 
Aber-Conway, leaves the sea by degrees, and is on the whole unin- 
teresting; fresh clouds had in the mean time, too, come up, and 
treated us to some of their contents at various times, during our 
drive. Not far from Abergely, a little castle to the right of the 
road presented a very remarkable appearance. It appeared to be 
a well-preserved castle, built quite in the old Norman and Anglo- 
Gothic styles, rising rather fantastically with its numerous towers 
and turrets, above the dark green of the wood. I counted ten or 
twelve towers and terraces. Even the farm buildings, which ex- 
tended for a considerable distance along the road, were in the same 



248 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

style. This place had one of those unpronounceable Welsh names; 
it was called Gwyrch Castle, and belonged to a Mr. Hesketh. Our 
road next led us through St. Asaph and Holywell, in the neigh- 
bourhood of which are some lead mines, occupying very many 
workmen, as also paper and cotton manufactories, &c. At a later 
period of the day, the sky began to clear, the clouds passed away to 
the east, a golden sunshine poured its beams over the still moist 
meadows and bushes, and the most splendid rainbow I have ever 
seen made its appearance, extending like an arch of light over our 
road. May it be a favourable omen ! 

It was already pretty dark when we entered Chester; but I 
intend to avail myself of the repose of the present Sunday, to make 
myself rather better acquainted with its localities. 



LVI. 

Liverpool, July 14th — Evening. 
I COMMENCED my wanderings in Chester this morning, with & 
walk round the old walls, or more properly speaking upon them. 
This town presents much that is remarkable. It evidently, as its 
name testifies, originated in an old Roman camp (Castrum), and 
the observing visiter easily discovers the remains of this camp at 
the present day. It is easy to recognise the oblong form of the 
camp enclosed in a surrounding wall, which still exists, though 
considerably altered in some of its parts; this wall is four or five 
feet broad at the top, and is at present a sort of promenade, no 
longer, however, as in the original state of the town, conduct- 
ing round the outside of it, but passing along between houses and 
court-yards, past gardens and squares, &c, by the river Dee, and 
affording opportunities for some curious observations on the lives 
of those who live close to its circuit. Besides this wall, however, 
it is easy to perceive that the camp was crossed by two roads, 
meeting at right angles in the centre, and these roads were dug, in 
the plateau on which the city stands, to about the depth of one 
story. When, therefore, every part within the wall became covered 
with houses, the curious circumstance happened, that in all the 
houses standing upon these streets, a sort of gallery had to be formed 
for passers by, running on a level with the first floor, instead of in 
the place where the ground floor abutted on the lower street. In 
this portion of the houses, therefore, we find the house doors, 
shops, and warehouses, and the smaller streets, which are upon the 
level ground, branching off from these galleries. The first impression 
is naturally a very curious one, when one looks up one of these 
streets, and sees in that portion of the houses occupied elsewhere 



CHESTEE. 249 

by tlie first floor, a gallery running along, supported partly by hand- 
some pillars, partly by unsafe-looking props, and filled with passers 
by, who make their purchases there, from large and elegant shops of 
all kinds. Besides this, the whole town exhibits a striking variety, 
for Chester contains more little old houses than large new ones ; some- 
times the gable end of a house is towards the street, sometimes the 
front; sometimes the gallery passes before an old ricketty habita- 
tion, sometimes before an elegant modern house; and the same 
variety is to be seen in the nights of stairs leading from the gallery 
to the street : always a very original, and sometimes a very pretty 
effect is produced by this style of architecture. 

Chester contains also some very old churches. I saw the cathedral 
from without only, as it was just the time of service, and to attempt 
to enter an English church at such a time, to look about one, would 
cause a very disagreeable scene. (I often thought of Italy in such 
cases, where no notice whatever is taken of such slight disturbances,, 
although the devotion of the Catholics there is certainly not less 
fervent than that of these English, whose pedantry, rather than their 
religious feeling, is manifested by the prohibition.) The cathedral 
appears externally an old building in the Gothic fortress style, built 
of red sandstone, and considerably weather beaten. It is said to con- 
tain a sepulchre of the unfortunate German emperor, Henry IV., 
though he certainly did not die here; probably some mistake in the 
name. I had an opportunity of seeing St. John's, a church founded in 
the seventh century, but built in the eleventh, also internally; its 
situation is very picturesque. An extensive churchyard surrounds 
it, containing some ancient elms, and the antique building, also of 
red sandstone, which appears here to be in general use, seems to 
have sunk a considerable distance into the earth. Towards the 
western end of the church, at one side, is the low porch of the 
entrance, where, under semicircular arches, the interior of the 
church opens, and close beside it rises a red square tower, very much 
weather-beaten. The whole, with the old trees in the churchyard r 
would have made a very pretty picture. The tower was originally 
in the centre of the cross of the church ; but about 300 years ago it 
fell in, breaking down by its fall the whole of the eastern part of the 
church which stood behind it, which at present makes a very pictu- 
resque ruin, and the church was, therefore, reconstructed at the western 
end, on this very account. The interior of the building has a more 
decided impress of old Norman style than most similar buildings; 
round arches supported by short, solid columns, with their capitals 
either adorned with Byzantine arabesques, or entirely without orna- 
ment. The forenoon passed away in these observations. The day 
was beautiful and bright, but rather windy. After one o'clock we 
drove out to a park belonging to the Marquis of Westminster, whose 
picture-gallery Ave had seen on one of the last days of our stay in 
London, and whose income is reckoned at about 1000Z. per diem. 
The park appears very extensive, has several large gates, with hand- 



250 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

some porter's lodges, but in other respects appears to possess no par- 
ticular interest. Eaton Hall is, on the contrary, a large and splendid 
building in the ornamental Gothic style, and exhibits internally 
more splendour than any other palace I have yet seen; everywhere 
are to be seen gildings, rich red damask, splendid mirrors, and 
beautiful furniture. It was also so arranged that there should be 
pretty views from the windows over the park. The richest room is 
the library; Gothic columns, a white and gold ceiling, and some 
rare and curious works, as well as some splendid editions of others, on 
the shelves. With all this splendour, however, I missed that unseen 
influence of an intellectual mind, which must be impressed upon all 
magnificence, if a corresponding effect is to be produced on the 
spectator. 

Among the curiosities preserved in the library I was particularly 
interested in a massive gold ring, found in the neighbourhood dur- 
ing some excavations, about twenty years ago, and in a ground 
w r here there were no other indications of its being a place of se- 
pulture. It was so large that it might have been worn pendent from 
the neck upon the breast, and in its rude workmanship imitated the 
coils of a rope. What old king of the Britons may have worn this 
necklace ? 

About Chester many antiquities, particularly Roman, have been 
found. In the garden here was a Roman altar, dedicated to the 
Nymphs, set up in a little temple devoted to itself. Also coins, 
lamps, &c, have often been found in the neighbourhood. 

We now walked through a part of the park ; an arm of the river 
Dee flows through it, and instead of one of those light bridges com- 
mon in gentlemen's parks, we were surprised at finding a good, solid 
structure in iron over the river. Such a bridge for a place where no 
one comes, except, perhaps, now and then the owner himself! These 
very rich individuals must often find themselves in a state of singular 
embarrassment concerning means of disposing of all their wealth, 
and it is only by some such reason that these pieces of extrava- 
gance can be explained. , 

The hot-houses and forcing-houses of this park are less considerable 
than in many other places, but I was so much the more interested in 
the celebrated stud at Eaton Hall, and in the ideas I thus obtained on 
the subject of the more particular treatment of the horse, an animal 
so important in England. An extensive portion of the park, covered 
with turf, well shaded by oak trees, and watered by several little 
streams, is entirely devoted to these noble animals; and here, from 
one year's end to the other, they live in a state of half wildness ; yet 
are wonderfully tame. This part of the park is enclosed, and con- 
tains several other smaller divisions within it. The one which we 
first visited contained a number of mares with their foals, of various 
ages, from half a year to a year. An old man, lame of one foot, the 
stud groom, came up to us, to point out to his majesty some of the 
finest horses. He made a particular sort of cracking sound with his 



EATON HALL. 251 

mouth, and it was beautiful to see how the horses galloped up to 
us at this signal, snuffing around us and looking at us with their in- 
telligent eyes; particularly the young ones, who, having been al- 
ways accustomed to be treated mildly, and with kindness, are entirely 
free from all fear. I now perceived what a great influence this mode 
of life must exercise on the young horses, where they grow up wild. 

In another division we were shown the two most celebrated 
horses of the stud, which, of course, cannot be allowed to go en- 
tirely at large, but are usually under cover. The first was Panta- 
loon, already twenty years old, but of powerful build, splendid action, 
and a fiery temper. He is of thorough-bred race, and is only used 
as an entire horse. The other, Touchstone, a splendid black horse, 
beautifully and powerfully built, is only thirteen years old. In 
order that we might see all the beauty of his movements, the stud- 
groom had him taken to the longe, and gave him a course in the 
circle. The various movements of his body, the turns of his neck, 
his eye, all indicated fire and spirit. Suddenly something appeared 
to interrupt his course — he cocked his ears, and rose gracefully on his 
hind legs; but, perhaps from some improper movement of the 
reins, lost his balance and fell; but it is to be hoped, without injury- 
The circumstance was disagreeable, however, as the marquis had 
been offered 4000/. for him not long before. 

We now left Eaton Hall, and drove back to Chester, found our 
carriages packed, and were soon on our way hither, to Liver- 
pool. 

After travelling for about two hours through a simple, but seem- 
ingly rich country, we arrived at Birkenhead, which may almost be 
called the New Town of Liverpool, situated on the opposite side 
of the Mersey to it; and even before reaching Birkenhead (which 
is increasing with enormous rapidity), we obtained a view of Li- 
verpool, lying along this wide arm of the sea, with its docks, its 
numerous vessels of all sizes, steamers with their smoking chimneys, 
passing rapidly to and fro, and its immense warehouses close to 
the water; single ships are anchored here and there, in front of 
the town, and behind it appear bluish rising grounds. The effect of 
the whole, illuminated by the evening sun, was very pleasing. 

Who could believe, on thus seeing this important commercial 
town, the second city in the kingdom, that about 150 years ago, 
it was nothing but a fishing village, dependent upon Chester? The 
Dee, however, formed an impassable sand-bank at its mouth by 
degrees, whilst on the other hand, the Mersey began to be more 
and more appreciated as an arm of the sea, capable of bearing 
vessels of the largest size, and even of conveying them as far as 
Liverpool; all the trade of Chester passed gradually to Liverpool, 
and this little town became what it now is, in this inconceivably 
short space of time. 

When we arrived in Birkenhead, the steam-ferry was waiting 
to convey us to the opposite shore. The carriages were put on 



252 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

board, and in company with numerous promenaders from Liver- 
pool, we crossed the somewhat muddy waves of the Mersey. The 
manner in which the vessel was guided into a sort of bay in 
the high stone quay on the side, constructed purposely to receive 
it, was worthy of observation. We were at last safely landed on 
the quay, found carriages in waiting, and were conveyed rapidly 
to our hotel. 

In spite of the Sunday, the streets were very full of walkers, and 
as we passed along, I saw one scene perfectly English, not far 
from the quay. A Methodist preacher, mounted on a cask, was 
haranguing a number of persons around him, using at the same 
time a great deal of gesticulation. I remembered that several years 
before I had seen upon the Mole at Naples a ragged improvisatore, 
surrounded by an audience of about the same stamp; this was cer- 
tainly rather different. 



LVII. 

Liverpool, July 15th — Evening. 

This morning about 10 o'clock, some gentlemen belonging to 
the corporation were announced, who offered to show the king 
some of the most remarkable objects in the town. We immedi- 
ately set out with them, and proceeded first to view some of the 
large covered markets for the sale of vegetables, meat, and fish. 
These, however, are now become so general in England, that a 
large town can no more be conceived without them, than without a 
church, town-house, or theatre. In Liverpool, which has increased 
from 3,000 to 300,000 within a century and a half, these markets 
are, as may be imagined, very extensive. I should have been glad 
to have examined some curious specimens of marine animals ex- 
posed for sale in the fish-market; but the people crowded upon us 
so much, that this was impossible, and we escaped with difficulty 
through the increasing crowd to our carriages. 

We next visited the Docks, which already line the whole town on 
the side next the Mersey; the number of them, however, will shortly 
be doubled. There were at this time about 1400 vessels in the 
docks, and several were obliged to anchor in the middle of the Mer- 
sey, because there was no room for them in the docks. It was a 
very beautiful sight when all these vessels, as soon as the arrival of 
his majesty was known, hoisted their various flags, and thus the 
whole forest of masts was at once covered with pennants and flags 
waving in the sunlight. This navy certainly is a splendid and mag- 
nificent idea. We next visited several magazines; first that where 
the buoys are kept, floating casks used to designate the shallows. 
They are of the most various shapes. To some are attached bells, 



LIVERPOOL. 253 

which thus give a signal which cannot be mistaken, even during the 
fogs, which frequently would prevent their being seen. The en- 
trance to the Mersey is such as to require several of these safeguards, 
as it abounds in sandbanks ; and we saw a gigantic map of the mouth 
of the river, on which the positions of all these buoys are carefully 
laid down. We then walked through rows of ships, and went on 
board the " Caledonia," which is shortly about to sail for America. 
She generally performs the voyage in thirteen or fourteen days. 
She is 210 feet long, and of 440 horse power, beautifully furnished 
and ornamented, and really was almost enough to induce one to con- 
fide oneself to her for the trip, and thus cross, as it were at one 
stride, the immense Atlantic Ocean. There was also in this dock a 
beautiful sailing vessel bound for America, by which the voyage 
out is usually made in thirty days. 

Finally, we were shown the enormous building going on at the 
new dock (Prince Albert's dock) which is to be surrounded with 
splendid warehouses. A million sterling has been set aside for the 
building of this dock; the basin is almost finished, and a number of 
the warehouses completed. These latter are built entirely without 
wood, being constructed of iron and stone. The foundation walls, 
as well as the walls of the basin, are of Scotch granite, the upper 
walls of brick; large columns of iron, a couple of feet in diameter, 
support the gallery which surrounds them entirely. Then come the 
several stories, one above the other, supported by smaller iron pil- 
lars and flattisli arches of brick, and above all are spacious floors im- 
mediately under the roof, which is entirely of iron. The cellars are 
so arranged that casks can be rolled into them from the ships, through 
large portholes, and every thing is simple, clean and regular, 
merely in the common sense style, exactly fitted for the real convey- 
ance and reception of the material, and, consequently, entirely with- 
out any poetry whatever. 

Liverpool hopes by means of all these new establishments, and its 
continually increasing trade and commerce, to be shortly in a con- 
dition to compete even with London, and when one has visited these 
docks, &c, one cannot help admitting the possibility of such a result. 
The care with which those parts of the docks, which are exposed to 
the action of the water, have been built, may be understood from the 
fact, that as England itself produces no cement capable of resisting 
the action of the water, a sort of Pozzalana has been brought from 
Italy for the purpose, with which all the stonework is cemented. We 
saw a steam-engine solely employed in ramming down the piles into the 
muddy soil, upon which the stone work is afterwards to be built. The 
movement of the machine drew up the ramming block by means of 
a long chain, and a sort of pincers, to the top of the grooved beam, in 
which it worked ; there the pincers let go their hold of themselves, 
the block fell, the pincers descended more leisurely, and again seized 
and dragged it up, and so on till the pile was driven down as far as 
was necessary. That the corporation of a town, which is building 



254 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

all these works entirely at its own expense, should show them with 
considerable pride, may well be imagined^but I found their pride 
fully justified. 

We next drove to see the interior of the Custom House, a very 
large but unartistical building, and thence to the Town Hall, where 
an immense crowd was assembled. At the entrance, and upon the 
steps of the Custom House, there had been a considerable crowd; 
but here, where the mayor was waiting to receive the king, and, 
notwithstanding his majesty's refusal to make use of it, had caused 
the state coach to be drawn up before the Town Hall, the crowd 
became intolerable.* In an extraordinary and highly inconvenient 
manner, we pressed through the people into an elegantly and 
richly furnished building, containing, however, nothing especially 
remarkable; but when the mayor afterwards induced the king to 
go with him into the court-yard, to see a statue of Nelson, erected in 
the centre of it, the crowding upon us was really disagreeable, and 
without the assistance of a strong body of constables, we might 
have been nearly pressed to death. Of course, in this confusion, 
we could not possibly get any sort of view of the building, and we 
were very glad when we were again seated in the carriage, on our 
way to the Docks, where the Medina, a steamer which runs be- 
tween Liverpool and Dublin, had been put at his majesty's dis- 
posal, in order to give him some idea of the effect of the town 
from the river. 

This little voyage was in the highest degree amusing. One of 
the steamers employed in the steam ferry first received us, as the 
Medina could not approach near enough to the shore, and conveyed 
us to the Medina, coming very skilfully alongside, so that a bridge 
could be thrown from one ship to the other, and over this we passed 
to the splendid vessel. We then steamed along under a bright 
sun, only obscured now and then by light fleeting clouds, upon 
the waves of the Mersey, slightly ruffled by a storm early in the 
morning, and by the west wind, in the direction of the open sea, 
past the castle and the lighthouse; and we might have been in 
Ireland in eleven hours, if this trip had been consistent with the 
plan of our journey. The scene was beautiful; the active and 
bustling sea-port stretched along the shores of the Mersey, the 
numerous vessels passing and repassing, fishing-boats sailing to and 
fro, and sea-mews rocking themselves in the wind. The limit of 
our trip was but too soon reached ; the vessel was turned round, 
steamed back again up the river towards the docks, where a crowd 
of people was assembled, who cheered with might and main ; here 
the smaller steamer again took us on board, and brought us to 
land. in the same manner as it had conveyed us from it. We 

* Although only London and York have the honour of possessing Lord 
Mayors, the chief magistrates of all other cities being merely mayors, the 
latter are still permitted to have a state carriage, with splendid liveries. 



LIVERPOOL. 255 

then got into the carriages, and drove to a higher part of the 
town to visit an iron church. 

I had often read and heard of the iron power of the church, but 
a church of iron was something new to me, and I could not help 
admiring the industry of this people, who will certainly yet send 
iron churches ready made into the remotest corners of the earth, as 
they already send palaces and houses ready built. The name, how- 
ever, is not here quite literally applied, for the external wall is of 
stone; in the interior, all the columns, buttresses, the choirs, &c, 
are of iron, painted to resemble wood. The style of the building 
is the English- Gothic; the church itself, however, is small, and 
the material seems the only remarkable point about the place. 
In these later English cities, material interests are always the 
most important. They somewhat resemble those of North America. 

In the evening, for want of something better to do, we went 
to the theatre, where a couple of pieces were given. We only 
waited till the end of the first, namely, Sheridan Knowles's " Love 
Chase." It may easily be supposed that in Liverpool, where prac- 
tical advantage is so much regarded, the theatre meets with very 
little support, and is rather at a low ebb. The house itself is small, 
and not elegant; that it was rather fuller than usual, was in con- 
sequence of his majesty's presence. The play itself was very 
feeble; it appears intended to represent several couples in various 
embarrassments and vain hopes, but internal life was wanting every- 
where. The actors were still worse than those in London; a Miss 
Rose Telbin alone showed some talents in the sentimental parts. I 
was also struck with a certain commonness of pronunciation, and 
certain arrangements in the play-bills, in which the names of some 
actors who were starring in Liverpool, were announced, and their 
accomplishments mentioned, as if they had been wild beasts. 

At the conclusion of the piece, the audience called for God 
save the Queen, in honour of the king, and cheered him loudly. 

I did not find myself much edified by the Liverpool manu- 
factories, but hope to-morrow to see some better ones in Manchester 
and Leeds. 



LYIII. 



York, July 16th — Evening. 
This day we made a little excursion by rail, to see York Minster. 
A trifle ! In the same way as people used to drive ten miles to 
see any pretty view, we crossed the whole of England this morning 
by steam (from Liverpool to York is exactly the whole breadth of 
England), to take a view of an old building. It is true, we had 



256 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

to pass Manchester on our road, and there we found several objects 
for observation. 

The railroad leaves Liverpool by a very strange outlet. The 
station is in the middle of the town, and no exit is perceived, nor 
are any locomotives to be seen. 

The carriages all stand drawn up ready to start — the passengers 
•enter — at a given signal the train is set in motion, being drawn 
along by a powerful rope, and with lanterns all along the train, 
we entered a long tunnel, which rises slightly, and passes under a 
considerable portion of the town; after fourteen or fifteen minutes, 
we arrived at the open air again, where the stationary machine is; 
and now first the locomotive was attached to the train. Hardly 
an hour later, and we were in Manchester; but whereas in Liver- 
pool the railway passes under the town, it runs here over the tops 
of the houses into the centre of the town. 

Under the ground, or over it, it is all one in these manufacturing 
districts, provided only that a good profit is the result. 

We had intended first to view the subterranean Bridgewater Canal, 
not far from Manchester, but the agent had not received the intelli- 
gence, no preparations had been made, and we passed at once to the 
view of the manufactories. 

The first of these was the enormous one of Sharpe, Roberts, and 
Co., where 600 or 700 workmen are constantly employed. There 
was a German, named Beyer, who has been employed as over- 
seer there for ten years, and who was thus enabled to act as our 
guide, and to give us the best information respecting the various 
parts of this immense manufactory. Locomotive engines are spe- 
cially constructed by this company, but besides these also spinning 
machines, iron cutting and boring machines, &c. 

I had never before seen cold iron treated like wood, or rather like 
cork. Bars of iron, an inch thick, were cut through like paper by one 
machine ; by another, circular holes of various sizes, were punched 
out of plates of iron of half an inch thick, seemingly without an effort, 
so that the piece punched out appeared even larger than the open- 
ing. Several of the latest improvements in machine building, which 
the never-ending intellect of these thoroughly practical men keeps 
continually adding to the former improvements, were pointed out 
to us; but without a thorough comprehension of the whole, no 
one can follow all these refinements. The wonderful accuracy which 
has been attained in casting iron may be judged of from the fact, that 
a clock has been constructed of wheels merely cast, and not after- 
wards polished or smoothed, which has now been going regularly 
for a couple of years, and the dimensions of which are so large, that 
the weight of the pendulum is 300lbs. 

The second manufactory which we visited was that in which the 
carding machines of Horsefold are constructed. It is well known, 
that in the preparation of woollen stuffs, it is necessary to cleanse 
them from any threads of wool which may remain on them, by 



MANCHESTER. 257 

passing some rough surface over them. For this purpose it has 
been usual to employ the teazle (Dipsacus fullorurri) . It has latterly, 
however, been found impossible to procure a sufficient quantity of 
this plant for the enormously-increasing manufacture of woollens, 
and hence has arisen this useful invention, being a sort of artificial 
teazle, consisting of pieces of fine wire fastened to cloth or leather. 
For this purpose a machine driven by steam power has been erected, 
which, with the accuracy of the human hand, actually sews the wire 
into the stuff, and that in so many directions that it looks as if it 
were covered with hairs consisting of fine wire. The organic forma- 
tion of the teazle is very accurately imitated by this process ; but 
it afforded me a certain satisfaction to hear, that nature has not been 
quite set aside by art, and that in certain processes the teazle is still 
indispensable. 

In a third manufactory which we visited was the silk weaving and 
embroidering machine, belonging to Louis Schwabe, a German; in 
his manufactory there are not only Jacquard looms, which weave the 
most splendid silks of any given pattern, but a machine invented by 
himself, which sets in motion, at once, from 50to 150 double- pointed 
embroidering needles, threaded in the centre; so that any given 
pattern can be quickly embroidered on cloth or silk, and a single 
girl, who directs the machine, is enabled to do the work of 50 or 
150 embroiderers. While we were there, some black cloth was being 
embroidered with little dark-coloured violets, for exportation to 
North America; we also saw a beautiful piece of embroidery in 
various colours, in silk, after a pattern of the Queen of England's; 
and this was as well done as if the best embroiderers in England had 
been working at the frame. The principle of this machine is, that 
the frame is moved after every stitch, instead of its being neces- 
sary for the embroiderer to move her hand every time, the frame 
remaining stationary. The pattern was stamped in tin on a large 
scale, and placed beside the girl who directed the machine, and 
every stitch was marked by a corresponding mark on the tin pattern. 
After every stroke of the machine, which set all the needles in 
motion, a peg connected with it was moved to another mark on the 
pattern, and the frame was thus moved into exactly such a position, 
that all the needles at once made the same stitch. The whole was 
yery ingenious. 

We next drove to Burley's great cotton-milk where 1200 work- 
people of both sexes are employed. These spinning and weav- 
ing manufactories are improperly called mills; and it is particu- 
larly in these places that children are employed, the observation 
and consideration of whom gave rise to many interesting points of 
discussion, in the same way as the employment of children in Bir- 
mingham. I was much interested in observing, in regular order, the 
various processes by which the raw cotton is, within a short time, con- 
verted into the several cotton threads and stuffs, such an immense mass 
of which is constantly exported from England to other countries. We 

S 



258 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

began at the beating and rolling of the cotton, saw how it was 
spread out into a sort of fine wadding by a particular kind of rollers, 
all worked by steam, and then the manner in which it was rolled 
into cylinders of an inch in thickness; these cylinders were then 
taken to the spinning machines, each of which had several hundred 
spindles, turning round 4000 or 5000 times a minute, and there 
drawn out into threads of various degrees of fineness. In other 
rooms were the looms. In one, certainly an enormous one, there 
were 600 looms at work, and the noise was perfectly deafening. 
Sometimes even more than that number are in one room. The 
children whom we saw here, almost all girls, looked pale, but in 
other respects not unhealthy or neglected ; some were even pretty. 

The same house possesses a manufactory of the waterproof stuff, 
called Mackintosh. We were also shown the process of preparing 
this article, for which enormous quantities of Indian rubber are 
used. We saw the way in which it is cut, melted, and then, in the 
form of a thick tough mass, passed between rollers; and, finally, by 
means of polished steel rollers, laid upon the thin stuff, and covered 
with a still thinner covering of the cloth. 

Finally, we visited the large cotton printing and dyeing factory of 
Thomas Hoyle and Sons, at present belonging to W. Neil. Here we 
were first shown the large depot of copper rollers, upon which the 
patterns are engraved, which are to be afterwards impressed on the 
cotton. In the other parts of the building we afterwards saw the 
dyeing and printing processes, all of which were completed with the 
greatest nicety and exactness. Patterns of various colours are 
effected by passing the cotton stuff under rollers with different 
colours, sometimes three or four, or even six; it receives from each 
a pattern of a different colour. In the various dyeing processes, all 
the latest discoveries in chemistry have been applied to practice ; 
and, besides this printing by rollers, there is also in use a more per- 
fect kind of printing from plates. All this produced an extraordi- 
nary effect on me, as I could well remember having been, during 
my childhood, much in a cotton-printing establishment of my 
grandfather's, at Miihlhausen, in Thuringia, and to have seen all that 
is here done by means of more extended knowledge of chemistry, 
and more perfect mechanism by machinery? effected with an im- 
mensity of trouble and delay by human agency. On such occa- 
sions it produces a peculiar sensation, to see, as it were, the begin- 
ning and end of half a century in the same moment ! It caused me 
more reflection than I could well get rid of at a time when there 
was so much else to think of and to observe. 

Manchester is certainly a strange place. Nothing is to be seen 
but houses blackened by smoke, and, in the external parts of the 
town, half empty, dirty ditches, between smoking factories of dif- 
ferent kinds, all built with regard to practical utility, and without 
any respect at all for external beauty. In the midst of all this a 
pallid population, consisting entirely of men who work for daily 



MANCHESTER. 259 

wages, or of men who pay the wages of daily labour. The popula- 
tion consists of 300,000, among whom are several Germans ; but 
every one of any property has a country-house at some distance from 
the town, and only enters its atmosphere of smoke when his pre- 
sence there is absolutely necessary. At the same time some feeling 
for science and art is not entirely wanting. After our wanderings 
through all these factories, we were conducted to the Royal Institu- 
tion, a handsome building adorned with columns, where there is a 
collection of objects of natural history ; lectures are delivered there, 
and just at the time of our visit an exhibition of paintings was going 
on. This latter proceeded from a sort of art-union, like our German 
societies for the same purpose. There were a number of oil-paint- 
ings, principally landscapes and pictures of still life, most of them 
inconsiderable, a few tolerably good. Scientific gentlemen from 
other parts of England are frequently invited to deliver lectures here. 
A particular interest appears to be felt in those on natural philosophy, 
chemistry, mineralogy, and geology. 

The geological collection interested me most, particularly because 
it contains a number of curious specimens from the coal region. 
Here, too, the cuttings necessary for various railways had brought 
much that was interesting and instructive to light. The most im- 
portant objects I saw were a number of trunks of trees, which had 
been found at a considerable depth underground standing upright, 
inasmuch as these afforded a most decided proof that the level of the 
ground here, too, had been at some time or other subject to great 
changes. Casts of these trees had been taken on the spot, and 
were exhibited in this collection in a very interesting manner. A 
little volume of geological treatises, published here (" Transactions 
of the Manchester Geological Society," Vol. I.) was presented to 
the king, and I, too, was presented with a copy; this volume contains 
several interesting essays, especially one on the subject of these trees. 

Our last visit was to a Club-house, arranged and conducted 
quite in the same manner as in London, where a lunch was served; 
immediately after this we proceeded to the railway, and entered a 
particular carriage prepared for us, consisting of a central cabinet, 
with an open gallery at each side. We left Manchester with the 
speed of light, passed through various sorts of country, some- 
times busy, sometimes rural, through beautiful green valleys, over 
immense viaducts, and through several long tunnels, and arrived, 
just at sunset, at the termination of our journey in the ancient city 
of York, the birthplace of the Emperor Constantine. 



S 2 



260 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 



LIX. 



Liverpool, July 17th— Evening. 

The impression produced upon our minds yesterday evening, on 
our way from the railway station to the town, by the antique 
appearance of the city of York, was a very remarkable one. It is- 
certainly curious that a long series of years or of centuries seems 
necessarily to leave behind it a sort of air of antiquity — a pecu- 
liar feeling, proving the antiquity of the place. This could not 
have been fancy in my case, for I had not had time, during our 
rapid journey, to read any thing on the subject ; but we passed close 
by some little chapels of considerable antiquity, over a bridge, from 
which we caught a sight of the old red buildings along the river, 
glittering in the last rays of the sun ; all produced a certain je-ne- 
sais-quoi, which called forth a peculiar state of feeling. Early in 
the morning the Dean of the Cathedral, Dr. Cockburn, came to 
conduct the king to the Minster ; he conducted us through narrow 
streets with old houses to an open square, in the midst of which, 
glancing in the rays of the early sun, splendidly ornamented, but 
quite in the later Anglo-Gothic style, the majestic building stood 
before our eyes. I could have wished to have remained standing- 
before it for some time alone, in order to obtain a full and complete 
idea of the structure. This cathedral is said to be the most beau- 
tiful in England, and it is certainly very magnificent, but I should 
not for a moment compare it with that of Freiburg or Strasburg. 

We next passed into the interior ; the nave is large and simple, 
without rows of columns. Then comes the central part, where the 
several arms meet, upon which, instead of a cupola, an octagonal 
roof is placed ; and then the choir. This part of the minster is se- 
parated from the rest by means of a partition wall, adorned with 
statues of kings and saints in Gothic niches, and two gates form 
the entrance into this most splendid and most richly ornamented 
part of the cathedral. We were received, on our entrance, with a 
burst of music from the organ, and the choristers then sang Han- 
del's " Hallelujah Chorus." The effect was grand and solemn. This 
place is really well fitted for sublime or solemn ceremonials. The 
slender arches of the Gothic windows, with their rich stained glass — 
the lofty stone screen with its beautiful ornaments, separating the 
choir from the passage or cloisters, running round the whole church 
— the beautifully-carved stalls, and the lofty vaulted roof of the 
whole — all this together produced a powerful effect ; and not without 
feeling deep emotion did I await the end of the chorus. 

We next descended into the crypts. Here are to be seen foun- 
dations of buildings of very different dates. First, remains of the 
walls of a temple of Bellona, as is generally believed ; then some 
large columns from the old Norman period (for a church is said to 



YORK. 261 

Lave existed here as early as the seventh century), and then the 
vaults belonging to the present church, which has been several times 
destroyed by fire, once very recently, and always rebuilt. These 
numerous rebuildings may, perhaps, be the reason why the church 
does not produce so powerful a historical impression as that of 
Westminster, for example ; the air of antiquity produces, however, 
its accustomed effect, and the whole has a powerful influence. 

Opposite the cathedral is the splendid Gothic-built house of the 
•dean ; we were conducted thither to partake of a sumptuous English 
lunch which had been prepared for us by the family of our con- 
ductor. After this we took a view of a very old octagonal chapter- 
house, not far from the minster. It somewhat resembles that of 
Salisbury ; and here, too, we found workpeople employed in re- 
pairing the ravages of time. We next visited the Yorkshire 
museum, near the ruins of St. Mary's Church. This would ap- 
pear to deserve a more attentive examination than we were able to 
bestow on it ; for the near approach of the time of starting for the 
train hurried us considerably. It contains, first, a geological collec- 
tion ; then a natural, historical, and a small anatomical one ; and, 
finally, a number of Roman antiquities found in the neighbourhood. 
There were several tombstones, bronzes, and tiles, with the name of 
the legion which had used them stamped on them, fragments of 
glass, &c. 

When it is considered that York, under the name of Ebor cecum, 
was the principal town of the Roman portion of Britain, and that 
so many emperors were born, lived, and died within its walls, it 
seems extraordinary that more remains have not been discovered. 
Perhaps more will be discovered by degrees. 

The ruins of St. Mary's Church rose gracefully not far from this 
little museum. Several cells, with large Gothic windows, are still 
standing, built of a clear white limestone, very elegantly wreathed 
with ivy, and shaded by elms. 

We next drove to the Castle, which is partly used as a model 
prison, partly as a sessions' house, during the assizes held here at 
certain times by the judges on circuit. It was just assize time 
in York when we were there, and the ceremonies observed at this 
time afforded me another proof of the firmness with which this 
people holds fast its ancient customs ; for, according to our ideas, 
it looks rather odd for the assizes to be announced as having com- 
menced by three trumpeters, who blow various flourishes upon 
trumpets adorned with flags. As we were ascending Clifford's 
Tower, which is just opposite the Castle, the high sheriff, in his 
official dress, with a court sword, and powdered, came over to 
welcome the king — and the three trumpeters sounded their flou- 
rish of welcome, at some little distance. There still exists here, 
therefore, the summoning to trial by means of the trumpet, quite 
according to the myth of the last judgment. 

This old Clifford's Tower, of which only the surrounding wall 



262 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

is still standing, and in which an old walnut-tree spreads out its 
branches, is said to stand upon a Roman foundation, and to have 
been built by William the Conqueror. It affords a good view of 
the town, which contains 30,000 inhabitants ; and it was pointed 
out to us that here, as in Chester, the old walls still form a con- 
tinuous road, leading sometimes through houses and yards, and 
sometimes presenting a view of the country. 

At 10 o'clock, we quitted York, with a warm sun shining upon 
us from a cloudless sky. In less than three quarters of an hour 
we were in Leeds, and again breathing the cloudy and smoky 
atmosphere of a second great manufacturing town. Strange how 
near to each other these extremes have been brought by railway ! 
And yet in what other country, even with all the advantages of 
railway communication, would it be possible to pass in one day 
through three cities, each containing and employing about 200,000 
inhabitants, as is the case in Liverpool, Manchester, and Leeds. 
And I now leave out of the question the ancient city of York, 
which we also visited on the same day. 

In Leeds we were also desirous of visiting some of the most im- 
portant manufactories, and in order to obtain the necessary infor- 
mation, we stopped at the first inn we came to, in which we were 
fortunately able entirely to preserve his majesty's incognito. I 
was much interested in the situation of the little parlour into which 
we were shown, and in which the comical little bay-window, 
projecting into the street, of which the English are so fond, and 
which is to be found in most small houses, was not wanting. The 
life and bustle of the streets was going on immediately before the 
windows ; opposite to us were other little old gable-houses ; the 
room itself, with its queer-looking chimney-piece, looked rather 
smoke-dried, and with all this corresponded very well the simple, 
but thoroughly English luncheon which was served to us. I 
thought of the Boar's Head in Eastcheap, mentioned in Henry IV., 
where the prince and Poins cracked jokes on the drawers ; — I had 
hardly ever felt myself so actually in England as here. At last 
the necessary information arrived, and we drove first to the flax- 
spinning factory of Messrs. Marshall and Co. We were here able 
to obtain a complete idea of this important branch of industry, which 
is gradually supplanting all smaller branches of the same trade, and 
even the spinning-wheel on the continent ; and in an establishment 
which employs above 1500 workpeople, two-thirds of whom are 
children, and furnishes its products in quantities which, without 
machinery, probably a thousand times the number of hands would 
not be able to produce. 

We began with the beating, hackling, and sorting of the raw flax, 
which is first separated into the lint and the tow, we were then 
shown how, by means of other machines, a sort of wadding is made 
of the flax, but in broad soft bands, which afterwards, as in the cotton 
factories, are spun into finer or coarser threads upon the hundreds of 



LEEDS. 263 

whirring spindles; and, finally, how the yarn thus obtained is woven 
into coarser and finer sorts of linen. Here, too, the principal mover 
of the whole is an enormous steam-engine, singularly enough built, 
entirely in the Egyptian style. The chimney rises in the form of a 
mighty obelisk ; the front of the building, which contains the steam- 
engine, is adorned with short and massive Egyptian columns, but 
richly ornamented and in good taste ; and, as a ventilator on the ma- 
chine itself, the holy symbol of the globe with the sparrow-hawk's 
wings, turned round swiftly in the current of air. What would an 
Egyptian priest say, if he could behold the desecration of their 
most sacred mysteries? The progress and changes in men's notions 
of what are sacred axe curious — in one case what was common, as 
for instance the cross, becomes a sacred symbol, in another, as here, 
the holiest symbols come to be used as common ! Another curiosity 
in this factory is an enormous room for spinning, covering two 
acres; it is not very lofty, lighted from above, and well ventilated. 
It is supported by a number of columns, and the roof, in which are 
the raised windows by which the light is admitted, is covered with 
asphalte, and over thai with clay and mould, so as to have become 
a perfect meadow. We ascended to this roof or large meadow, 
and walked about on it through the little glass houses, forming the 
windows. Above us were the clouds, under us the humming sounds 
of the spinning and weaving machines; more than a hundred chil- 
dren, principally girls, directed and governed this immense mass of 
outlets for the steam power of the great machine. This turfy covering 
is said to have the advantage of keeping the room warm in winter, 
and cool in summer. It has been built three years, yet it does not 
appear that any trace of the admission of moisture has been 
perceived. 

I took this opportunity of making some inquiries relative to the 
condition of the children employed in the mills. Till their 
thirteenth year, they are said to work only half a day, and to be in 
school the other half; after their thirteenth year, their hours of 
instruction are fewer, and only occasional. Their wages amount 
to from two to three shillings a week, to four or six shillings, and 
sometimes even more. As far as possible, some sort of amuse- 
ment is provided for these poor creatures; as, for example, a play- 
ground and nine-pins for the boys, in a court close to this enormous 
room. With all this, however, one must consider the organism of 
man very much en gros, in order to comprehend the growth and 
nourishment of an entire crop of human beings, in order to 
preserve them for the purpose of some definite advantage they are 
of to others. It will sometimes give rise to some curious considera- 
tions, as to the possibility of any really great geniuses being ever 
formed in this mass of human creatures thus brought together, as it 
were, in sheaves. If this does happen, it w r ill be a proof that an 
original intellect cannot be entirely suppressed even by such a 
slavery begun at such an early age; if it does not, it will show that 



264 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

an immense amount of natural talent (for among so many thousands, 
there must be much talent) can be destroyed, and actually is 
destroyed, by such operations. If I were to speak my real opinion, 
I must say, I think the latter case the more probable one, for 
although one cannot find any difficulty in conceiving the possibility 
of a Pope Sixtus V. having been produced from a poor boy, 
feeding swine in the open air, it will not be found so easy to com- 
prehend, that the poison of this factory slavery, which renders a 
mechanical occupation, and one presupposing no intellect whatever, 
compulsory, can have any other effect than that of preventing all 
development, or exhibition of any innate intelligence. And will not 
the same effect be produced sooner or later, by our present system 
of education, which comprises the whole generation in one class, 
and treats them accordingly ? or rather has not such an effect 
already been apparent ? 

We next drove to the great woollen factory of Messrs. Gott and 
Co. Extensive courtyards, surrounded by the various factory 
buildings, give a high opinion of the large business of the pro- 
prietor. We were first shown the large steam-engine, which sets 
the various machines in motion. One particular arrangement, in 
respect to this engine, was particularly pointed out to us, namely, 
that by means of certain valves, in the heating portion of the 
machine, the mass of black smoke produced by coal fires, is reduced 
to a slight blueish vapour. If this plan could be more generally 
introduced, a great change would certainly be produced in the 
atmosphere of England; for, in truth, the smoke produced by so 
many coal fires, is, in the strictest sense of the word, " air obscuring." 
We next passed to the wool magazines, in which is preserved wool 
from ail the countries of the world. We saw some Australian 
wool, about equal to the inferior kinds of Prussian and Silesian 
wool. The best is still considered to be the Saxon, and some of 
the better Silesian wools. We then passed to the various processes, 
from the cleaning and sorting of the wool, to the spinning and 
weaving of the same, in innumerable separate spinning and weaving 
machines. The buildings here consist of several stories, and each 
process is carried on in the room immediately above that devoted to its 
predecessor, so that there are here certain machines by which any thing 
can be conveyed along a sort of shaft from one floor to the next 
above. We ourselves were conveyed up in one of these machines. 
After the weaving came the various processes of fulling, clipping, 
and dressing the cloth. These processes are generally considered as 
separate businesses, here they were all carried on in the same establish- 
ment, and the machines are all worked by the same engine. Mr. Gotfc 
himself conducted us over the works, and explained all difficulties in a 
very interesting manner. I was particularly pleased by what he said on 
the subject of fulling: that it was necessary, in the case of the 
threads of wool, or rather of the animal fibre, to draw the threads 
more together internally, whilst in the case of flax or the vegetable 



LEEDS. 265 

fibre, it was necessary to divide and draw out. I filled this up 
in my own mind, by considering that the law of spirals is here in 
operation, which form a narrower coil, the more they are pressed 
together in masses. The fibre of wool is internally spiral, and coils 
spirally; if, therefore, a cloth, woven of spiral wool alone, is pressed 
or beaten in a warm liquid, these spirals contract in every part of it, 
and form a close substance. When we came to that part of the 
works where the cloth was dyed, a curious feeling came over me, 
for the whole period of my boyhood rose in vivid colours before my 
eyes. There is hardly any thing which rouses certain recollections 
in the human mind with such freshness as a peculiar smell. The 
smell of the indigo, in a deep vessel half wood and half copper, in 
which it undergoes a peculiar sort of fermentation, recalled to my 
recollection the image of my father's workshops, where this mode 
of dyeing was very usual. I saw with a certain indescribable feeling 
those green looking waves in which the cloth is soaked, being, when 
drawn out, green, and becoming shortly blue by being exposed to 
the air, a process which I had so often seen in my boyhood, and 
never since — then an inexperienced child, now by the side of a 
revered monarch, and after the advantages of so much experience 
and information ! Such recollections and such comparisons give 
rise to a peculiar tone of mind ! 

I was also interested in the dressing of the cloth. For this 
purpose, the teazle is still absolutely necessary, but the plants are used 
in a very different manner from that in which I had seen them 
employed before. At that time the teazles were held in the hand, 
and slowly and laboriously passed along the cloth; but now they 
are fixed in oblong frames, and fastened on rollers, over which, 
the cloth is swiftly drawn by means of steam, the surface being 
closely pressed against the teazles. 

After having examined all this, we returned to the railway, 
where we unexpectedly found the little garrison drawn up with 
glittering accoutrements and flying colours, to receive the king. 
We swiftly passed away, and about eight o'clock again arrived in 
Manchester. 

I could not help being again forcibly struck by the peculiar dense 
atmosphere which hangs over these towns, in which hundreds of 
chimneys are continually vomiting forth clouds of smoke. The light 
even is quite different from what it is elsewhere ! What a curious 
red colour was presented by the evening light this evening ! It is not 
like mist, nor like dust, nor even entirely like smoke, but is a sort 
of mixture of these three ingredients, condensed moreover by the 
particular chemical exhalations of such towns. The peculiar tint 
which the country around such a city assumes, cannot be better 
designated than by the phrase factory tint! Even this, however, 
might be looked at from the poetical side, and I could fancy that it 
would make a pretty picture, if any painter should represent the 
lofty masses of these square factories, with the much loftier chimneys, 



266 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

between them a couple of Gothic spires, and in the foreground the 
high walls of a viaduct, with its broad arches, the whole surrounded 
by this factory tint. 

When we came to the long tunnel near Manchester, I counted, 
by means of the lamp in our elegant carriage, the time we were in 
passing through it at full speed. We were exactly five minutes and 
fifteen seconds, and this may give some idea of the length of this 
subterranean work. 

Shortly before ten o'clock we arrived in Liverpool, and passed 
down the long tunnel to the terminus, whence we shall start to-morrow 
for Cumberland; from manufacturing districts and factories to free 
and open nature ! 



LX. 

Bowness, July 18th — Evening. 

In consequence of numerous delays and the particular time of 
starting by the railway, it was eleven o'clock before we left Liver- 
pool. The train pursued a northerly direction ; the weather was 
very beautiful; the country through which we passed rather flat, 
but well cultivated. We first came to Preston, a very considerable 
manufacturing town connected with the Irish Sea, by the bay formed 
by the embouchure of the river Ribble. From Preston we continued 
our course by the railway to Lancaster. This town also lies on the 
river Lune, at the extremity of a very wide, shallow, and sandy arm of 
the sea, called Morecombe Bay. Its old castle, built by John of 
Gaunt, in the reign of Edward III, and situated on a height, forms 
a great ornament to the place. 

We no sooner left the station than we proceeded immediately to 
the castle, which presents a noble and stately appearance from a 
distance, but when more nearly approached proves to be a county 
prison. The arrival of the king had instantly brought together a 
great crowd of people, who collected around and pressed so closely 
upon us, that we found some difficulty in making our way, and were 
only freed from our troublesome escort when the large and heavy 
door of the castle was closed behind us. This castle is historically 
remarkable, and presents a noble appearance with the square towers 
which adorn its walls. One of these towers is said to have been 
built by Constantius Clorus, the father of Constantine; the second 
dates from the old Anglo-Saxon period, and the third, over the gate, 
was added by John of Gaunt, who at a later period restored and 
completed the fortress. We were conducted to the summit of the 
gate tower, and enjoyed a very delightful view of the wide-spreading 
hilly country around ; — of the bay, glittering in the bright sunlight of 
a summer afternoon ; — and the outline of the Cumberland mountains 



BOWNESS. 267 

in the distance. The governor himself joined us soon after our 
arrival, showed us the courts in which the assizes are held, gave 
us a hasty glance at the cells, and even at the narrow passage which 
leads to the place of execution. It gave me a feeling of inward sa- 
tisfaction to hear the benevolent tone and truly humane language of 
the governor, in reference to the inmates of the prison. When 
speaking of the offenders under his charge, he constantly called these 
unhappy persons " the unfortunate criminals." 

Whilst we were thus engaged in examining the castle, the car- 
riages had been brought from the railroad — horses put to — and we 
proceeded on our journey through Burton, to Bowness. As we 
advanced, the country became more and more hilly, and exhibited 
a richer green in its vegetation. After having been so long in the 
great coal district of Manchester and its neighbourhood, and the 
region of red sandstone, we now again found ourselves upon a lime- 
stone soil. On our way hither, we stopped at Leven Hall, a very 
charming old country-seat, some miles south west of Kendal; built 
in what in England is so often called the Elizabethan style, and be- 
longing to Sir Greville Howard. This small residence or country- 
house has remained, in all outward things, in its present condition for 
about 200 years — whilst the interior is not only habitable, but fitted 
up with luxury and taste. In all parts of the house there are very 
fine specimens of wood carving. A large fire-place in one of the 
rooms is especially worthy of notice — as containing singular ara- 
besques and figures — quaintly representing the five senses, the four 
elements, the four seasons, and similar subjects ; here also breathes 
that peculiar mild air, that spirit of the olden time, and that feel- 
ing of faithful transmission from generation to generation, which 
gives such a deep interest to all these ancient family castles, and fills 
the mind of the traveller with a feeling of something almost sacred 
within their walls. It is impossible not to feel how charming a resi- 
dence here might be — of course always under the condition of having 
an agreeable social circle. The surrounding park is calculated to pro- 
duce the same effect upon the mind as the residence to which it is so 
suitable an appendage. The grounds immediately around the house, 
which is for the most part covered with ivy and roses, were 
originally laid out by a gardener in the service of King James 
II. These grounds present very remarkable specimens of hedges 
cut into the quaintest forms, among flower-beds carefully bordered 
with box; yew trees cut into extraordinary figures, and entwined 
with roses and honeysuckles ; and, behind the whole, a lonely walk on 
the soft turf, thickly overshadowed by lofty beech and lime trees. 
This of course forms but a small portion of the grounds, and leads 
into the wide-spreading park, which is full of charming scenery. We 
met the family of the owner in the garden; it consisted of an elderly 
and a young gentleman and several ladies. We entered into a very 
agreeable conversation, and at length the younger Howard proposed 
to drive before us in a light carriage, and thus to show the way 



268 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

which our carnages should follow in order to obtain a general view 
of the park. His majesty accepted the offer — and in the train of our 
conductor we took our road across pathless meadows — under an- 
cient oaks and lime-trees — and by the side of mountain streamlets 
rushing down and foaming over their rocky beds, till it was at last 
found impossible to pursue these devious tracks with our heavy 
travelling carriages. We then returned to the high road, and in 
about two hours arrived at this delightful village, after driving 
through a country constantly becoming more mountainous in its 
character. Bowness is situated between lofty, wooded hills, above 
the shores of Windermere, which lies in all its beauty before the 
eye of the traveller, and possesses all those attractions which are 
calculated to render it one of the great points of attraction to 
English tourists. 

The evening was so beautiful, that even at sunset a short excur- 
sion in a boat was undertaken by our party, in order to visit some 
of the small, rocky islands with which the lake is here interspersed. 
The play of spectral light upon the rocky heights was beautiful 
beyond description — the western wooded hills were reflected in 
broad and deep shadows upon the smooth face of the lake — and the 
reflecting surface of the waters, enlivened by numerous wherries 
filled with ladies and gentlemen enjoying the evening breeze and 
the beautiful scenery, who swarmed around our boat, served to 
complete the picture of our first evening on the celebrated English 
lakes, and a picture which, if not grand, was at least extremely agree- 
able and lovely. 



LXI. 

Patterdale, July 19th — Evening. 
The morning at Bowness was somewhat overcast, but still beau- 
tiful. At an early hour we ascended a small rocky eminence which 
rises charmingly not far from the inn, and on our way up, we 
found by the wayside one of the most remarkable of English plants 
— the beautiful yellow poppy (papaver cambricum), which has never 
heretofore been found except in Wales and Cumberland. This 
was, properly speaking, our second interesting botanical discovery 
in this neighbourhood. Yesterday evening, during our pleasure 
excursion upon the lake, we met with the flowers of the lobelia 
dortmanna, along the shore of a little rocky island, growing- 
out of the water like reeds. The view from the rocky emi- 
nence, which was the object of our walk, was truly enchanting. 
Before us lay the waters of the calm and peaceful lake, and in 
the distance the outlines of the mountains, with a constant play of 
clouds around their summits. The air was fragrant with the 



THE LAKES. 269 

sweet smell of thyme, and nothing could exceed the charming 
picture presented by the small rocky islands which lay scattered 
on the bosom of the quiet lake. 

The carriages were now sent forward along the shore, whilst we 
entered a small boat, in order thus to see and enjoy the whole ex- 
tent of the charming lake in the exhilarating morning air. The 
water of these lakes is remarkably black, and yet in some places sin- 
gularly clear. There is nothing whatever of the beautiful green of 
the Swiss lakes. Our excursion along the lake proved very de- 
lightful ; there were numerous enchanting plays of light and shade 
on the mountains — many beautiful houses lay either on the shores,, 
or on the lofty banks above the lake ; and the far-echoing cannon, 
thundering as we approached, greeted his majesty on his land- 

We immediately entered our carriages, and drove into the beau- 
tiful valleys. Our road soon brought us to Ambleside, one of the 
usual stations of tourists to the lakes. From thence we pursued 
our route under wide-spreading ilex and nut-trees, through green 
valleys abounding in springs — into the mountainous district, the- 
elevation of whose rocks and hills continually increased as we pro- 
ceeded. Numerous small streams bounded down from the heights — 
we passed along the shore of another small lake, called Grassmere, after 
which the road immediately assumed a steeper and more moun- 
tainous character. We no sooner arrived at the summit, than the 
postillions put their horses to a gallop, and calculating to a nicety 
the swaying of the large travelling carriage, they drove us with 
the greatest skill and safety, round all the windings of this moun- 
tain road, and brought us to Keswick about noon. From the 
heights above the town as we approached, we obtained a magni- 
ficent view of the mountain lake called Derwentwater, and straight 
before us rose the ridge of the loftiest mountain chain in Cumber- 
land, topped by the rounded summit of Skiddaw. We remained 
at the inn only long enough to prepare ourselves for an excursion 
to the top of Skiddaw, and to obtain a good guide and light car- 
riage to facilitate the ascent. Both were quickly at the door, and 
we immediately set off in the direction of the mountain, and drove 
as far as the road was practicable for a carriage. The weather ap- 
peared somewhat doubtful, blinks of sunshine and light showers 
alternately passed over the country, but the guide assured us of our 
being able to make a successful ascent to the summit, which lies 
3022 feet above the level of the sea. This man pleased me well, his 
name is Wright ; he showed himself to be well acquainted with 
the botany and geology of the district — has been a collector of 
plants and minerals for years, and had been formerly in Iceland and 
Sweden. 

The ascent was very gradual, over black mountain slopes, covered 
with short grass and heath, and occupied us full two hours. As 



270 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

we began to approach the summit, clouds settled around it, and we 
were now a second time involved in their loose gray mists. Fortu- 
nately, however, the wind speedily dispelled them, and in the bright 
afternoon sun, one of the finest views of mountain scenery imagi- 
nable lay stretched out before our astonished eyes. Towards the 
north the nearest Scotch mountains greeted us from afar ; east- 
ward lay the picturesque chain of the Cumberland and Westmore- 
land hills ; to the south the beautiful lake of Derwentwater, with 
its splendid bold rocky shores ; and to the west the sun shone full 
on the bright and glittering waters of the Irish Sea, in which the 
eye reached as far as the Isle of Man. Our guide now directed our 
attention to a streak in the distant horizon, which he assured us was 
the eastern coast of Ireland. Although I must admit that the many 
days which had now been spent in contemplating the beauties of 
natural scenery, had begun to awaken in me a longing after the 
works of the intelligent mind, and the more elevated subjects of 
reflection, yet, notwithstanding this longing desire, on this occasion 
nature made such a rich display of her beauties before my eyes, 
that she recovered her full power over my mind, and allured me 
into a sweet forgetfulness of myself and of all human efforts. The 
fine and beautiful wavy outlines of the mountains, in a magnifi- 
cent atmosphere, and under the sloping rays of the afternoon sun, 
in the play of passing clouds, which like a half drawn-up curtain 
partly covered and partly revealed their beauties ; and the bright 
silvery light of the sun reflected on the wide sea, the pure invigo- 
rating mountain air, all worked upon me with such purity and effect 
that I felt myself full of that feeling of a happy earthly existence, 
which in all its extent, and especially as the product of natural 
objects, rarely falls to the lot of mortal man. 

In addition to all these outward beauties, the internal geognostic 
relations of these districts are very remarkable. The mountain it- 
self consists of hard black slate-clay. On the north-east the granite 
breaks through, and has pushed up the slate on both sides ; to the 
north there are some copper and lead mines — and to the south lie 
the mountains behind Derwentwater, which produce the graphite 
of such rare occurrence, from which the admirable Keswick pencils 
are formed. 

We remained for some considerable time upon the summit of the 
hill, which is strewed over with fragments of slate-rock — were a 
second time enveloped in mist — and finally descended to a lower in- 
dentation of the mountain, to a place in which a spring breaks forth, 
in order to sit down and enjoy the contents of a basket of provisions 
which had been carefully packed for the occasion. The eleva- 
tion of the place, and the beauty of the 'opposite mountains, made 
this meal an exalted luncheon in a twofold sense ; and in order that 
it might enjoy importance in both, his majesty proposed to drink, 
in admirable sherry, the healths of all true naturalists, who like 



SKIDD AW. 271 

Leopold von Buch, Elie de Beaumont, and Alexander von Hum- 
boldt, have contributed, by their travels and researches, to make us 
better acquainted with the history of mountains. 

The sun began to decline rapidly — the various tints produced by 
his rays became more and more beautiful, and we commenced our 
descent in the highest spirits, whilst our guide plied us incessantly 
with anecdotes of his travels, even to the Faroe Isles, proved very 
entertaining, and pointed out to us the habitats of many rare 
plants. On our way back to Keswick, we stopped to see one of the 
most remarkable of the lead-pencil manufactories. This species of 
manufacture was also quite new to me ; and the manner in which 
every description of these useful articles was here produced by the ap- 
plication of machinery, driven by steam power, was at once instruc- 
tive and entertaining. We were shown the whole process, from the 
quick and fine cutting of the cedar — by means of a delicate circu- 
lar saw — to the insertion of the lead, of various qualities and di- 
mensions, into the grooved wood, the glueing and fastening of the 
two sides, and, finally, the turning, polishing, and stamping of the 
finished pencil ; and it may be well supposed that I did not fail after- 
wards to take advantage of the opportunity to provide my friends at 
home with a complete stock of these excellent drawing-pencils. In 
the meantime the carriages were got ready, and we left Keswick 
in order to return to Patterdale, amidst the cheers of an immense 
mass of curious spectators, who had assembled to see and welcome 
the king. The evening came on apace — the tops of the lofty 
hills glowed once more with the deep red of the setting sun, which 
was relieved by masses of dark clouds — and after a short thunder 
shower, night set in and concealed many a pleasing prospect from 
our view, as we drove on in the dark. We first passed over some 
barren wastes, and afterwards entered upon a well- wooded district, 
with numerous hedges enclosing fields, in some of which cattle 
and in others horses were pasturing, just visible in the twilight. 
Having reached the highest point of the road, we almost imme- 
diately passed into a deep ravine, and two small arms of a lake 
became indistinctly visible through the leaves of the trees, in the 
uncertain light. We drove round rocks and through trees of 
thick foliage, and might have fancied ourselves in a complete 
wilderness, had not light suddenly glimmered through the bushes, 
and the carriage been drawn up before an elegant hotels fitted up 
with all the enchanting decorations of a fairy palace. Such hotels 
are fitted up for the use and pleasure of English tourists, who per- 
ambulate these districts in summer in hosts, sometimes for the 
purpose of fishing, sometimes of sketching, or for mere recreation 
or enjoyment ; and many of whom have well-furnished hunting- 
boxes, which they occupy during the season for the pleasure of field 
sports. From the top of Skiddaw some of these hunting-boxes 
were pointed out to us in a valley of these Alpine meadows. 
It is not to be denied that this, too, contributes to raise and 



272 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

maintain the independence of this extraordinary island. In Cum- 
berland and Wales the Englishman possesses a kind of English 
Switzerland, which in its free, beautiful, and variegated ^ scenery, 
furnishes him with multifarious means of recreation and invigora- 
tion, after the exhaustion of a town life, and the demand of public 
and private business. In the same way as the English so^ thoroughly 
well understand how to compress into a small compass in their tra- 
velling cases, all that is both useful and elegant, so nature has 
brought together in their island, for their use and enjoyment, a 
combination of things the most necessary and the most delightful ; 
meadows, fields, and coal-beds, with all the advantages and beauties 
of a sea coast ; and even, too, a scenery like that of Switzerland or 
the Tyrol on a small scale. 

This day's drive presented us with beauties which produced a 
great impression even in our hasty passage. How much greater 
must be the charms of this mountain district to those who are 
able to dwell upon and enjoy them at leisure. 



LXII. 

' Carlisle, July 20th— Evening. 

HAVING walked out early on this sunny morning in Patter- 
dale, to explore the neighbourhood, I found myself in a delightful 
idyllic vale ; meadows lay around, from which the new-mown hay 
sent forth its charming fragrance, and behind the inn stood a small 
rocky elevation from which there is an extensive view into the 
valley, and over the bright lake. All around me were young plan- 
tations and bold projecting rocky hills. Every thing in this charm- 
ing vale breathed of the deepest peace ; the bottom of the valley was 
clothed with the richest green, studded with pretty country-houses, 
and the atmosphere rendered pure and invigorating by the breeze 
from the lake. If I were engaged on a work requiring long and 
deep reflection, I can conceive no place better fitted for such a true 
exercise of the mind. The carriages were a^ain sent forward in 
order that we might more fully enjoy the pleasure of the scenery by 
traversing the lake in a boat. Here, too, we found the pretty Lobelia 
Dortmanna springing up in full bloom above the surface of the 
waters. We glided leisurely over the bright waters, followed at a 
distance by another boat, in which there was a band of music ; and 
delighted with the continual change in the aspect of the mountains 
and scenery. The primitive rocks begin again to show themselves 
in this district — the rocks behind the hotel contained porphyry. 
Syenite also appears ; and, together with these primitive elements, 
there are also found ores of the precious metals. We saw at a dis- 



LOWTHER CASTLE. 273 

tance the smoke of a mine which yields no inconsiderable quantity 
of silver and lead. 

Having spent about an hour in this delightful transit, we 
landed under some trees, and found the carriages in waiting. 
We however still proceeded a little distance further, when a 
small country-house of ancient exterior, situated in the midst of 
meadows and forest trees, presented itself to our view. The house is 
called Lyulph's Tower, and was fitted up as a hunting-box by a 
former Duke of Norfolk. The present possessor is Henry Howard, 
Esq. This small residence is built in the castellated style, on a beau- 
tiful site, which commands an extensive and splendid view over 
the lake; the rooms on the ground-floor are furnished after the 
ancient fashion, and adorned with some magnificent antlers of deer, 
and a great variety of hunting apparatus. In front of the house, on 
the luxurious sunny lawn, the scene was splendid. The bees were 
humming around — the dark surface of the lake lay spread out 
before us — and the mountains stretched away to a distance in beau- 
tiful Alpine outlines. We lay down on the fragrant grass and 
attempted to obtain some sketches of this beautiful district. 

Not far from the house a rapid mountain torrent, presenting a 
most picturesque scene, dashed down between craggy rocks over- 
spread with luxurious foliage; and every thing in this little 
excursion filled us with pleasure. We now entered our carriages 
and followed the course of a pretty road overshaded by trees, 
along the borders of the lake, till we came to its termination, and 
crossed a bridge which spans a small stream that runs into the lake. 
Here we enjoyed a still finer view than we had yet seen of the hills 
near its banks. From thence we followed a road over hills and 
through ravines, which, after a short drive, brought us to Lowther 
Castle, a seat surrounded by a park, belonging to the Earl of Lonsdale. 
The avenue which leads to the castle is magnificent. In front 
lies the rocky valley of the Lowther, richly covered with wood — the 
extensive meadows traversed by alleys of lime-trees — the whole, 
in the midst of the haymaking, presented to the eye a scene full of 
life and pleasure; and at the termination of these charming green 
glades lies the extensive castle, covering an immense space, built in 
the Anglo-Gothic style, perhaps with even too much symmetry. The 
approach to the castle is truly splendid; and on the entrance into 
the grand hall, the stranger is surprised by the splendour of the 
surrounding objects. This hall is supported by lofty Gothic pillars, 
and leads directly to the grand staircase, adorned with variegated 
glass windows and numerous suits of armour, tastefully arranged. 
The other apartments of the castle correspond with the hall, both in 
grandeur and richness. There is a drawing-room with a large and 
splendid bay-window, built in a fine Gothic form, and ornamented 
on the outside with flowers; it looks towards the park, and is 
especially worthy of notice. Nor is there any deficiency of pictures 

T 



274 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

and busts. Among the former, there is a picture with small figures 
hanging over a chimney-piece, ascribed to Titian, which is very re- 
markable ; it seemed worthy of a longer study. An Oyster Feast, 
by Steen, exhibits fine traits; and the genuine Dutch beauty of 
the hostess deserves particular notice. There are several admirable 
landscapes, by C. Poussin, and P. Brill; and I here, for the 
first time, saw a picture by Brill, which is not only historically 
remarkable, but really appears to be an able work — executed almost 
in the style and tone of Everdingen. 

We took a walk through the park, and were greatly pleased with 
a kind of forest terrace, from which there is a very fine view of the 
country lying beneath, and of the distant mountains which bound the 
horizon. Behind this, lay a larger wood of firs and beech, which a 
few years before had been almost completely prostrated by a violent 
storm. Many of the stems, which had been merely sawn across, 
stood high above the surface of the ground now occupied by a 
Piuetum. It was to me a singular contemplation, these denizens of 
the ancient forest blown down and destroyed, and their places oc- 
cupied by a race of fashionable upstarts and far- travelled parvenus. 
Will those, too, in their turn, some time or] other become mighty 
trees? And what will be their end? Lying still further beyond 
are, however, still to be seen many large and beautiful forest trees 
of the olden time, lofty pines, and splendid beeches. 

A short drive brought us from Lowther Castle to Penrith, a small 
open town, close to which are the remains of a ruined castle, which 
possesses some historical interest from having once been the property 
and residence of the Duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III. 
We did not stop to examine the ruins, but immediately pursued 
our route. We here once again enjoyed a splendid view of the whole 
chain of the Cumberland mountains, with Skiddaw on the south- 
western horizon in the clear blue sky; whilst to the north, the 
Scottish hills became gradually more and more distinct, and the 
country itself more level. 

We reached Carlisle early in the evening, at six o'clock ; and made 
several excursions on foot through this unimportant town of about 
20,000 inhabitants. 

We were first conducted to the old cathedral, which bears many 
traces of the heavy Norman architecture, and, with its weather- 
beaten red sandstone, reminded me strongly of the old churches in 
Chester. Near, and indeed in immediate connexion with, the cathe- 
dral, stands a refectorium, in which James I., on his way from Scot- 
land, held his first parliament. None of these buildings possess any 
beauty or interest as architectural structures. From the cathedral we 
took our way to the old castle, which contains a small garrison ; the 
officer no sooner became aware of the rank of his visiter, than he 
ordered the men under arms. We ascended the outer wall, and 
thus obtained an excellent view of the town and neighbourhood; 



CARLISLE. 275 

the old cathedral, when seen from this elevated point, was a very 
interesting object. We were afterwards shown the weather-beaten 
prison tower, where several of the Scotch rebels were once confined, 
previous to being executed on the green before the walls. The 
prison itself was a low dark cell; a single narrow opening afforded 
the only access to light and air, and the sight of the traces made in 
the soft sandstone of this little opening in the wall, by the ringers of 
the despairing captives, who lay for months in this narrow cell, and 
clambered up to see the light of heaven, awakened strong feelings 
of compassion and horror in the mind. There was another cell, 
close by, somewhat better lighted, where the prisoners had cut all 
kinds of small and monstrous figures in the soft sandstone. Here 
the torment of the inward man had found some relief and consola- 
tion in the practice of the rudest description of art — and there were 
visible the immediate impressions of the anxieties of the prisoners. 
Wonderful being is man ! Not contented with that Prometheus tor- 
ment, which his unsatisfied desires themselves continually prepare 
for him, in one way or another, he prepares, has prepared, and will 
prepare, in the most various ways, the most far-fetched torments for 
thousands of beings formed like himself! One of the wings of the 
castle, also, is said to have been built by Richard III., and many 
historical anecdotes relating to the wars between England and Scot- 
land are connected with the scenes of this neighbourhood. We 
were told, that about fifteen miles from Carlisle, there were still to be 
seen remains of the Picts' wall — a description of diminutive " Wall of 
China," which in remote periods was built as a defence against the 
incursions of the northern barbarians of the island; a Roman camp, 
too, was fixed near the city, and Roman remains are frequently 
found. 

As we were about to return from the citadel, two of the magis- 
trates of the town arrived; and at last, also, the mayor himself, 
which led to a new invasion of the populace, anxious to see the 
king — and an immense crowd of street boys was collected, from 
whose eager curiosity it was only possible to escape by a quick 
return to the hotel. These gentlemen incidentally informed us of 
the increasing industry of the town, in consequence of the opening 
of a railway from thence to Newcastle — boasted of the increase of 
the population, and the impulse given to important branches of 
manufacture, especially to cotton-spinning — so that in the very ex- 
tremity of England proper, genuine English industry continues to, 
spread more and more. 



T 2 



276 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

LXIII. 

SCOTLAND. 

Hamilton Palace, July 21st — Evening. 

In proportion as tins day was gloomy, foggy, and rainy, the re- 
ception in the evening was agreeable, comfortable, and splendid, in 
this ancient Scottish residence, the seat of the Duke of Hamilton, 
father of the Marquis of Douglas, husband of the Princess of Baden, 
who is a near relative of his majesty our king. Changed in our 
journey as well as in life ! As this was Sunday, we did not leave 
Carlisle till early in the afternoon, — after church. The sky was 
gloomy — the country became more and more barren and dreary. 
We soon crossed the river Esk, over a bridge with iron railings, 
and entered the kingdom of Scotland, in which the first stage 
brought us to the well-known village of Gretna Green, the anxiously- 
expected port to many eager lovers ! The house in which these 
hasty marriages are celebrated lies at a short distance from the road, 
is of stone, covered with a gray slate roof, and looks very in- 
viting with its clean white walls and green lawn under surrounding 
trees. Post-horses were here provided, and a large book was shown 
us, in which the names of all those who had here entered into wed- 
lock are recorded. One of the last and most distinguished couples 
whose names were enrolled, were the Prince and Princess of Capua 
— who here, as well as elsewhere, had caused the ceremony of mar- 
riage to be performed, in order in all possible ways to strengthen 
and give validity to their disputed union. 

It is the law of Scotland, that the validity of marriage does not 
-depend upon the ceremony being performed by a clergyman of any 
description — the declaration of the contracting parties before a 
justice of the peace, or other competent witnesses, is sufficient to 
give it legality, providing the parties contracting such union are 
unmarried, and not within the prohibited degrees of relationship. 
The former procurator of marriages was a smith — at present the 
owner of the post-house performs the needful service for those who 
resort to this temple of Hymen. New laws, however, are likely to 
interfere with these adventurous unions, and the romantic will soon 
be deprived of this motive, as well as of so many others. 

The rain continued to fall more heavily — the country to become 
more and more waste and desolate, and the clouds to descend. Our 
entrance into Scotland was very melancholy — completely in unison 
with what is said of the Scotch character — " Sombre Ecossais" 
During the whole drive of many miles, we looked in vain for a 
town, or even a considerable village. The stages at which we 
changed horses were generally a few solitary dwellings, or resembled 
very poor hamlets — whilst the whole district was, for the most part, 
barren and waste. The road, generally speaking, ran along high 



FREE CHURCH MEETING. 277 

grounds, and was often marked out by stakes, in order to afford a 
guide to travellers in the deep winter snow : and here and there we 
observed single low stone houses by the way side. One circumstance 
on our journey made a singular impression. To the right of the 
road lay a house somewhat larger than usual — but not high, and 
almost flat-roofed, around which a number of men were standing 
with raised umbrellas. This was an assembly of some of the con- 
gregations belonging to the Free Church party, who were listening 
to their Sunday's sermon ; and these individuals had been unable to 
find accommodation within the walls. This assembly, thus standing 
under the rain, presented a singular appearance, and reminded us 
strongly of the early Christians. In Scotland, in general, a severe 
puritanical spirit prevails, and a great number of the people have 
wholly renounced their connexion with the Established Church, in 
order that they may exercise the privilege of electing their own 
ministers, and now denominate themselves the "Free Church." 
They consequently no longer occupy the churches built by the state, 
but assemble in the best and most convenient temporary places they 
can find, till they are able to build churches for themselves. It 
seemed to me as if I saw the gloom and melancholy of the rainy day 
depicted in the minds of the assembled worshippers. 

The persons, too, whom we met on the roads, or saw in the 
houses or hamlets, were now of a very different build. They were, 
for the most part, large coarse figures, with wide mouths, melancholy 
countenances, and projecting cheek bones; the eye was destitute 
of fire, especially in the men, who were generally rolled up in 
a woollen plaid, drawn tight round their shoulders, and wore a flat, 
ugly-looking black woollen cap on their heads. The figures of the 
women were somewhat better, and we had the additional advantage 
of seeing them dressed in their Sunday clothes — though no small 
number of them went barefooted. 

The country first began to show some signs of civilisation, w r hen 
we had passed about forty miles beyond the border — trees then be- 
came more frequent, and the houses somewhat larger. The thick 
misty rain decreased, the temperature of the evening became warm, 
although the sky still remained cloudy. As we drew near to 
Hamilton, in the increasing; twilight, w T e saw bright glowing; lights 
m the northern horizon, which proved to be the distant reflection 
of the numerous iron-works in the neighbourhood of Glasgow. 
We now passed several considerable market-towns — which, how- 
ever, present a melancholy and disagreeable appearance, with their 
long rows of one-story houses, under a uniform line of roof. The 
fact is, that these small houses are generally built by the proprietors 
of the soil, and then let or sold to tenants and occupiers. 

It became continually darker and later; at length we arrived at 
the small town of Hamilton — and a little distance beyond the town, 
at this splendid ducal palace. The family was still in London; 
every thing, however, was prepared for the reception of the king. 



278 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

The most admirable arrangements were made for the comfort of the 
whole party — and an elegant dinner was soon served upon the 
richest plate, as if by enchantment, in a splendid room, with 
numbers of ancestral portraits hung upon its walls : — it was close 
upon midnight. 



LXIV. 

Ballocli, July 22nd — Evening. 
On the past night I slept soundly, and enjoyed pleasing dreams in 
a large soft bed with silk hangings, in a fine and richly-furnished 
chamber in Hamilton Palace. The agreeable night was succeeded 
by a beautifully clear, sunny morning. The number of very fine 
pictures which adorn this rich, magnificently-furnished palace, af- 
forded the most various materials for observation and thought, both 
before and after breakfast. Of some of these I must now give a 
somewhat more particular account. The collection contains an infant 
Christ sleeping on a cross, by Guido. The Christ is painted with 
a full and circumstantial power of conception, and with a peculiarly 
deep, foreboding character. It is impossible to contemplate this 
admirable work without observing in the small, apparently accidental, 
features of the child an anticipation of his future destiny. And 
besides this, the painting is most delicately executed. There is also 
a head by Antonello da Messina, of the year 1474, which is histo- 
rically remarkable. The house contains also several fine pieces by 
Rubens, who, if we may judge by the multitude of his works, must 
have painted, like Briareus, with a hundred hands. The first of these 
is a sketch taken from the history of Decius Mus, and was no doubt 
the original of one of the large pictures of the Lichtenstein collection 
in Vienna. The second represents the " Birth of Venus from the 
Sea," a sketch intended for a shield to be executed in metal, or for a 
large silver dish. Both are executed with all the vigour and ease of 
this giant artist. The third is a large, boldly-painted picture, repre- 
senting " Daniel in the Lion's Den ;" and a fourth is the representa- 
tion of a group of male and female Centaurs — a small picture painted 
with a full overflowing luxuriance of pleasure and genius. My at- 
tention was further long arrested by the contemplation of a large, 
tall picture by Girolamo dei Libri, let into the wall above an open 
flight of stairs. This same picture was formerly in the church of 
Leonardo del Monte, in Verona. Under a "laurel, in an open land- 
scape, is seen the lofty figure of the Madonna, surrounded by saints. 
There is a peculiarly rich splendour of colouring in the figures, — the 
blue air, the green foliage of the laurel, and the rich neighbourhood. 
Every thing breathes the balmy air of a luxurious southern world. 
In addition to these, there is a smaller picture of a" Madonna and 



HAMILTON PALACE. 279 

Child," by Francia, as it is said, but it is executed with such admirable 
delicacy, and is so full of life, that I should be disposed, certainly, 
to ascribe it to Raphael. 

I cannot omit mentioning a " Dying Magdalene," by Corregio, 
and Albert Diirer's portrait of himself, which represents him almost 
precisely as in his bust at Florence, on a reduced scale, and with a 
singularly small gray cap. 

Van Dyckfs portraits are numerous in almost all great English 
houses, and it may therefore be well supposed that they are not 
wanting in this collection. I would especially direct the attention 
of travellers to the full-length portraits of the Earl of Denbigh, 
James, Marquis of Hamilton, and that of Von My r tens. Finally, I 
must mention a picture taken from the history of Myrrha, by 
Giorgione, and an interesting historical picture by a Spaniard, 
Pantoxa della Croce, who has represented a number of English and 
Spanish gentlemen seated round a table, at the time immediately 
succeeding the destruction of the Spanish Armada, and engaged in 
negotiations for a peace between Philip and Elizabeth. This is a 
picture, which, as a work of art, is by no means distinguished, but 
it has many remarkable and national physiognomies. 

The morning was most agreeably spent in viewing these works of 
art; soon after breakfast, Mr. Brown, the duke's factor or steward, an 
old, experienced, active man, presented himself, and ordered carriages 
to the door, in order to show the king a part of the demesne, and the 
most remarkable objects therein. He drove us first into the wilder 
portions of the park, along the edge 'of a rapid stream, also called 
the Avon, running between rocky banks, and to the lonely Castle of 
Cadzaw, now completely in ruins, and overgrown with trees and 
creeping plants. This castle formerly belonged to the kings of 
Scotland, and was afterwards inhabited by the duke's ancestors. 
It was destroyed in the wars carried on with Scotland by Eliza- 
beth. All around was wild and beautiful ! Magnificent oaks, 
wild shrubs, and the ruins of the tower overgrown with ivy ; 
deep under the rocks of the castle run the yellow waters of the 
Avon. 

Not far from this forest solitude, commences an extensive hilly 
district of pasture land, upon which Mr. Brown pointed out to us 
in the distance a large herd of white cattle, some lying, and some 
wandering over the pasture. These are stated to be the descendants 
of a breed introduced into this country by the Romans, and traceable 
from the time of Julius Caesar to the present. They are here called the 
" white cattle," and the duke always keeps a stock of them amount- 
ing to about seventy head. They are in a sort of half- wild condition, 
remain all the year round in the open air, on the pastures, and 
under the trees, and whatever increase takes place above the stan- 
dard number of the herd, shot yearly. The flesh is said to be 
extremely fine. It is only safe to approach them with great caution, 
and well provided with stout hedge-stakes ; when we had got near 



280 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

enough to see them distinctly, our conductor sent a dog to drive 
them past us, so as to give us the best opportunity of seeing their 
build, size, and movements. It was indeed a singular sight. A 
couple of large bulls, whose heads and necks were grayer than 
the rest, and even somewhat blackish, paced along with a most 
stately gait, especially attracted our attention, and gave us the 
impression of their being very dangerous animals. The whole of 
this scene, and the half-wild drove of cattle, would have afforded a 
splendid opportunity for a painter of animals. 

We now drove back, crossed the bridge of the Avon, and 
ascended a little hill, on which the duke has erected a small hunting- 
box, and from which there is an excellent view of the whole of this 
extensive domain. According to Mr. Brown, the yearly income 
of the estate amounts to about 70,000/., and if the duke were to 
work, to their full extent, the coal pits and iron mines on his property, 
which are very numerous, this income might be very easily increased 
to 100,000/. per annum, or more. 

Some idea may be formed of the produce of the arable land, 
from the fact of our having had pointed out to us, on our way back,, 
a beautiful and extensive field of clover, the yearly produce of 
which was estimated at 500/. Here, too, the herds of cattle graze in 
the Open fields day and night, from the first of April till the end 
of September. 

After having taken luncheon in the palace, we entered our 
carriages, and took leave of a household by whom we had been 
most hospitably and splendidly entertained, and of a mansion and 
grounds where we could have tarried longer with the greatest 
pleasure. The king, before leaving, was presented, in the name of 
the duke, with a copy of a splendid book, containing a number of 
lithographs on a large scale, which the noble owner had caused to- 
be struck off a few years before, representing the reception given at 
the palace to his step-daughter, the Princess Marie of Baden, — only a 
small number of copies was prepared and issued. These drawings 
were confined to views of the palace and grounds, and the festivities 
on that occasion. The arrival of the state carriages before the lofty 
portico of the mansion, the festive scenes within the palace and in 
the park, &c., formed the subjects of the various prints: the whole 
was extremely well calculated to furnish a good idea of the princely 
grandeur of the house of Hamilton. 

After a short drive, we stopped at Bothwell Castle, a beautiful 
country-seat, belonging to Lord Douglas, also situated in the valley 
of the Avon, and surrounded by a park containing some magnifi- 
cent specimens of forest trees. Not far from the modern mansion, 
lie the ruins of the ancient Castle of Bothwell. The view of the 
castle, with its lofty wall towers, studded with turrets, with its 
ancient crumbling red sandstone walls covered with ivy, and over- 
grown with oaks and lime trees, was extremely beautiful in this 
splendid summer weather, especially on the river side, where the 



BOTH WELL CASTLE. 281 

stream rolled along with its yellow waters far below, between 
overhanging woods, and rocky banks. 

The castle is said to have been built as early as the reign of 
Edward I., and many tales and anecdotes of deeds of violence 
and war, of which it had been the scene, were related to us. We 
only saw a few of the lower rooms in the small and modern castle ; 
these contained a number of family portraits, and portraits of other 
remarkable persons, some of which are well painted. I was particu- 
larly struck with that of Sir Walter Raleigh, who, by his military 
bearing, and delicate yet bold and adventurous physiognomy, makes 
a deep impression on the spectator. 

From Bothwell Castle, we pursued our route to Glasgow, taking 
in our way a hasty view of some of the great iron works in the 
neighbourhood. That nearest to Glasgow seemed to be the most 
important, and eight large blast furnaces were here in continual 
operation. Here, too, as in Wales, the iron-stone and coal are found 
close to each other, and brought out of the coal pits at the same 
time, but the iron-stone, which is too much mixed, is obliged to 
be put through a process of roasting, before it is subjected to the 
blast furnace. A second peculiarity of these works is the use of 
hot-air blasts, by means of which the consumption of coal is 
diminished about one-third. We were very anxious to have seen 
one of these furnaces empty or in course of erection, in order to 
have obtained a complete idea of the construction of the blowing- 
apparatus. The warm air is pressed into immense iron balloons 
by the pressure of a powerful engine, and from these reservoirs it is 
conducted by means of pipes to the glowing fires. Formerly, these 
streams of air were admitted or forced into the fire at the ordinary 
temperature of the atmosphere, but it is now forced through strong 
iron tubes into the glowing cavities of the furnace, after having* 
been itself previously heated to a high temperature — thus a great 
rapidity of the process, as well as diminution of the cost, is accom- 
plished. These iron pipes form a species of bower about the height 
of a man. In all other respects, these iron works are precisely 
similar to those of Merthyr Tydvil. 

We soon arrived in Glasgow, the most industrial of all the towns 
in Scotland; and increasing in population and houses in a ratio 
almost incredible. On our entrance, we passed through the dirtiest, 
poorest, and most smoky part of the lower town. The entrance 
from all quarters is disagreeable and offensive. The smoke was not 
merely coal smoke — the whole atmosphere was impregnated by ex- 
halations from chemical and other manufactories, which sent forth 
smells and vapours almost suffocating. The houses are small and 
dirty ; and the town filled with a population, many of whom were 
lounging at the doors or in the streets in rags ; and there were in- 
credible numbers of children, who ran after the carriages, uttering the 
most disgusting cries. This continued long. By degrees, however, 
the houses began to improve; but the well-known manufacturing tone 



282 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

of Manchester and Leeds, still prevailed through all the streets, and 
in the appearance of the parti-coloured thronging masses of the 
people. We at last stopped at an hotel, not much frequented. 
Mr. Brown, who had accompanied us so far, and was thoroughly 
well acquainted with Glasgow, immediately ordered hackney coaches, 
in order to show us some of the most remarkable objects in the city, 
with as little loss of time as possible ; and ordered the travelling- 
carriages, with fresh horses, to wait for us beyond the limits of the 
city, in order that we might avoid the crowding of the people, and 
be able to pursue our journey without molestation or inconvenience. 

Our first drive was to the ancient buildings of the University, 
founded as early as 1450. It consists of several courts, surrounded 
by houses, built almost without style, leading to an open space, in 
which stands the Hunterian Museum, erected in a completely 
Grecian style. This museum contains a number of collections of 
various kinds ; a library ; coins and medals; a few pictures; a col- 
lection of weapons ; a gallery of natural history ; and the rich 
anatomical cabinet, founded by the celebrated John Hunter. Un- 
fortunately, scarcely any of all these things could be seen by us, we 
were so much limited as to time. On the whole, however, the 
museum appeared more remarkable for the variety of its contents 
than for their rarity or value ; and the tout ensemble of the collections 
was old-fashioned. This, it is true, is no reason why it may not 
contain many things worthy of a much closer inspection, and of great 
worth. There are exhibited, under glass in the library, some most 
splendid miniatures from an ancient psalter, and other beautiful 
paintings in large missals; — a picture of James Watt, and his 
statue in marble, are also well worthy of notice ; and the anatomical 
collection, which our time did not even allow me to glance at, must 
undoubtedly contain many things worthy of attentive examination. 
We proposed to reach Loch Lomond this evening. It appeared to 
me very characteristic of a city, which is, properly speaking, to be 
considered as a great manufacturing town, that the custos of the 
museum, in directing attention to the curiosities and treasures which 
the collections contained, uniformly added the value of the article in 
money, as if to enhance its estimation. We were informed that the 
collection of coins and medals, cost 20,0007. ; a picture, 1500/. ; a 
statue, 2000/., &c. &c, but all to no purpose. 

We next drove to the new large exchange, also built in what is 
called the Grecian style — that is, adorned with a number of columns. 
It is singular, that one observes very little here of that Anglo-Gothic 
style, which is almost universal in England. Exchanges every 
where have been built in the ancient Italian style, as if the form of 
the building was in some way connected with the method of book- 
keeping, which has been derived from Italy, with all its conven- 
tional terms and subjects, as a memorial of those long-past times, 
when Italy ruled the trade of the world. The building is, moreover, 
spacious and well executed. The news-room, in which papers and 



GLASGOW. 283 

journals of all kinds were spread about upon the tables, and notices 
from all parts of the world attached to the columns, appeared espe- 
cially well arranged. 

The part of the town in which the Exchange is situated, lies 
higher, and is much more airy than that through which we had 
driven. The streets are better built, kept clean, and almost free 
from that smoke, which enwraps every thing in these manufacturing 
towns. Still better, however, is the situation of the new town, as it 
is called, which lies much higher ; it is built quite in the same style 
as the West-End of London, and well laid out in squares, which are 
so favourable to health. In this quarter we saw whole streets with 
several churches, some of them just completed — and some recently 
occupied — with others still in course of erection. The town, in this 
manner, appears to be in a course of rapid increase in various di- 
rections. Mr. Brown conducted us to a place ] still free from 
buildings, on the declivity of the hill, from whence we had an ex- 
cellent view of the town, stretching far below us, and up the hill 
towards the place on which we stood. The beautiful summer 
evening shed an enchanting air over the masses of houses and 
churches which lay beneath,and the distant hills. The city, par- 
tially veiled in dark smoky clouds, still presented all the appearance 
of a manufacturing town ; but the pure crescent moon rose beau- 
tifully in the clear, slightly reddened horizon, above the cloudy 
atmosphere beneath. Thus it is that the lofty poetical feeling of the 
human mind rises placid and clear above the active but grovelling 
occupations of every-day life. 

In such a general view, one would almost believe it possible to see 
with the eye the rapid growth and increase of the city ! In the 
eighth decennium of the last century, the inhabitants of Glasgow 
amounted to little more than 60,000, at present the number is greater 
than 200,000, and in a few decennia it will probably double that 
amount. Cotton and iron are the chief products of industry, and 
many of the rich merchants here possess extensive property in the 
West Indies. 

Having taken this hasty bird's-eye view of the city and its environs 
we left Glasgow, found the travelling carriages at the appointed place, 
and immediately proceeded on our expedition towards the High- 
lands. Our road followed the direction of the Clyde, and ran at no 
great distance from the river towards the west. This small river, 
which is connected with Glasgow by a canal, progressively widens, 
and becomes a narrow deep frith running far into the land, con- 
stitutes the great artery that connects Glasgow with the ocean, opens 
up to it an intercourse with the whole world, and is one of the great 
causes of its continual increase in population, importance, and wealth. 
The lofty mountains around Loch Lomond soon began to appear on 
the western horizon, and presented a glorious spectacle, illuminated 
as they were by the golden tints of the setting sun. To the left we 
came, for the first time, immediately upon the banks of the Clyde, 
and had a view of the commencement of the frith, bounded occasion- 



284 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

ally by picturesque rocky heights, and covered with merchant vessels 
and steamboats, gliding gently along its unruffled surface. A num- 
ber of small vessels lying at anchor in the frith showed us the situ- 
ation of the navigable channel, which is by no means wide. In the 
departing twilight — although in these northern regions it is much 
longer than with us — the picturesque and beautiful Castle of Dum- 
barton, perched on its rocky eminence close to the river, produced a 
most imposing effect. The rocky mass, with its old buildings, and 
here and there an occasional tree, presents such an original appear- 
ance, as to have induced us to stop the carriages to endeavour 
to make a hasty sketch drawn in the rapidly-fading light. We 
next passed through the small town of Dumbarton, and con- 
tinued our journey in the dark, till, late in the night, the waters of 
Loch Lomond glimmered through the thick foliage. Here it was 
found that the postillions had gone out of the way, and treated us 
badly, for we did not arrive at this place till after eleven o'clock, just 
at the rising of Jupiter, when we could obtain nothing but some tea 
from the weary innkeeper, and met with but indifferent accommo- 
dation. 



LXV. 

Inverary, July 23rd — Evening. 
We were now all at once deep in the Highlands of Scotland. 
All that had been familiar to my youth in the poetic strains of its 
bards, was now in all its reality full before my eyes. It is truly a 
most remarkable world, and well worth more than the mere peep 
into its scenery and peculiarities, which alone such a hasty journey 
renders possible. What a wonderful variety of scenery has, this day r 
passed before my eyes — mountains of Alpine form — less, indeed, 
than the true Alps — but with bold and magnificent outlines — 
extensive and beautiful lakes, with an immense number and variety 
of charming islands — narrow and rocky mountain passes, and the 
glorious sounding ocean bays ! What, however, makes every thing 
characteristic of Scotland, and distinguishes these mountains and 
lakes from those of Germany and Switzerland, does not, properly 
speaking, lie so much in the form of the mountains, or in the preva- 
lence of the primitive rocks, which arc so rarein England — in the- 
distinctive appearance of the vegetation, or form of the lakes — but in 
the peculiarities of the atmosphere, half clear, half foggy, singularly 
moist, and of a peculiar bluish colour. This atmosphere surrounds 
every thing, and clothes nature in the most various hues ; it penetrates,, 
enlivens, softens, cradles the objects of life as in a kind of dream. In 
addition to this comes in the rare historical background to which one 
is here again continually referred — the mystical veil of obscurity 
which hangs over the history of ancient Scotland, the barbarous clan- 



THE HIGHLANDS. 285 

ship of the middle ages, and finally the beautiful person of Mary 
Stuart, the last Queen of the Scots, who, tossed on the sea of passion 
and poetry, was executed by order of the neighbouring queen ; and 
yet we have an example of the enduring qualities and superiority of 
warm feelings over cool reason, in this fact, that it was the son of 
the condemned and executed Mary, who, as first king, was destined 
to unite under one crown the sister kingdoms of England and Scot- 
land. As I have just said, all this pervades the very atmosphere, 
surrounds the scene in which one moves with a peculiar halo, and 
impresses the mind of the traveller with a peculiar tone. 

I looked out of the window of the inn at Balloch, early in the 
morning; a gloomy veil of clouds hung over the simple neighbour- 
hood; patches of wood stretched around ; and immediately in front 
of the inn, the outlet from Loch Lomond flowed on its gentle course 
from the lake to the Clyde. A handsome iron bridge leads across 
the river, and several carriages full of tourists were driving out 
at this moment, in order to meet the steamboat which starts not 
far from the inn, and makes the circuit of the lake within some- 
what less than a day's excursion. The extensive shores of the Loch 
are circumnavigated and visited, and as migrations of whole nations 
or clans alone were formerly made in masses, so now tours are 
undertaken for surveying the beauties of the natural world, and 
that, too, without any discrimination. 

We were anxious to allow the rain to pass over, and therefore 
delayed till nearly eleven o'clock. As the immediate neighbourhood 
of the inn presented nothing very interesting, I sat down by the 
fireside, where some coals were still glimmering, and looked through 
Buchanan's " History of Scotland," which was lying before me. I 
ran over the history of the ancient kings of Scotland, which is 
related as if there was not a shadow of doubt respecting their ex- 
istence, or even their succession. I experienced no little delight 
in finding, amongst more wonderful histories and names, that of 
King Durstus, a ruler against whom Father Mathew has, properly 
speaking, first appeared, with his temperance societies, as a rival 
monarch in very recent times. 

After a short delay the clouds dispersed, the carriages were or- 
dered to the door — we rolled away over the chain bridge, and were 
soon on the shores of Loch Lomond. In the commencement of our 
drive the shores were low and woody, but, as we advanced, high 
mountain chains began to appear, and several parks skirted the road, 
where splendid lime, oak, and even sweet chesnut trees oversha- 
dowed us as we drove along. Our first point of stopping was Luss, 
on the western side of the lake ; at this point bold slaty rocks 
appear; Ben Lomond rises magnificently in the distance, and seve- 
ral islands on the glassy lake become visible. It was immediately 
resolved to make an excursion to visit one of these islands, and a few 
minutes found us afloat on the bosom of the smooth waters, under 



286 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

the guidance of a couple of stout Scotch rowers, who pulled us 
rapidly over the dark waters. The weather had become splendid. 
The mountains round Loch Lomond, with the play of the clouds 
and shadows around their summits, presented a magnificent spec- 
tacle ; the bare heights and rocks behind Luss formed a charming 
prospect ; and the island to which we were steering, itself a consi- 
derable and richly- wooded hill, promised us a still more extended 
view of the surrounding scenery. At length we reached its shores, 
and ascending ground covered with heaths of various kinds — 
the odoriferous myrica gale — among young birch and pine trees, 
we gained the summit of the hill. The island is called in Gaelic 
Inch-davenoch, which our boatmen translated into the " Two Mai- 
dens' Island." From this point we saw many other islands on the 
lake — a true archipelago — and the singular loneliness of them all — 
the wild vegetation and foliage on their surface — the absence of 
human habitations, and the curious coast lines by which they were 
cut off from the blue lake, impressed my mind with the idea of a 
scene such as that which must meet the eye of a traveller in some 
distant land, in the interior of an unknown country, intersected by 
lakes. The boatmen told all sorts of stories of the clans, which 
dwell around the lake, between whom, in olden times, there was 
many a bloody contest and many a foray. Our guides themselves 
belonged to the clan Mac Gregor, and they called the beautiful car- 
mine heath {Erica Cinerea) Mac Gregor, whilst to the smaller and 
paler one, they gave the appellation of Mac Donald. These were 
the very races which carried on bloody feuds with each other dur- 
ing the reign of James VI. 

A story which they related to us seemed to me so characteristic 
of the manners and usages of these times, as to be Avorthy of 
record in these pages. Some young men of the clan Mac Donald 
were seized, upon a poaching expedition, by one of the royal 
foresters named Drummond, and subjected to the indignity of 
having their ears cut off as a punishment. Others of the clan 
took their revenge. On the arrival of the Princess Anne of 
Denmark, in Scotland, Drummond was commanded to bring 
some game to court. On his way thither he was surprised by the 
Mac Donalds, slain, and decapitated. The murderers, not satisfied 
with their revenge, directed their steps to Loch Earn, where a 
married sister of Drummond's lived, whose husband was at the 
time from home. Though without any suspicion of the bloody 
deed which they had just perpetrated, she "received them coldly, 
set some bread and cheese before them, and left the room. The 
monsters then took out the bloody head of Drummond, placed it 
on the table, put a piece of bread in his mouth, and then called 
the sister back. The unhappy woman, about soon to become 
a mother, was driven mad at the sight, and wandered for a long 
time among the mountains. Whilst this inhuman and dreadful 



LOCH LOMOND. 287 

deed was kindling new thirst for vengeance in all directions, the 
murderers fled to the Mac Gregors, who took an oath upon the 
bloody head of Drummond, at the altar of the Church of Balquid- 
der, to protect and defend the authors of this horrible crime. This 
was in the year 1590. From this time forth, the Mac Gregors were 
pursued with fire and sword, and Colquhoun, of Luss, proved him- 
self to be one of their most powerful foes. At a later period, Alex- 
ander of Glen Strae, near Loch Awe, used every exertion to effect 
a reconciliation between the Colquhouns and the Mac Gregors, but 
even a meeting which had been appointed proved fruitless ; and the 
Mac Gregors, who had come in very great numbers to the place of 
rendezvous, in the Vale of Leven, received intelligence that they 
would be attacked on their way home by not less than 300 of the 
Colquhouns. They immediately made preparations for the fight, 
adopted the best means of defence and attack ; and when the enemy 
really advanced upon them, they fought with such bravery against 
a superior force, that 200 of their opponents were slain. This and 
another dreadful event, raised the general excitement against the 
Mac Gregors to the utmost. A great number of boys belonging to 
the clan Lennox, coming from Dumbarton, fell by chance into the 
hands of the Mac Gregors, and were burned, perhaps unintention- 
ally, in the barn in which they were shut up. A procession was 
now formed, in which sixty of the widows of the slain, mounted on 
white horses, took part, carrying on long poles the bloody shirts of 
the 200 slain. King James declared all the property of the outlawed 
clan to be confiscated, and they were pursued with fire and sword 
like wild beasts, till only a few of the race remained, who were 
afterwards pardoned, on account of military services rendered to the 
Crown. 

Such events, of which many similar took place in those times, are 
undoubtedly of a wonderfully gloomy and savage character ; and whilst 
on the one hand, they receive a colouring from the gloomy atmo- 
sphere and savage country itself, it is necessary, on the other, to be 
acquainted with them in order to understand the northern light which 
they throw upon the country in which they have happened. 

Having descended from the hill, and not forgotten in the interval 
of our remaining there to take a hasty sketch of the singular archi- 
pelago, we again entered the boat, and ordered the men to row us 
round the whole island ; we floated along delightfully over the deep, 
dark waters; Ben Lomond rose majestically above the foliage of the 
Two Maidens' island ; a small vessel with brown sails contributed to 
heighten the picturesque appearance of the scene; and, in short, our 
boat excursion was remarkably singular and beautiful. 

We again took to our carriages in Luss, drove for a considerable 
distance along the shore of the lake, and then cut across through 
the mountains on the left to the district of Loch Long which, 
surrounded as it is by lofty mountains, presents a very pic- 



288 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

turesque appearance; from this loch there are steamboats to various 
parts of the West. On reaching Loch Long our way turned 
again to the right, and we ascended an elevated mountain pass, the 
sides of which consist of immense craggy rocks of clay and mica 
slate, which assume the boldest and most abrupt forms. Large blocks 
of stone lie strewn as it were by the way side, mountain torrents 
rush over their rocky beds, and the road ascends till the traveller 
reaches a district which is completely barren. On the summit of 
the pass there is a small dark lake, from which the road takes a west- 
ward direction towards the shores of Loch Fyne. Here beautiful 
mountain groups lie scattered around the green waters of the sea, 
and the road winds over Cairndow and Kilmorich along the shores 
of the bay. As it proceeds, it continues to follow the line of the 
coast, which is chiefly composed of mica-slate rocks, and passes 
through woods of oak and ash ; a new northern loch is reached, 
along the shore of which the road still winds its way, till Inverary 
comes in view. Situated on the estates of the Duke of Ar- 
gyle, the Castle of Inverary itself — the ducal residence — soon ap- 
pears, surrounded by lofty lime trees, and, on the wooded heights 
behind the house, an aerial Belvidere. 

Twilight had fallen before we reached the town, and here, for the 
first time, the peculiar character of Scotland, as I had fancied it in 
my early years, presented itself in all its reality to my eyes. A gray- 
ish fog brooded upon the loch, on which numerous fishing-boats 
were riding at anchor. There was a peculiar bluish colour in the 
distance, a varying mist was spread around and over the lofty hills, 
and the sky covered with a half-misty and half-cloudy veil, through 
which the rays of the moon shed an uncertain and glimmering light. 
By the road side were numerous large red beeches and oaks, near at 
hand the ancient castle with its turreted walls, and in the distance 
the small coast town of Inverary, with its white houses, and a steam- 
boat just arrived — all this combined to form a characteristic picture, 
and produced an effect upon my mind very different from any which 
I had hitherto experienced on the English coasts, in the mountains 
of Wales, or on the lakes of Cumberland. 

About nine o'clock we drew up at the Inn and Hotel (as it is 
marked on the imposing front of the house in large letters). Here we 
met with most excellent and even elegant accommodation, and the 
fried herrings of the loch, which are considered among the best in 
Great Britain, and in fishing for which numerous boats are employed, 
furnished no unimportant part of a late, but I may say a recherche 
dinner. 



INVERARY. 289 

LXVI. 

Oban, July 24th — Evening. 

This morning early, Inverary and the neighbourhood were again 
enveloped in mist and rain, grayish white clouds rested upon the 
mountain tops, but the air was mild and warm. About nine o'clock 
I went down to the pier, at which a number of fishing-boats and a 
small steamer were lying. There was also standing around a great 
number of barrels full of herrings recently pickled, and I was not a 
little interested in having for once an opportunity of seeing the pro- 
cess of salting this universally useful fish on the sea coast itself. The 
remains of the fish were scattered about, giving abundant evidence 
of the activity of the operations, and numerous barrels of rough salt 
were at hand for further use. The whole scene furnished on a small 
scale the most complete representation of the process of curing so 
many millions of this fish for the trade of the whole world. 

The rain having abated, we afterwards went to visit the castle and 
park belonging to the Duke of Argyle. The park extends over a 
considerable extent of mountains; the castle is built externally in the 
Anglo-Gothic fortification-style, but within it is fitted up completely 
in the French style of the last century — tapestried chambers, large 
family portraits, and gilded furniture. In the hall there are a great 
many warlike weapons, formerly used in the battle of Culloden, but 
now employed to ornament the walls in fanciful devices. These 
consist of guns, broadswords, halberds, and other weapons. The Duke 
of Argyle of that day fought at the head of his clan against the 
Jacobites. The park is traversed by a beautiful dark mountain- 
stream, rushing like a torrent towards the lake, and is ornamented 
by splendid trees, among which the most conspicuous are ash, oak, 
lime, and beech, with some noble pines, and sweet chesnuts. A 
mountain, within the bounds of the park, rises to an elevation of 800 
feet above the level of the lake, and as the weather became finer and 
finer, we ascended to the ruined Belvedere, from which there is a 
splendid view of the bay and the numerous mountain ranges which 
here rise one above another. Here, too, it was forcibly pressed upon 
our notice, how much the peculiar bluish, misty air constitutes the 
general element with which these districts are sometimes more and 
sometimes less enveloped. 

The mountains in this part of the country are all composed of 
primitive rock, and the primitive limestone occurs a little farther 
west and northward. Mineral wealth is deficient, although a few 
copper veins have been discovered. This fact forms in general a 
remarkable contrast between England and Scotland; in the former, 
the recent formations, chalk, limestone, coal, and sandstone prevail; 
whilst in the latter, and particularly in the Highlands, there is little 
else than granite, mica slate, syenite, trapps, and basalt. There is a 

u 



290 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

manifest connexion between the general form and nature of trie 
country and the races by whom it is inhabited. 

We left Inverary shortly after noon, drove through a portion of 
the park, and soon came to a wild valley, sometimes rocky and some- 
times marshy, after which we ascended rapidly to a considerable 
elevation, till we began to descend towards a small mountain lake 
called Loch Awe. The road takes a circuit along the shore and 
around the end of the lake, and a very picturesque ruin stands at 
the mouth of a mountain stream, which discharges its waters into 
the lake. As we advanced, the shores more closely approached 
each other, and we drove towards the extremity of the lake, from 
which the waters issue by a succession of small cascades. 

Somewhat further on our way, the road again ascends, and the 
green, bright surface of Loch Etive — an arm of the sea stretching 
deep into the land — becomes visible. The land beyond the spark- 
ling waters here presents beautiful outlines to the eye; the high 
mountains retire, and chalk rocks assume the place of the mica and 
clay slate. The scenery in the neighbourhood of this loch is again 
very peculiar. In the foreground lies the brown shore, covered with 
wrack and tangle, the flying gulls, above, the gray sky, and in the 
background the blue mountains. The country presented a number 
of very remarkable pictures, some of which I could have wished to 
have been able to sketch in colours, in order to afford my friends and 
acquaintances the most distinct representation of what may be called 
a " Scottish scene." 

There were, moreover, many very remarkable things to notice on 
this journey. First, for the comfort of all travellers, the admirable 
roads must be mentioned with the highest commendation. What 
difficulties must a traveller have encountered in this country of in- 
hospitable mountains, half a century ago! — but now we travel with 
heavy carriages and excellent horses, if previously ordered, at a quick 
trot over the hills and along the valleys, and at every post station 
find an excellent inn. Secondly, with regard to the habitations 
and build of the people, it is to be observed, that every thing here 
is more and more characteristic. For the first time on this journey, 
particularly among boys and young men, we saw specimens of the 
naked legs and Scottish kilt, made of party-coloured woollen stuff. 
This national dress has been prohibited in Scotland for several de- 
cennia, and at first the people were so little disposed to wear the 
ordinary nether garments of the south, that (in order to comply 
wi tli the letter of the law) they often carried them with them on a 
stick instead of wearing them on their persons. In these poor dis- 
tricts, however, the ancient customs, as it appears, are preserved still, 
at least among the youth, and as the national dress in later times 
has become a matter of taste and fashion among the higher classes, 
it will again, perhaps, come to honour. The build of the people 
still continues to be characterised by the same traits which I have 



SCOTCH WATERFALLS. 291 

already mentioned on our entrance into Scotland; their poverty, 
however, is especially observable in the form and condition of their 
huts. The walls are thick and roughly built of stones heaped toge- 
ther almost without mortar, and the interstices stuffed up with moss; 
the roof is made of dried heath and straw, and the chimney is 
perched upon the summit somewhat like a beehive thickly laced and 
bound together with ropes; the smoke generally fills the house, and 
often issues from the windows, door, and various parts of the roof at 
its pleasure. The roof itself is also, for the most part, fastened down 
with straw ropes, and loaded with stones, in order to prevent it from 
being stripped off by the wind. With respect to the vegetable world, 
fruit trees are scarcely any longer to be met with in the open air, 
for very little fruit ripens, and the luxuriant English ivy is no longer 
to be found; the elm, the ash, and the birch, prevail among the 
trees, and very little wood is to be met with on the mountains. 
Finally, I must not omit to make particular mention of the brown 
colour of most of the mountain streams and brooks. This seems to 
arise from the nature of the sources from which they spring, and the 
character of the soil through which they run. These waters generally 
take their rise in mountain marshes and bogs, by which they are 
completely coloured, although at the same time they remain very 
transparent. The colour varies from that of English porter to pale 
ale, and it met with the general approbation of our party, when I 
proposed to distinguish the waterfalls with which we met as porter- 
falls and alefalls. On our road to-day, between Loch Awe and Loch 
Etive, we fell in with one of the transparent dark brown colour of 
London porter ; it was extremely picturesque as it dashed down under 
a bridge and plunged into the depths. I now for the first time clearly 
understood the character of the waterfalls of Everdingen, which 
are so often seen painted of this dark colour. They must consist of 
waters of this description, and the colour depends upon the same 
causes in Norway as in Scotland. We arrived in Oban just before 
twilight. This is a small fishing and sea-port near the mouth of 
Loch Linnhe. The view of the little harbour with its ships, its 
pier, and several store-houses, and across the green waters to the 
coasts of the opposite island, as seen from the well-furnished inn, is 
very agreeable and interesting. Soon after our arrival a motley 
throng of people quickly gathered under the windows, who did not 
fail to greet the illustrious traveller with a number of loud hurrahs.. 



u 2 



292 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 



LXVII. 



Bannavie, near Fort William, July 26th — Early. 

Yesterday was the most considerable, magnificent, and beauti- 
ful excursion of our whole journey. 

At four o'clock, in the quiet of the beautiful clear morning, I 
walked down alone to the pier, where the steamboat, Bretida, was 
lying, which was to convey us to Staffa. The splendid reddish 
morning clouds on the horizon of the sky, which was elsewhere 
clear, the freshness of the air, aided by the pure breeze from the 
sea, the gently swelling waves of the peaceful waters, and the small 
ships which lay peacefully on their bosom, all combined to produce 
a very peculiar but most delightful impression. By degrees the 
little harbour became a scene full of life ; our provisions were put 
on board, and before half-past four all was ready for departure. 
The Brendas paddle-wheels now began to move, and we joyfully 
clove our way through the bright surface of the glorious sea. The 
first object worthy of attention on the coast was Dunolly Castle, 
situated on a bold rocky coast, and presenting a very picturesque 
appearance. "We came in sight of the castle just as the sun began 
to rise over the mountain ridge behind Oban and shed his beams 
upon its walls. It would be impossible to paint, and much less to 
describe, the beauty of the mountains glowing under the ruddy light 
of the morning sun, as we passed along the coasts of the islands em- 
bosomed in the waters reflecting all the colours of the rainbow. 
We left the island of Kerrera to the left and entered a wider chan- 
nel, then left the island of Lismore to the right, and steered straight 
for the sound which separates the large island of Mull from the 
country of Morven. 

Everywhere new scenes ! To our right the lighthouse, which 
serves as a guide for the entrance into the sound ; to our left, in the 
island of Mull, the Castle of Duart, with the " Lady's Rock," a small 
flat rock projecting from the sea, concerning which the captain re- 
lated to us the tradition of its having been made a place of con- 
finement for the wife of Maclean of Duart, who had fallen under 
-,the displeasure of the chief. She was a Campbell and sister of the 
Earl of Argyle. The inhuman cruelty no sooner became known, 
than one of her brothers assassinated Maclean in Edinburgh. The 
ancient walls and towers of Duart Castle, on its rocky eminence, 
presented a most picturesque appearance under a clear sky illu- 
mined by the morning sun, and seen across the glorious and gently 
swelling sea. 

The very beautiful forms of the mountains and rocky coasts, how- 
ever, were even more splendid under the influence of the early 
light, sometimes overshadowed as they were by a passing cloud. 



BAY OF TOBERMORY. 293 

The endless changes and varieties of the ancient Proteans, as they 
presented themselves during the swift transit of the boat, deserve3 
to be ranked among the most beautiful things of the kind which I 
have ever seen. 

The Brenda pushed farther and farther into the Sound of Mull y 
and we continued to enjoy the magnificent spectacle of the rocky 
coasts of Mull on the left, and the mountains of Morven and the 
promontory of Airdnamurchan on the right. I felt more and more 
as if the visionary world of Ossian were being realised, as the names 
which form the titles, and are to be found in the narrations of his 
poems, continued to increase. The captain sailed into a rocky 
bay, and lay-to off the small town of Tobermory, in order to take 
on board a couple of passengers, who had caused the boat to be sig- 
nalled by a cannon-shot fired on the land. 

• The scene was very beautiful. The bay is sheltered by a pro- 
jecting reef of rocks, and the sea within the harbour is very peace- 
ful ; precipitous basaltic rocks rise around in all directions from the- 
bosom of the waters — and at the extremity of the bay, a mountain 
torrent rushes rapidly into the sea. The place is also very remark- 
able as being the scene in which the Florida, one of the ships of the 
celebrated Spanish armada, after having escaped the dangers of an. 
engagement, was sunk and destroyed by an English cruiser. Some 
of the cannon and timbers of the ship were subsequently fished 
up by means of the diving-bell. The people, however, do not 
satisfy themselves with the mere historical fact, but have added a 
great variety of details which are pure fictions. The story is- 
that a princess of Spain had seen in her dreams the object of 
her longing desire, in the form of a noble and beautiful, but un- 
known man ; that she caused a ship to be equipped and put tov 
sea to visit distant countries, in order to find out the object of her 
affection. At length, after long and fruitless search, her vesseL 
entered this little bay. She spent some time upon the island, and 
went to visit Maclean at Duart Castle, and in him found the ob- 
ject of her anxious pursuit realised. The princess continued to tarry 
on the island ; Maclean's wife became jealous, claimed the pro- 
tection and aid of the men of Mull, and by their aid succeeded in 
sinking the ship with the object of her jealousy on board. The 
consequence was that Maclean turned the whole fury of his anger 
upon his wife, who had been instrumental in effecting the destruc- 
tion of the ship. His hatred led him to expose her upon the bar- 
ren rock, since known by the name of the " Lady's Rock," which 
led to her miserable and cruel death. 

Our paddle-wheels were again put in motion, and we took our 
leave of the Bay of Tobermory. The mountains of Mull now rose 
more majestically before us, among which Ben More is the highest — 
and the rocky coasts on both sides of the sound exhibited a series 
of the most interesting views. We had proceeded to no great dis- 
tance from Tobermory, when we saw another inlet, known to* 
sailors by the name of " Bloody Bay," and also named after a 



294 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

battle, which, in ancient times is said to have taken place on its 
waters. 

The sound at length began to widen; and the roll of the vast 
waves of the Atlantic gave sensible evidence of their presence. The 
land of Morven lay behind us, and the bold promontory of Airdna- 
rnurchen assumed a more conspicuous appearance ; it, too, was soon 
passed, and the deep rolling ocean now lay before us in all its im- 
measurable extent. New islands presented themselves, scattered 
here and there on the mighty tide of waters, especially the 
island of Coll, which rises in the distance from the deep. We now 
steered a southerly course towards StafTa. The weather was, and 
continued splendid; flocks of divers here and there traversed the 
surface of the ocean, and a light wind dissipated the few summer 
clouds which lingered round the mountain tops of Mull. 

Without our knowledge, we found that a part of our ship's 
company consisted of a couple of blind Scottish fiddlers, for whom 
the captain had ordered camp-seats to be placed near the chimney. 
As the steamboat clove her way through the calm sea, the fiddlers 
tuned their instruments, first played " God save the Queen," and 
afterwards all sorts of Scotch melodies. Notwithstanding the 
simplicity of their art, it nevertheless produced a peculiar and 
pleasing effect, and one quite in character with the excursion, 
as they played on the great waste of waters, amidst the rushing 
of the waves against the paddles of the boat, and the~uniform 
beat of the engine. A singular melancholy strain, too, lies in these 
old melodies — and on whom would they not have made a deep 
impression? One of these melodies produced such a singular effect 
upon me, that I felt my eyes fill with tears, as I stood at the 
top of the cabin stairs, and listened to the softness of the strain. 
I asked the musicians for the words, and one of them said that they 
commenced — 

" My gloomy winter is gone." 

I caused them to repeat the tune; and whilst they played, gave 
full scope to a great variety of thoughts. There was a second, 
also, called u Rose's Dream," which was very beautiful; and what 
appeared to me singular enough, it bore a strong resemblance to the 
beautiful chorus from the fourth act of " Armida." 

At this part of our excursion we retired to breakfast, which the 
captain had caused to be served in good taste in the cabin. On our 
again coming upon deck, our telescopes enabled us to catch a 
glimpse of Staffa, in the distant southern horizon, rising from the 
sea with its steep precipitous sides. It aroused peculiar feelings in 
my mind, to think that in a short time I should be near, and be 
able to see with my own eyes, that wonderful island, whose basaltic 
rocks and Fingal's Cave had occupied my fancy, even in my boyish 
years, and the imperfect and even bad representations of which I 
had so often contemplated with such earnest and longing desire. 



STAFFA. 295 

However, every near fulfilment of a long and fondly-cherished 
desire has always something which causes sometimes a milder, and 
sometimes a more vehement beating of the heart. 

About ten o'clock — that is, after a sail of about five hours and 
a half from Oban, — we were able to see the rocks of StafTa distinctly 
with the naked eye. The captain gave orders to fire a small gun, 
which sound re-echoed from the island, in order to give a signal to 
the boatmen upon Mull, and immediately a small sailing-boat from 
the distant island clove its way quickly through the waves towards 
us. Nearer and nearer rose before us the splendid phenomenon of 
this basaltic mass, which at some inconceivable time past had 
sprung up from the bosom of the ocean. We sailed past the south 
side of the island, and immediately there opened to our view the 
wonders of the basaltic colonnades and their two large caves, justly 
celebrated throughout the whole world. The island extends far 
over the splendid green waves, and its dark gray pillars "rise 
majestically above the dashing foam of the surge; and above these 
again lies an elevated layer of yellowish black trapp, which forms 
the soil upon the summit of the island. 

The steamboat lay quietly at about a gun-shot distance, and 
afforded us only a few minutes' time, in order to take a hasty out- 
line of this immense phenomenon. Here, where one could have 
remained for days, in order to get a clear idea of each individual 
object, this vast overpowering thing was to be in such a short time 
overpowered ! It was necessary to strain all our powers ; and cer- 
tainly, when such an inspiring task is imposed, the mind can em- 
brace and retain an immensity, even in a moment. The Daguerro- 
type properties of the eye possess a wondrous power under such 
conditions; and how much to be pitied were man, to whom the 
most splendid things in life's experience are usually only offered for 
a rapidly fleeting moment, were there not a power in the mind to 
seize and perpetuate the momentary ! 

The fishermen now approached with their boat, came alongside 
the steamboat, and we descended into the bark, tossed like a feather 
upon the surface of the mighty waves, and proceeded directly 
towards the dark yawning mouth of Fingal's Cave — the larger and 
more beautiful of the two. Scarcely any hopes had been pre- 
viously given that it would be possible to enter the cave with a boat, 
on account of the restless surge which constantly beats against its 
steep columnar sides. The boatmen, however, who are thoroughly 
acquainted with the most minute circumstances connected with the 
exploit, gave us assurance, and perfectly succeeded in their under- 
taking. They rowed their boat directly through the middle of the 
entrance into the cave, where the clear green waves broke playfully 
against the broken columns ; then seizing short blunt poles they 
guarded the boat carefully, right and left, from being dashed against 
either side, and succeeded in passing safely into the interior. What 
wonders presented themselves as we passed along upon the bright 



296 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

green waters between the lofty black pillars, and under a dark 
roof, some sixty feet above the level of the sea, and looked down 
through the transparent waves into the depths of the cave ; as the 
noise of the oars and the sound of the voices resounded from the 
vaulted roof and was re-echoed from the deep ; and what remark- 
able plays of colour on the columns, often three and four feet in 
diameter, excited pur astonishment. 

It is possible to pass into the cave to somewhat like the distance 
of the nave of a considerable church, and then it is necessary to 
return. 

Towards the entrance we left the boat, and climbed along some of 
the broken basaltic columns on our left, and again proceeded a consi- 
derable distance into the interior, along their surface. In all direc- 
tions the most wonderful sights. If one looks down from above 
into the water in the cave, the idea of its clearness is increased by 
seeing the columns under the water quite white with small patella 
and other shell-fish, a circumstance which gives the richest emerald 
hue to the superincumbent waters, admirably relieved by the dark- 
ness of the green sea in the middle. In this dangerous path the 
curious adventurer must keep always close to the columnar wall. 
Overhead hang masses of broken columns adhering to the trapp 
which forms the ceiling of the cave ; and many of the columns are 
thrown in a cross direction. The size and number of the sides of 
these pillars is as usual unequal ; and the boatmen did not fail to 
break off a few pieces to serve us as memorials of our visit. The 
singularity of the view from this dark pillared church, filled with 
the ocean, out upon the blue horizon of the sea, may, perhaps, in 
some measure , be imagined. 

Having left the cave, we landed on the ruined columns running 
along the shore of the sea, and passed from place to place as if upon 
immense stairs. We visited Fingal's chair, which consists of a 
niche formed by the breaking off of two or three of the basalt 
pillars of the columnar wall. The chair is worthy of the hero to 
whom it is assigned, and the view from thence over the ruins and 
steps of the broken columns, beaten by the foaming surge, of 
the blue horizon of the sea, and of the mountains of the neighbour- 
ing islands, is one worthy of the strong and mighty in battle. Pro- 
ceeding still further along the southern coast of the island, we 
reached a place where the columns became more slender, more 
closely pressed upon one another, and appeared, as it were, longi- 
tudinally bent under some heavy, superincumbent burden. A 
curvature in the columnar wall here takes place, and the bended 
pillars appear almost like the ribs of a ship upon the stocks. What 
wonderful questions has geology here to resolve in order to explain 
the varieties of those columnar formations and caves !* 

* In order to present something scientific respecting these formations, I have 
given in Appendix iii. an abstract from Dr. Macculloch's description of Staffa. 



ISLAND OF ION A. 297 

At this point, a "wooden stair is affixed to the perpendicular 
rocks, which we ascended, in order to have a view of the sea and 
the basalt masses from above, where a moist covering of short grass 
covers the small island. Here, too, every thing was splendid. We 
walked across the short grass, which is scarcely sufficient to furnish 
pasture for a couple of cows, to the small ravine which divides the 
island, and looked down upon the northern side, where the basalt co- 
lumns are longer and smaller, and in parts reach up to the very sur- 
face. In all directions the eye meets with singular black masses of rock, 
curvings and caves; the gulls wheeling their flight around, and the 
deep blue sea running below. It would require several days to 
enable the visiter accurately to examine this singular volcanic island. 
Whilst we were standing on the edge of the precipice, intent on 
the wonders of nature before our eyes, we suddenly heard a cannon 
fired upon the sea, and when we returned to the southern side of 
the island, we saw another steamboat lying off with a large flag 
flying at her mizen. In the meantime a boat pushed off from this 
steamer, and brought ashore a number of gentlemen dressed 
in black, who mounted the stairs, came towards us, and inquired 
for his majesty. They were the members of the commission ap- 
pointed for the yearly examination of the coasts and lighthouses 
of Scotland, composed of magistrates from Edinburgh, Glasgow, 
and Hull. Being on this part of the coast in the performance of 
their duty, they had heard of his majesty's visit to Staffa, and had 
come thither in order to be presented and to pay their respects to 
him. 

The gentlemen of the commission very soon took leave, and we 
also descended the narrow stair, and entered our boat, which soon 
conveyed us to the Brenda. We were no sooner on board, than the 
fiddlers struck up " God save the Queen," the paddles were put 
in motion, and we proceeded on our course towards the island 
of Iona. 

Three quarters of an hour served to bring us to Iona, the ancient 
Ithona of Ossian. This island, also called Icolmkill, lies nearer 
Mull than Staffa, is considerably larger and broader, and consists of 
one single piece of granite rock. Staffa only furnishes pasture 
enough for a few cattle, and produces a rent of some 30/. or 40/. 
a-year, whilst here there is a sort of small village, some agriculture, 
and about 500 inhabitants. The history of Iona is very remark- 
able. St. Columban, a pious bishop, went thither from Ireland in 
the middle of the sixth century, and founded a monastery of learned 
monks. It happened that this little island became a centre from 
which the rays of a milder form of religion and of scientific culture 
were diffused among the wild Scottish clans, so that Iona came to 
be called the " Light of the Western World," and a "Pearl in the 
Ocean," and was afterwards the source from whence a prophecy 
was circulated that, " when, seven years before the end of the 
world, an unspeakably great flood should cover all countries and 



298 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

overwhelm all people, the island of Columban would swim upon 
the waves, and continue to survive the longest." The tradition 
was, no doubt, one of the reasons of the custom of selecting this 
island as the burying-place of the ancient kings of Scotland, Ire- 
land, and Norway ; and for the orders given by many of the Scottish 
nobles to have their bodies conveyed to this sainted resting-place. 
Prepared by this previous knowledge, a singular romantic light 
guided us to this half-rocky, half-green, but treeless island. When, 
however, we landed on the beach, and, followed by the peaceful 
and harmless little people of the island, proceeded to visit the 
ancient burial places of the kings, and the revered white ruins of 
St. Oran's Abbey, our feelings rose to a state of high poetical in- 
spiration. 

Our ship's boat conveyed us over the clear blue waves, to the 
large granite blocks at the landing-place, on which we immediately 
landed, whilst the greater part of the inhabitants of the island were 
assembled to greet us. We proceeded directly to the ruins, not 
neglecting on our way to observe the peculiar physiognomy of the 
little island; the fine red granite of the surface ; the rich fields 
of corn and clover between the rocks ; the little stone huts of the 
dwarfish population, often immediately leaning against the sides of 
the great granite rocks; and the good-humoured, simple bearing 
of the people themselves, among whom there were many children 
running about, who continually offered for sale round specimens 
of serpentine, which are held in repute as amulets. The ruins 
nearest the landing-place are those of a nunnery, whose foun- 
dation dates as late as the thirteenth century. Scarcely any thing 
now remains but the humble walls and arches of St. Mary's Church, 
and there is still to be seen the tombstone of the last abbess 
of the convent, marked with an inscription in old English letters, 
of the year 1511. The ruins of St. Oran's Abbey, which lie at 
a greater distance, present a much grander and more picturesque 
appearance, enlivened as they are by the beautiful background of 
the blue sea, and the mountains and coasts of Mull. The earliest 
foundation of the abbey dates from the seventh century, but that 
of the present ruins dates no farther back than between the 
thirteenth and fourteen centuries. The style is very peculiar, and 
the architects, who appear to have been engaged, may very probably 
have been Norwegian. The tower is square, and not more than 
seventy feet high ; the church was built in the form of a cross, and 
the four pointed gables are still standing. Some of the ornaments 
of the arches and windows are, even at this time, florid Gothic, 
whilst others partake more of the Norman character. The views 
towards the sea, through the windows and openings of the ruined 
abbey, whose walls are still in good preservation, are delightful ; 
and a painter might here find materials for admirable studies. Not 
far from the chief ruin still exist the walls of a small chapel, which 
is regarded as much older than the cathedral itself. The church 



POINT OF MULL. 299 

is surrounded by an extensive burying-ground, in which there are 
a multitude of tombstones, but the inscriptions on very few of 
them are any longer legible. It is just possible still to trace on 
several of the rude slabs the arms of the old sea-kings — a ship under 
sail — very rudely cut. It is said that the ancient kings of Scot- 
land, till the time of Macbeth, were interred in this holy soil. 
When we came to the second entrance into the churchyard, we 
were particularly struck with a very curious old stone cross. This 
is called Maclean's Cross, and is said to be the last of 300 with 
which the island was adorned, all the rest having been thrown into 
the sea by virtue of a resolution of the Synod of Argyle, in the 
year 1560. There are very few of the tombstones on which the 
date is legible. The oldest is that of one Lachlan Mackinnon, of the 
the year 1489; the inscriptions in the Gaelic language are usually 
without a date. Upon some, which appear to have belonged to noble 
Scottish families, there are images of knights and coats of arms 
very rudely graven ; and interments took place here till the end 
of the sixteenth century. The grave of a physician, too, belonging 
to a distinguished Scottish family, was pointed out to me. Having 
succeeded in taking a correct sketch of the church, we returned 
to the landing-places and were speedily again on board the steam- 
boat, which was now to pass round the southern point of Mull and 
to bring us back to the inn at Oban in the evening. 

We had not sailed far along the coast of Mull, when a fine white 
fog, which in Germany we never see at summer noon, spread over 
the sea, and completely veiled the rocks. Properly speaking, these 
fogs are only a more intense condition of that bluish air which 
scarcely ever wholly disappears. The state of the weather was what 
the captain called hazy, and he assured us that if the fog increased, 
he should be obliged to lie to, in consequence of the danger of 
rounding the point of Mull in such weather, on account of the 
dangerous breakers. Happily for us, the fog did not increase, but 
gradually rose, and was followed by a cloudy sky. The steamboat 
now pursued her course, dashing splendidly through the rolling sea, 
whilst we took some luncheon in the saloon. When we came on 
deck, the master pointed out to us the breakers at a distance, and we 
distinctly heard the lashing of the waves against them. The danger, 
however, was now easily avoided. The motion of the ship became 
quieter — the wind blew fresh — and gulls and divers sported around 
the vessel, as we plunged along on our course in full view of 
the wonderful scenery of these mountainous coasts. I observed 
numbers of Medusas swimming around our boat in the dark 
waves, and I would willingly have made myself master of some of 
them, but the powerful paddles urged us rapidly on our foaming 
course. At length we turned the southern point of the island, whose 
granite rocks, stretching far into the sea, recalled to our minds the 
descriptions given by our able countryman Dahl, of the bold pro- 
montories of Norway. The atmosphere became continually more and 



300 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

more dense, and dark heavy clouds seemed to descend from the tops 
of Ben More. At one point of the coast, the captain directed our at- 
tention to some peculiar basaltic formations, and by means of the 
telescope we were enabled to see the singular bendings of these 
basaltic masses. How fruitful must a minute investigation of these 
islands be for the science of geology! Our course now lay northerly, 
between the island of Mull and the main land. We then entered the 
channel, between the isle of Kerrera and the main land, and reached 
Oban about eight o'clock — what extraordinary phenomena had passed 
under our notice, in somewhat less than sixteen hours ! Our ex- 
perience of what is most extraordinary in life always takes place in a 
comparatively short period of time. Whatever occupies long periods, 
and engages our attention for any continuous length of time, 
always belongs to the ordinary affairs of life. The greeting of the 
king, on his landing at the pier, moreover, was as hearty and dis- 
tinguished as the means and facilities of this little town could com- 
mand. Salutes of cannon were fired (they had borrowed a small 
ship's gun from a vessel in the harbour), flagstaffs were erected on 
the shore, and a great multitude of very orderly people, who were 
collected, continued to salute his majesty with a round of hurrahs. 
In addition to this, some of the men, and especially the innkeeper, 
had in the mean time dressed themselves and their families in full 
Highland costume ; and, in short, the whole reception made a very 
agreeable and pleasing impression. 

We had just time to take dinner, at which our handsome High- 
lander did the honours, when the approaching starting of the 
steamer for the Caledonian Canal was announced — our intention was 
to make use of this opportunity to go on as far as Fort William during 
the night, and to-day, to ascend Ben Nevis. The carriages were to be 
sent by land, with the courier. Shortly after nine o'clock, therefore, 
we again went on board the steamer; we steamed up Loch Linnhe, 
and arrived shortly after midnight at Fort William, whence carriages 
conveyed us to Bannavie — a little place about a mile and a half from 
Fort William. This voyage by night was remarkable, and fortu- 
nately there were, besides ourselves, only about a dozen passengers 
on board; so that we were not at all incommoded. The night was- 
calm, and warm, but cloudy ; and the moon could not be seen. On the 
other hand, the chimney of the steamer gleamed quite like a volcano, 
and sent a shower of sparks in all directions along its course. The 
appearance of the signal light from the bowsprit was also very 
peculiar. This consisted of a revolving lantern, in connexion with, 
and moved by, the steam-engine ; showing red and white lights,, 
to warn any fishing-boats in time to get out of the way of the 
swiftly advancing steamer. At first the loch was tolerably broad, 
and we passed promontories and islands in the half light. Presently 
the shores approached nearer to each other. We stopped at various 
stations, where the steamer's bell sounded, and at times, also, a pas- 
senger came offin a boat with a lantern. About one o'clock, we landed 



LOCH SHIELL. 301 

•at Fort William, and the sounds of a clarionet playing " God save 
the Queen," received his majesty even at this late hour. 

About two o'clock, we were here in a little inn, where we were 
only able to get some tea— where we first perceived that peculiar peat 
smell to be found in all the cottages in the interior of Scotland, and 
which even penetrates into all cooked food. This morning every 
place is covered with mist and clouds; every thing denotes a rainy 
•day; and we shall hardly be able to make our ascent of Ben Nevis. 



LXVIII. 

Bannan Nevis, July 26th — Evening. 

Thick clouds covered the higher ground all day, and it rained 
incessantly the whole morning. It was hardly possible to see any 
•thing even in the immediate neighbourhood. A large building is 
in course of repair here : the Caledonian Canal, which we shall see 
to-morrow, begins quite close to this, at the junction, namely, 
between Loch Linnhe and Loch Eil, which bends off at a right 
angle towards the w^est, and forms a communication in the first 
place between the former of these lochs and Loch Lochie. Just at 
the commencement the lochs were too narrow (for steamers), and 
the canal itself is in great need of repair; a large sum has therefore 
been very recently voted for the purpose of constructing several 
new buildings here, and widening the canal; and as the entrance 
to it was close behind our inn, we were enabled to see this 
very closely. The direct communication by steam is of course 
therefore interrupted, and we shall be obliged to post to-morrow as 
far as Loch Lochie, where we shall find the steamer, which proceeds 
to Inverness by the lakes. For an engineer, no doubt, there would 
be much to learn from the works on this canal: for my own part, 
I was perfectly satisfied with a general view of them. 

We have been obliged to give up Ben Nevis, and determined 
therefore to make an excursion in the afternoon to see a pretty 
rocky valley, and Loch Shiell, w T here, about a hundred years ago, 
the Pretender first assembled his friends around him, and where 
one of the Macdonalds erected a monument to him about thirty 
years ago. The sky was still overcast with misty clouds, through 
which an occasional sunbeam now and then penetrated. Our road 
led along Loch Eil, and then through valleys, sometimes rocky, 
sometimes giving sustenance to pines and birch trees. By degrees, 
as we approached Loch Shiell, the mountains became higher, and 
more desolate looking, covered partly with meadows of short grass, 
partly with heath. We quitted our carriages at this point, and 
went to inspect the monument which is close to the lake. The 
view was now quite Scotch; green mountains, enveloped in mist, 
rose one behind the other, on each side of the lake, and gra- 



302 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

dually sloping from it — in the midst an occasional glimpse of the sun 
struggling with the mist — below, the smooth, mirror-like surface of 
the lake, and in front, upon a marshy piece of heath land, quite 
removed from the road, the simple column, with its stone fence, sur- 
mounted by a statue of the Pretender. The -view offered too many 
inducements to a sketch for me long to resist the temptation of 
trying one. The district here is very wild, lonely, and removed 
from all habitations, quite suitable for the secret meeting of the 
allied clans. The effect must have been strange, when Charles 
Edward, who had landed on the western coast of Scotland, not far 
from Loch Shiell, crossed the lake on the 19th of August, 1745, and 
unfolded his banner here, while the little army, with which he in- 
tended to regain the throne of his fathers, saluted him as their sove- 
reign. About 700 men of Clan Cameron, led by Cameron of 
Lochiel, and 300 Macdonalds, led by Macdonald of Keppoch, formed 
the nucleus of this army, destined for the conquest of Scotland. 
The Mr. Macdonald, of Glenalodale, who erected this monument, 
is a lineal descendant of Macdonald of Keppoch. 

We afterwards walked, or rather waded, over to the spot where 
the monument stands. A man who has the charge of it, unlocked 
a door in the stone fencing, and we ascended a small winding stair 
in the inside, till we came to the statue of the Pretender, in his 
Highland costume. The whole monument appears to be sinking 
by degrees, and I think it can hardly long retain its position upon 
this marshy soil. 

Upon our return, in an old stage-coach that we had hired in 
Bannavie, I tried for a short distance the airy seat on the outside, 
where one really half hovers in the air. I had often seen these 
coaches, full inside and out, rush past us on the road, and had 
secretly wondered how not only men, but even women, could sit 
up there quite comfortably; and I, therefore, was glad to have this 
opportunity of trying it once myself. On good roads the aifair is 
not so dreadful as it appears; the view one thus obtains of the 
country is very pretty, and any person who does not suffer from 
giddiness, which might easily be caused by the swaying motion, 
would no doubt be very pleasantly situated. 

We had hoped, that in the evening, when there was a considerable 
quantity of movement in the sky, we should at least be able to 
discover the summit of Ben Nevis ; but in vain, — it remained covered 
with clouds. 

After dinner, the landlord brought in a bottle of genuine Scotch 
whiskey — that nectar of Scotland, the preparation of which Land- 
seer has represented in a spirited painting, well known from its nume- 
rous engravings. It is nothing but very strong corn brandy, 
strongly impregnated, however, with the characteristic smell of 
turf, which is to be found in all Scotch dwellings, and prepared in a 
somewhat peculiar way. A mixture of hot water, sugar, and some of 
this spirit, forms an agreeable beverage, which, no doubt, is very 



LOCH LOCHIE. 303 

pleasant, and even beneficial, after a walk, or any expedition in the 
misty moisture of these mountains. Even the otherwise disagreeable 
taste of turf, gives a piquant taste to the spirit. And, indeed, is 
it not remarkable, that the extremes of the agreeable and the dis- 
agreeable are so nearly connected with each other? Pleasure and 
pain are often so closely connected, that an excess of pleasure 
becomes pain, and even a certain quantity of pain may produce 
pleasure. In the same way we find it with the very spiritual (intel- 
lectual) sense of taste, in which a certain aftertaste of what is dis- 
agreeable only serves to heighten the relish for the object. And this 
seems to be the case with this whiskey. 



LXIX. 

Inverness, July 27th — Evening. 

The most northerly point of our journey is here reached, at 58° 
N. lat., and reached by means of an interesting sail along the Cale- 
donian Canal, consisting of a number of mountain lakes, united by 
small canals, and dividing, as by an enormous cleft in the rocks, 
the Highlands of Scotland into an eastern and a western portion. 

When we left Bannavie this morning at six o'clock, the weather 
had become very fine, the summit of Ben Nevis lay before us covered 
with snow, and at intervals with fleeting clouds ; and a clear but 
somewhat cold sunshine lighted up the green valleys. The distance 
to the commencement of Loch Lochie was only a few miles ; close 
to it the canal is again navigable, and the steamer was lying there ; 
it makes the voyage a few times every week between this place and 
Inverness. Some time was required to convey our heavy travelling 
carriages on board, and this opportunity I improved to take a rapid 
sketch of Ben Nevis. At last all was ready ; we entered the 
vessel, which had some twenty passengers on board, principally 
tourists, among whom were several ladies, and some very pretty 
children, and began to cleave the dark blue waters of the loch. 
The sun was beginning to be warmer, the voyage was beautiful, and 
the scenery of the mountains on each side, and Ben Nevis in the 
distance, was delightful. Here, too, tales of the old clans are con- 
nected with every valley. Among others we were told of a bloody 
battle which had been fought here between the Frasers and the Mac- 
donalds, of Clanronald. This tale had also a very dark and bloody 
colouring. The feud was caused by a natural son of the Chief of the 
clan, Ronald, having usurped the inheritance which belonged to his 
younger brother. The Frasers took up the cause of the rightful 
heir, and took arms in order to regain his inheritance, and met the 
Macdonalds at Loch Lochie. The battle lasted till night j the 



304 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

Erasers were defeated ; and their chief, Lord Lovat, with his eldest 
son, and eighty men of his clan, remained on the field of battle. 
The Macdonalds had taken prisoner the rightful heir, called Donald 
Gaulta, and brought him to Laggan. A number of them were 
sitting there in the same room with their prisoner, who had been 
severely wounded in the head, and were boasting of their exploits. 
The wounded man, who had the day before killed one of their best 
men, raised himself with difficulty, and said — " If I were as I was 
yesterday morning, I would rather have to do with you all together 
than with the one I killed yesterday over again." This increased 
the anger of his captors, who had already been embittered by their 
loss, and they persuaded the surgeon, who was dressing his wound, 
to thrust the probe into his brain. This was done ; but the victim 
avenged his death by plunging, with his last effort, his dagger into 
the heart of his murderer.* 

Loch Lochie is ten miles long. In less than an hour and a half 
our steamer had traversed this distance, and we reached the first 
lock, where the steamer was raised up in order to pass by the canal 
into Loch Oich. I was interested in learning the exact height of 
each of these mountain lakes above the level of the sea. The cap- 
tain informed me as follows: — Loch Eil (he pronounced it like 
Lochhill) is itself an arm of the sea. Loch Lochie lies ninety-four 
feet higher, and varies ten feet in height. Loch Oich, the centre 
and highest of these lakes, lies 100 feet above the sea, and varies 
from eight to nine feet. They now again diminish in height, and 
Loch Ness, the longest and largest of the lakes, lies only from fifty- 
two to fifty-six feet above the level of Murray firth, in the north of 
Scotland. 

During this same conversation, I learned the following particulars 
concerning the construction of the whole line of canal. In the year 
1803-4 the civil engineers Telford and Jessop, according to instruc- 
tions given them, examined into the possibility of cutting a canal, 
which should connect the lakes. They made an estimate of something 
above 400,0007. In the year 1822 the canal was opened, and had then 
already cost above 1,300,0007. A sum of 300,000/., in addition to 
this, is now being employed in the necessary repairs and improve- 
ments ; and even this will probably not be sufficient. The utility of 
such a canal seemed, especially at the time when the idea was first 
taken up — viz., during the war with France — to be very considerable, 
because it would save the generally unsafe voyages round the coast 
of Scotland, and would afford facility for bringing cargoes from the 
west to the east of Scotland, and vice versa. The peace which has 
now lasted for many years very much diminished its utility, and at 
present the profit from it is so small that it does not even cover the 
interest of the interest of the capital. 

* This and similar stories will be found in the very much to be recommended 
work, entitled " Guide to the Highlands and Islands of Scotland," by George 
and Peter Anderson. Edinburgh. 1842. 



FORT AUGUSTUS. 305 

Notwithstanding this, however, the parliament considers the per- 
fect restoration and repair of the canal as a point of honour, and it 
has never shrunk from far greater expenses in similar undertakings. 

I also heard much that was interesting concerning the difficulties 
which had been surmounted; as, for instance, the canal, in the 
neighbourhood of Inverness, passes through a soft sandy soil, to 
which it was found impossible to give any consistence or firmness. 
At last Telford happened to notice, one day, the manner in which 
the wife of a fisherman protected a hole which had been dug to 
draw water from the intrusion of the sand, by means of a piece of 
woollen stuff, fastened by little sticks round the inside of the hole. 
The idea immediately occurred to him, of putting this plan into 
practice on a large scale; and, accordingly, this whole piece of 
canal was secured by a countless number of woollen sacks, made 
heavy with stones and clay — and so it remains. 

The distance between Loch Lochie and Loch Oich is only two 
miles, and the latter lake itself is only about three miles in length, 
so that we had very quickly traversed it. We then entered the 
longer canal (about five miles in length) connecting Loch Oich 
with Loch Ness; and as locks occur every now and then in this 
canal, we proposed walking a little way along its banks, beside the 
meadows and bushes, as the weather was beautiful. The scenery is 
very pretty; rocks, generally of fine granite, frequently stand out in 
bold relief: gradually sloping mountains rise at each side, and several 
pretty dwellings stand on the gentle descents. A great number of 
locks are necessary, in order to bring vessels down into Loch Ness, 
which lies about fifty feet below Loch Oich. Five of these locks 
lie close together at Fort Augustus. An hour and a half was 
necessary in order to take the steamer through them; we, there- 
fore, left it, and landed. The inhabitants of the little place stood 
on the shore ; several of the young men wore the kilt, and the pic- 
turesque plaid; among them were a few soldiers belonging to the 
Scotch regiment, which forms the garrison of this " Pocket Edition 
of a Fortress." They looked very well in their red uniform, with 
the plaid over it, and the kilt beneath, their high caps with black 
feathers, and their bare legs, only partially covered by socks adorned 
with red ribbons. Their weapons, too, still retain a peculiar form, 
especially the sabre, the hilt of which is lined with red cloth. As 
we were walking up into the little town, we looked down on 
the loch; a pretty picture was formed by the scenery w r here the 
canal falls into Loch Ness, and we sat down to sketch. A few 
people stood watching us from the neighbouring inn, and in a 
short time the host himself, a stout elderly man dressed in the 
Highland costume, appeared, bringing in his hand a small bronze 
vessel (it looked almost like one of the small ancient Roman lamps, 
of terra cotta), filled with whiskey, and begged that his majesty- 
would at least touch it with his lips; his majesty complied with his 
request, in order to free himself as soon as possible from the visit. 

x 



306 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

We then went to see the fort; it looked like a little farm, with its 
grassy bastions. The view from the rampart towards the lake 
afforded a most beautiful sight of the steep rock opposite, mirrored 
in the clear water. At length the bell of the steamer rang; we 
again entered it; it sank into the last lock, its watergates opened, 
and we were borne out on the long clear streams of this last moun- 
tain lake towards the sea. 

This lake (Loch Ness) is the longest of the three connected by the 
canal (it is twenty-four miles long), and many a place celebrated in 
the history of the Highlands is passed while gliding along over its 
shining surface. The scenery is very beautiful. The whole extent 
of the lake lies in so straight a line, that the mountains on its shores 
are to be seen from its centre, as well towards the north as towards 
the south, placed one behind the other, like scenes in a theatre. 
The clear blue sky, with its light, fleeting summer-clouds, accorded 
well with this stage. 

On the left shore is to be seen a barren ravine, and a story which 
was told us of a fight which took place there, is so characteristic of 
the spirit of clanship that I cannot omit repeating it here : In the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, Angus, the eldest son of the 
house of Glengarry, went on a foray into the lands of his enemies, — 
the Mackenzies. On his way back he was fallen upon by a troop 
of the latter and killed. This aroused fresh thirst for vengeance in 
his clan, and a large body of the Glengarry s marched into Rosshire 
under the command of Allan Mac Raonuill, for the purpose of falling 
upon the Mackenzies. Their plan succeeded but too well ; they 
appeared one Sunday morning in the parish of Urray, and found a 
number of their enemies' clan assembled to hear divine service in the 
church at Beauly; they surrounded the church so closely as to pre- 
vent any one from escaping, and set fire to the building. Thus, 
every soul in the church — -man, woman, and child — was destroyed 
either by the swords of Allan and his companions the Macdonells, 
or by the murderous element ; and in order that the cries and moans 
of the unhappy wretches might be mocked at and drowned as much 
as possible, a Scotch piper walked round and round the burning 
church, playing an extempore piece, which was ever afterwards the 
Pibroch of the Macdonells. 

This fearful deed resounded through the valleys of the Mackenzies. 
They rushed to arms and pursued the murderers, who had fled in two 
troops, the one over Inverness, the other along the northern shore of 
Loch Ness. The latter troop was led by Allan Mac Ranouill; while 
allowing his followers a little repose, he was overtaken and fallen upon 
by the Mackenzies. The fight was bloody but short. The Glengarrys 
were almost all killed, except Allan their leader, who, after a severe 
combat, escaped through the mountains towards Loch Ness ; he ar- 
rived at the steep ravine which is to be seen from the lake ; a despe- 
rate leap brought him safely over it ; the Mackenzies pursued him, 
and one of them, the foremost and boldest, ventured to leap after 



FALLS OF THE FOYERS. 307 

him ; but he missed the opposite side, and hung suspended over 
the abyss, clinging to the branch of a birch-tree which grew out 
of the rock. Mac Raonuill looked back, and saw his pursuer 
in this fearful situation. He turned back, drew his dagger, and 
severed the branch from the tree, crying, "lam largely in your 
debt for to-day, take this in part payment !" and saw his enemy fall 
headlong into the abyss. He then pursued his way to the lake, 
threw himself into its reviving waves, and swam to meet a boat which 
his fellow-clansmen had sent from the opposite shore. The other party 
of the fugitive Macdonells, who had gone by Inverness, did not fare 
so well. At a little inn at Torbreck, three miles from Inverness, 
where they were resting awhile, they were fallen upon by Murdoch 
Mackenzie of Redcastle ; the house was surrounded and set on fire, 
as a reprisal, and the whole seven-and-thirty perished by the same 
death that they had just before inflicted on their enemies. These 
stories have something in them which reminds me of the " Nibelun- 
gen-Lied," and other old German and Scandinavian legends, and it 
is singular to observe that this hot thirst for vengeance and delight 
in blood was almost as violent in these northerly countries as in 
those southerly ones, where the sun sends down fierce and burning 
rays. And this savage pleasure is by no means even yet entirely 
effaced from people's minds ; a proof of this may be found in the 
bloody acts of revenge still committed in Ireland, as also in the fol- 
lowing fact : that one of the chiefs of the house of Glengarry, as late 
as the year 1812, caused a monument to be raised on the shore of 
Loch Lochie, in order to perpetuate the remembrance of a bloody re- 
venge taken a considerable time ago on seven murderers, who had 
there murdered two heirs who were returning from France, and were 
regarded with unfavourable eyes, their return not being welcome. 

Happily for us, soon after seeing these gloomy spots, our spirits 
were cheered again by an excursion to the fine waterfall of the river 
Foyers, in the mountains to the right. The steamer lay still when it 
arrived opposite the place, the large boat was lowered, we entered 
it and were rowed over to the verdant shore. We here ascended by 
a pleasant footpath among the trees, and a loud rushing noise soon 
acquainted us with the neighbourhood of the fall, which gushed in a 
beautiful and abundant stream from a high cleft in the rock. The 
scene, however, was much more beautiful, and even grand (re- 
minding one somewhat of the upper fall of the Reichenbach). After 
ascending higher, we came out by a small footpath upon a steep 
jutting-out cliff, from whence we looked deep into the basin of the 
foaming fall, where the sun, playing on the thickly-rising spray, 
formed the most beautiful rainbow circles I ever remember to have 
seen. From an opposite rock gushed a strong, clear mountain 
stream, of a brownish colour (like clear porter), and fell perpendicu- 
larly for about forty feet into the basin, forming, in its descent, a 
number of spiral waves, edged with light foam, until it was lost to 

x 2 



308 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

sight beneath the spray and the rainbow. It was one of the most 
beautiful falls I ever saw, and is, probably, the finest in the British 
Isles. The place looked very inviting for a longer stay, and pleasant 
studies might be carried on there. The vegetation around is rich ; 
and the first gentians I had seen, either in England or Scotland, 
bloomed among the grass. The woods around consist principally of 
birch and pine trees. We were only too soon obliged to return to 
the steamer. Yet the steamer itself offered some entertainment. 
There were several pretty Englishwomen on board, and besides 
them, two pretty little girls, who amused themselves delightfully, by 
building towers and houses on the deck, with the little foot-stools 
which stand about there for the use of the persons sitting ; and with 
the help of a kitten, carried on all manner of amusing games. 

We still continued our northerly course, cutting through the clear 
waves, now passing steep rocks, and now wooded heights. We saw 
several very picturesque ruins; of these, Urquhart Castle is the 
prettiest. I took a slight sketch of it as we passed it quickly. This 
castle is often mentioned in the annals of Scotch history. It was first 
taken in the reign of Edward I, in the year 1303. It has, since the 
sixteenth century, been in the possession of the clan Grant. 

After having had such fine weather the whole afternoon for our 
voyage, towards evening the sky suddenly grew dark; gray clouds 
rose over the mountains, and the nearer we drew to Inverness, the 
darker grew the weather. About eight o'clock, we reached the lock 
of Inverness, where the canal again descends a considerable depth 
into the Murray Frith; and so towards the Northern Sea. Here 
our voyage ended. By simple, though skilfully-chosen machinery, 
and not without great exertion, the crew of the steamer drew the 
travelling carriages on shore , post-horses were brought, and we were 
soon rollins; towards the chief town of the Scotch Highlands. This 
part of the country presents a very peculiar aspect. The Alpine cha- 
racter of the Highlands disappears, large deposits of pebbles and sand 
round solitary pieces of rock, become visible in the shape of small 
hills, from 300 to 400 feet high ; and in the distance are to be seen 
single points of land, stretching far into that inlet of the sea which 
bears the name of Murray Frith. Everywhere were to be seen fields, 
meadows, hills, and higher elevations covered with woods of pine 
trees. The gray cloudy evening sky completed this altogether 
somewhat gloomy picture. 

The town, too, looks peculiarly Scotch, with its small gray houses, 
the gable ends of which often stand towards the street, and its 
churches with pointed steeples. The peculiar English elegance of 
streets is here altogether wanting. The broad Ness, a stream from 
the lake, flows through the town and out into the frith. 

It is crossed by a stone bridge, and near this bridge, on a mode- 
rate elevation, stands a castle-looking municipal building. On this 
site, Macbeth's castle is said to have stood, and Duncan to have been 



MANUFACTURES OF INVERNESS. 309 

murdered. Its appearance to-day did not answer to the description 
given of it in Macbetli : — 

" Duncan. This castle hath a pleasant seat ; the air 
Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself 
Unto our gentle senses. 
Banquo. This guest of summer, 

The temple-haunting martlet, does approve, 
By his lov'd mansionry, that the heaven's breath 
Smells wooingly here : no jutty, frieze, 
Buttress, nor coigne of vantage, but this bird 
Hath made his pendent bed, and procreant cradle : 
Where they most breed and haunt, I have observ'd, 
The air is delicate." 

As for ourselves, we have our quarters in the Caledonian Hotel, 
which has the golden thistle of Scotland showily exhibited on its sign. 
We had not long arrived, and were still in the drawing-room, when 
the authorities of Inverness entered and welcomed his majesty in a 
short but appropriate speech. His majesty with the greatest affabi- 
lity asked the mayor several questions concerning the locality and 
the manufactures of the place &c, &c; in the answers the manu- 
facture of whiskey was not forgotten, and it made rather a comical 
impression when, on this manufacture being mentioned, one of the 
aldermen officiously spoke, and immediately presented the mayor to 
his majesty as the principal distiller and wholesale whiskey manu- 
facturer in the town. The number of inhabitants amounts to about 
16,000 and the principal commodities are woven Scotch stuffs in 
wool and silk. It was very interesting and yet at the same time 
a great temptation, when, after supper, an exhibition of some of the 
best woollen and silken stuffs was made in a neighbouring room for 
the inspection of his majesty. The soft plaids of various colours, 
the excellent heavy silk- stuffs, the pretty Scotch plaid silken gloves 
for ladies, and the fine woollen veils, resembling the garments of 
nymphs, which are woven by the wives of fishermen in the Orkney 
Isles; all this was pleasant to look upon, and I did not neglect to 
appropriate to myself a small portion with which to make presents, 
and, it is to be hoped, agreeable ones, to those who awaited me at 
home. 

In this exhibition was also included a handsomely done up and 
instructive work on the subject of the various patterns and colours 
of the plaids and kilts by which the different clans were distin- 
guished ; it was published in folio two years ago at Edinburgh, with a 
number of coloured illustrations; it is taken from a manuscript of 
the sixteenth century. The title of the work is as follows : " Ves- 
tiarium Scoticum, 5 ' from the manuscript formerly in the library of 
the Scots College at Douay, by John Sobieski Stuart. Edinburgh, 
1842. J J 5 



310 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

LXX. 

Inverness, July 28tb — Evening. 
Early in the morning I stood at my window, looked across the 
broad Ness to the Gothic church and the small houses which form a 
suburb of the town in that direction, contemplated the phenomena 
of the gray rainy sky, and the green plains which stretch away to 
the pine-clad hills, and was using my best powers to obtain a 
thorough impression of this peculiar picture of a strange land, and 
a different description of architecture, when his majesty sent up to 
inform me, that he was about to undertake an excursion on foot in 
the early morning to Phaedric-craig, which lay at no great distance. 
In a few minutes I also was ready. This place is one of those 
remarkable ancient 'fire-hearths of Scotland, which have given rise 
to so many investigations and inquiries. Yesterday, on our pas- 
sage hither, a Scotch traveller who was on board the steamboat 
had given us a variety of information respecting this singular place 
in the neighbourhood of Inverness. There are found, and for the 
most part on elevated places in the neighbourhood of the sea, large 
ebullitions of a singular description of vitrified rocks. These places 
have been regarded by some, as formerly by Pennant, as the re- 
mains of some volcanic or rather Plutonic eruption ; and, by others, 
declared to have been used as places for fires, serving as a substitute 
for lighthouses ; whilst others, as Macculloch, have supposed them 
to be the remains of small fortifications, and have called them vitri- 
fied forts* It was, however, a matter of great interest to us to have 
an opportunity of seeing and examining one of these curious places 
with our own eyes. 

Having provided ourselves with a guide, we set out on foot in 
spite of a light rain, and proceeded through the streets, which were 
perfectly quiet, partly on account of the early hour, and partly be- 
cause it was Sunday, towards the canal, where we had yesterday 
landed, and then in the direction of the rocky hill, about 300 feet 
high, and overgrown with pines and heath. I had before noticed 
this hill yesterday from the boat, my attention having been particu- 
larly attracted by the reddish stone of which it consists, peeping out 
in kidney-shaped masses from among the pines with which it is par- 
tially covered. To-day, on a closer examination, the rock appeared 
to be a description of pudding-stone, containing a great number of 
rounded quartz grains in its brownish-red mass. On the summit of this 
extensive hill, covered with pines and overgrown with tall heath, there 
appeared a basin of about 100 yards in diameter, on which the rock was 
exposed only at one place of the northern edge. We regretted 
much having omitted to bring with us two or three labourers with 
spades and shovels, in order to have been able to remove a greater 

* See Appendix iv. 



PHAEDRIOCRAIG. 311 

portion of the heath and earth from the surface at this part of the hill, 
and were consequently obliged to confine our observations to the por- 
tion already opened. Certainly I was not a little surprised to find 
nothing on the surface but stones obviously vitrified by fire. Vitrified 
pudding-stones, and pieces of gneiss, in masses completely resembling 
lava, and even passing over into a kind of pumice-stone, stood out 
above the ground to the height of a foot, and the resemblance to 
the site of a volcanic eruption was remarkably great ; nay, the ele- 
vation of the hill itself, with the basin on its summit, gives a surpris- 
ing confirmation to this hypothesis. A very slight excavation on 
the spot would have immediately enabled us to have determined this 
question, but the means of making this excavation were wanting, 
and it would have required considerable delay.* We were there- 
fore obliged to leave the examination of the nature and origin of 
the stone, and I merely sought to collect a few good specimens of 
the rock, in its various conditions, to be taken with us as memorials 
of this singular place. On our return, our guide pointed out to us 
another similar isolated hill, which is called " the Fairy hill." Our 
attempts, however, to obtain from him any account of the traditions 
connected with it,- were fruitless. He seemed to treat such stories as 
something too absurd to be worthy of any attention. On the other 
hand, he related to us tales of Macbeth, and assured us that the 
place was yet shown, about twenty miles from Inverness, where the 
witches appeared to him and Banquo. It is very possible that the 
poet here first created the tradition, and the place of the tradition, as 
elsewhere the tradition informs the poet. Besides, it is certain that 
one cannot contemplate these districts, with their gloomy sky, their uni- 
form green, their dark pine woods, and the peculiar bluish air which 
usually prevails in them, without feeling that such scenes must, there 
more than elsewhere, awaken those impulses in the soul of man, 
which produce a deep contemplative spirit, and singular modes of 
thought and feeling, manifesting themselves sometimes in stories and 
legends of elves and witches, and sometimes calling forth the singu- 
lar phenomena of second sight. The latter, however, appears to 
belong more especially to the island inhabitants of the Hebrides, 
particularly of Skye, and the peculiar seclusion of the life of the 
people on these islands furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the 
fact.f 

The afternoon of to-day was destined for an excursion to Mac- 
beth's ancient Castle of Cawdor. 

The weather having cleared up about two o'clock, we left In- 
verness in two light carriages, and drove first to the battle-field of 

* It appears with certainty, from the investigations of Macculloch, that these 
are the walls of old forts, intentionally cemented by vitrification. — This process 
was used at that time instead of lime and cement, and is still in use for the 
same purpose in India. 

f A multitude of stories of this faculty of second sight may be seen in " Mar- 
tin's Description of the Western Islands of Scotland." London. 1716. 



312 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

Culloden. Longevity is very frequent in the Highlands, and there are 
many persons still living, who remember the battle. Yesterday, as 
we came near the termination of the Caledonian Canal, we were shown 
the park and monument of a Mr. Bailey, who had lately died in In- 
verness, and who was accustomed to give very graphic accounts of 
the battle from the recollections of the sixth year of his age ; the 
event, like every thing connected with the whole adventurous history 
of the Pretender, is interwoven into the circle of the popular tra- 
ditions. The scene of the battle is an open, extensive, and elevated 
barren heath, lying to the north-east of Inverness, and interspersed 
with large blocks of stone. It was on this field, on the 16th of 
April, 1746, that Prince Charles Stuart risked the fate of a crown 
against the English, under the Duke of Cumberland, and fought 
a battle in which the lives of 1200 brave Highlandmen, and almost 
as many English, fell a sacrifice. In consequence of the efficient 
service performed by the well-directed English artillery, and the 
unskilful conduct of the Scotch leaders, the battle soon ended with 
the flight of the Pretender. The mounds which marked the graves 
of those who fell on that day are still pointed out, and arms are 
occasionally dug up. From a solitary standing tower, which is, pro- 
perly speaking, only the balcony of a poor public-house, a few 
good views are obtained of the dreary neighbourhood, and of the 
friths of the Northern Sea in the distance. 

We soon drove on, and after about an hour arrived at the 
entrance to the park of Kilravoch Castle. The interior of the 
park consists of a beech wood, in which the trees are of rather 
diminutive size, in consequence of the northern latitude and the 
wind from the sea ; and their stems and branches are mostly 
covered with long moss and lichens. At length the wood opened 
up, and the large ancient square tower, the real building of the 
castle, came in sight. The tower was built by Hugh Rose, an old 
Scottish baron, in the latter half of the fifteenth century. Some 
small habitable buildings adjoin, and lean picturesquely against the 
ancient edifice, which is surrounded by a handsome shrubbery, lawns, 
and ornamental flower-beds, together with some old, large beech 
and ash-trees. Baron von Grersdorff happened to be acquainted 
with the then occupiers, and announced to them the arrival of an 
exalted guest. They were two ladies — mother aud daughter — of 
the family of the Campbells, who, in the true spirit of English 
cxclusiveness and separation, dwelt in this absolute solitude, and 
had taken a lease of the property from the owner, for a number of 
years. The whole of the ornamental grounds around were their 
work; they had planted fruit-trees, and even sweet chesnuts, and 
the careful selection of the flowers and plants 'gave abundant evi- 
dence of refined female taste. There is something quite original in 
the interior of the house. In the drawing-room there were a number 
of vases and grotesque figures ; books, music, and portfolios were lying 
around ; there stood a pianoforte and a harp, and, in short, every 



CAWDOR. 313 

thing gave evidence of the favourite pursuits of two ladies who 
had travelled much — had traversed Italy, and the highest and most 
dangerous passes of the Swiss mountains and glaciers, and at that 
time were living in the enjoyment of a kind of philosophical retire- 
ment and literary occupation. At first the mother alone was pre- 
sent; but the daughter also soon arrived from church, in a light gig 
driven by herself, and both now showed us, just as if we were all 
old acquaintances, the vaults of the tower, the corridors and stairs 
of the house, up to the platform of the old watch-tower, from 
whence there is a very extensive view of this wonderful and 
romantic woody district. The Pretender is said to have passed the 
night preceding the battle of Culloden in the castle. We could 
not avoid partaking of a light repast with them, after which we 
immediately set out for Cawdor. The young lady invited his 
majesty to take a seat in her gig, and leading the way, we fol- 
lowed in the other carriages. We met many church-goers on the 
road, to whom our Sundav excursion was obviouslv offensive ; and 
to the right of the road, a little further on, we found,' on the slope 
of a green hill, the assembling place of a congregation belonging to 
the free church. At the top there was a small house — a kind of 
chapel, whilst numbers of w ell-clothed persons were either lying 
or standing on the green slope. The service appeared to have been 
but a very short time over, and for that reason we had met so many 
on their way home, as we came. I hear that our German theo- 
logians, too, have not left this movement in the church unob- 
served, and that Sydow of Potsdam remained longer than he 
would otherwise have, done, in Scotland, in order to obtain an ac- 
curate knowledge of the nature and grounds of the schism. 

At length we arrived at the ancient Cawdor. The whole locality 
is in the highest degree antiquated. A drawbridge under some 
large beeches, and in the small courtyard, the lofty, square, broad 
tower with its gabled wings ; the whole furnishing a splendid pic- 
ture. According to an old tradition, this was the place in which 
Macbeth murdered Duncan. This story has no historical foundation. 
The castle itself was probably built in the beginning of the fifteenth 
century. In the time of Edward the Confessor, who protected 
Malcolm, Duncan's son, there existed no thane of Calder or Cawdor ; 
but Sir Hugh Horstrott, who obtained Macbeth 's property here in 
Nairnshire, is said to have first borne this title. There are nume- 
rous and wonderful legends respecting the building of the castle itself. 
In one of the vaulted cellars there is still an old, dry, but firmly- 
rooted white-thorn, connected with which it is told, that the founder 
of the castle loaded an ass with gold, and vowed to build a castle 
wherever the beast should stop with his burden, — that the ass stopped 
at this white-thorn, and that here, consequently, the castle was built. 
It would not be difficult to find architects who have chosen much 
worse sites for their castles, than did this ass. The situation of the 
castle in the rear, on the side of a steep, rocky valley, formed by a 



314 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

mountain torrent, and surrounded by woody ravines, leaves nothing 
to wish for in this description of country. " Freshness to its haw- 
thorn tree" is still a common wish for the prosperity of the house of 
Cawdor. 

We were very fortunate in being conducted through the castle by 
Mr. Staples, the steward of the present possessor, who was absent ; 
our guide, too, was thoroughly well acquainted with the geology 
and botany of the neighbourhood. The vaults, passages, and cham- 
bers above, are all pervaded by a peculiar air of antiquity ; I was par- 
ticularly interested by a very ancient description of ornament in a 
chamber hung with woollen tapestry. The very chamber, too, in 
which Duncan is said to have past the night was, properly speaking, 
rude in its masonry, the walls even without plaster, and covered 
only with this old worked tapestry. When the tapestry is removed, 
in a castle built after this fashion, the whole appears as rude as the 
interior of a ruin. In addition to this, the rooms are low, the fire- 
places large and often singularly enough adorned. There are but 
few family portraits. The view from the windows down upon the 
rocky valley, with its mountain stream, is beautiful, and of a remark- 
ably melancholy character. We mounted to the broad platform of 
the old watch-tower. Close to this place was a secret room in the 
roof, in which Lord Lovat is said to have lain concealed after the 
battle of Culloden. The view from this elevated spot towards Nairn, 
far along the coasts of the north of Scotland, and over the dark sea 7 
detained us long, and was undoubtedly one of the most peculiar and 
interesting which we had yet seen in the Highlands. 

Lady Campbell now took her leave and drove back, but we 
took a long walk among the deep ravines formed by clefts in the 
conglomerate sandstone, and thickly overgrown with beech, birch, 
and ash trees. There, too, the wild honeysuckle twined itself in full 
bloom among the bushes, some of the great oaks riveted our attention 
and our steps, and the birches hung most picturesquely into the abyss 
below. 

There appears also to be a great quantity of game in these woods t 
especially of the favourite grouse, and Mr. Staples assured us, that 
if the owner would let his game, it would readily bring him in as 
great an income as his flocks of sheep — 1000Z. a year. We did not 
return to the castle till eight o'clock, we took a hasty sketch of it r 
and at half-past eight set out on our return to Inverness. In 
the 58° of north latitude there is an obvious difference between the 
continuance of the twilight and that in our latitude of 52°; it remained 
light for a long time. We returned by another road and drove 
near the sea, which here penetrates deep into the land. A cold 
wind blew from the smooth sea, and the greater part of the way pre- 
sented few objects of interest and variety. As we drew near Inver- 
ness, the bright moon rose splendidly from the golden clouds, into 
such a beautiful azure blue sky, and accompanied by such charming 
tones of colour in the clouds beneath, as I had not yet seen either in 



SCOTCH HUTS. 315 

England, or hitherto in Scotland. The sea coast — the barren heath — 
and the splendid moon ; nothing was wanting but a bard to give com- 
pleteness to the Ossianic picture. 

At length we turned round the walls of an old castle, built in the 
time of Cromwell, never large, and long since fallen into decay, and 
long after ten o'clock reached our quarters in Inverness. 



LXXI. 

Blair, July 29th — Evening. 
Our first great step southwards — the first step on our homeward 
journey — has been made to-day, and many a thought, therefore, 
sped before us towards our homes ! Even though a journey may 
be the continuous, and often warm labour of the harvest, who is 
there that does not enjoy and rejoice in the repose of the cooler 
evening, in which the peaceful but deep enjoyment of the past, suc- 
ceeds the day of vigorous labour ! Our object to-day was to reach 
Dunkeld, which was merely a day's journey; but even this long day 
proved too short, and darkness came upon us some time before we 
reached Dunkeld, which is called the bay of the Highlands. On 
leaving Inverness, the road gradually ascends towards the higher 
mountains, and winds its way through barren valleys, producing 
nothing except heath and turf, and full of rocks. In the deeper 
and more protected places, the small, short, round-formed dwarf 
birch grows in considerable quantities, and a few miserable huts are 
scattered here and there by the road-side. Their walls are made of 
rough field-stones, heaped one upon another — the roof supported 
by a few weak timbers, covered with heath and turf, and often 
green as a meadow. The smoke finds an exit for itself through a 
rude opening at one end of the roof, and one or two miserable little 
windows give light to the narrow space within. We went into one 
of these huts. The interior was separated into two parts, by a very 
incomplete partition wall; on one side was the stable, which con- 
tained a small cow, the whole wealth of the family — on the other 
the dwelling-place of the family, a dark and miserable room filled 
and blackened with smoke from a kind of chimney-place at one 
end. In a recess of the wall, near the window, stood the bed of the 
woman of the house, which was indeed very miserable, but still 
fitted up like a kind of four-post bed, and surrounded by some old 
smoky curtains. The room had, properly speaking, no ceiling, but 
was open up to the beams of the roof, which were thoroughly black- 
ened with smoke. A large basket of potatoes was steaming on the 
little table at which the husband was sitting, and supplied the place 
of pudding. The wife, who had opened the door for us, was carry- 
ing on her arm a child about half a year old; she pointed out to us 



316 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

a small adjoining room, which contained another bed, together with 
some old furniture, and some potatoes stored up in one corner. The 
whole conveyed the idea of an existence of the poorest description. 
And yet, with all this poverty, and these walls so thoroughly black- 
ened with smoke, there was a shelf adorned with a number of white 
and blue plates, of tolerable quality, set up on edge, and indicating 
a certain elegance. The people appeared to have been not very long 
married, as the child just mentioned was their first. The man 
worked as a day-labourer ; and yet the whole presented something 
pleasing, which I have often found wanting in a splendid palace. 
Here the radical idea of human kind — husband, wife, and child — 
was represented, and the poor but independent existence was, at 
least, secured. I was pleased to see that a small present was left 
behind, which would always be to them a memorial of the day 
when a king trod the floor of their humble dwelling. 

A cold wind blew through these lofty valleys, and some snow was 
visible on the cloud-capt summits of a dark mountain chain. These 
form the commencements of the Grampian ridge, which stretches its 
arms far into the country ; it was not till towards evening that we 
again arrived at a somewhat milder neighbourhood. The rocks in 
this part of the country are all of the primitive order ; and in parts 
of the road a way had been cut through mighty rocks of gneiss and 
mica slate. Single large swelling hills are mixed with the masses 
of granite. As one proceeds on the descent, the sloping layers of 
rock, which make an angle with the horizon, are remarkable, as 
furnishing the most decisive evidence of the bold and steep eleva- 
tion of the central stock of the mountain. 

Some miles from Blair, on the left of the road, there is a very 
picturesque and singular cascade, formed by the river Bruar, in the 
Duke of Athol's park. The carriages were stopped, and we went 
to have a nearer view of the rushing torrent. The first fall is par- 
ticularly characteristic. The sharp projecting mica slate there forms 
layers, heaped upon one another like vast icebergs; single blocks 
stand separate from the rest, and a natural rocky grotto is formed, 
behind which the water plunges down with a roaring noise. The 
fall is crossed above by a stone bridge; and, in consequence of the 
irregular broken rocks, the whole exhibited a peculiarly grotesque 
appearance, which reminded me of the kind of waterfalls which 
one is accustomed to see upon the old conventional tapestried land- 
scapes. Here, too, the water, which is in other respects clear, exhibits 
the brown porter-colour, so as to appear dark brown in the basins 
where it collects in pools. This, however, does not disturb, but 
rather harmonises well with the whole of this singular locality. 
Farther up there are three other falls, one above another in succes- 
sion. In the first the water falls fifty feet; the lowest is, however, 
the most striking, and the rocks around are well clothed with firs 
and pines. 

In these low districts the traveller again finds an admirably well 



PASS OF KILLIECRANKIE. 317 

cultivated country; and, after having travelled for a whole day 
through barren wastes, rejoices no little in finding, in the evening, 
such agreeable evidences of human culture. Those desert mountain 
regions are, however, by no means so solitary as they appear to the 
mere traveller. Towards the close of the autumn, many of the 
valleys often become, for weeks long, the residence of rich lords and 
gentlemen fond of the chase; who either amuse themselves in grouse- 
shooting or deer-stalking. Parties, during the season, take up their 
quarters in these shooting-boxes, in the midst of the mountains; 
commit follies of all kinds; assume the Scotch costume, with kilt 
and dagger, drink, drive about in light carriages, drawn by Highland 
ponies, over the Alpine mountain-paths, and practise all the devices 
which youth and wealth, stimulated by pride and indolence, can 
suggest. 

As we proceeded, the full moon rose splendidly in a beautifully 
clear evening sky, in order as it were to bring us greetings from afar. 
Meadows, fields, and woods, passed rapidly by — and in the contem- 
plation of the moon, I sank into the indulgence of a variety of 
visionary thoughts, from which I was at length aroused by the 
execrable tones of a Highland piper, who was playing with all his 
might and main before the hotel at which Ave stopped. 



LXXII. 

Taymouth Castle, July 30th — Evening. 

This morning was as wet and gloomy as yesterday evening was 
beautiful. We set out on our journey in the midst of thick rain, and 
in consequence lost many a beautiful view of the richly- wooded rocky 
valley, which leads to the pass of Killiecrankie. The river Garry 
here flows between steep rocky walls, sometimes covered with a rich 
foliage, and beech woods. This stream carries off the water from 
a small lake, and is crossed by a bridge of noble span, which 
connects the two sides of the narrow valley. Fortunately, when we 
arrived at this spot, the weather cleared up, and even in the 
rainy atmosphere the view from the bridge, both up and down the 
stream, of the woody ravines at either side, was very charming. The 
scenery continued to be of a similar description. Loch Tummel, a 
mountain lake, lay before us with its placid waters, girt in by moun- 
tains of the most various forms. Our road lay through extensive 
plantations of young wood, and the distant mountains, seen by 
snatches through the light places in the veil of clouds, made a 
grander impression than if it had been possible to see them clearly. 

At a later part of the drive the country became wilder and more 
desolate, "when, all at once, we crossed a bridge over a broad moun- 



318 ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

tain stream, in a wide valley, and the road began again to ascend 
into a sort of Alpine region. As soon as we crossed the summit of this 
range, the road again descended to the valley of Loch Tay, in which 
we proposed to visit Tay mouth, the noble residence of the Marquis 
of Breadalbane. The way was still long, and led into the depths 
of the valley ; when, after having crossed a ford in the broad and 
shallow Tay, we arrived at the outer gate of the park. Several of 
the Marquis's people, clothed in Highland costume, and wearing 
the tartan and plaid of the Campbells, were standing there and 
opened the gates, whilst one of them gave a signal on a horn, to 
announce the arrival of the illustrious guest. The park is richly 
wooded with the most splendid beech, oak, lime, and ash trees ; the 
approach to the house passes through extensive pastures, and through 
several gates, which form divisions between the several portions of 
the park. At each of these gates, again, there stood one or two 
Highlanders to open them as the king advanced. During the 
drive within the grounds the Tay was crossed two or three times, 
by means of well-made bridges, the side railings of which were 
usually made of rough oak. Near the last bridge, at the farther 
side of the water stands a small well-built fort, under large oak 
trees ; and presently the stately castle of the rich and powerful 
Marquis of Breadalbane, surrounded by beautiful lawns, and mag- 
nificent groups of trees, presents itself to the eye. This castle 
is built in the richest, modern Anglo -gothic fortification style. 
It is gay and handsome, and had the yellow and black flag fly- 
ing on the main tower. The noble owner received his majesty 
at the door of the castle, and, as we entered the hall, the cannons 
of the fort thundered forth a royal salute of twenty-one guns. His 
majesty and suite were conducted into the splendid reception- 
room, where the family were assembled, and then visited the 
noble hall, the walls of which are panelled with wood in the 
Gothic style; it has an air of antiquity, and is tastefully adorned 
with armour and banners. Other state rooms adjoin the hall. 
The first greetings and observations being past, a walk was pro- 
posed through part of the park, towards Loch Tay. On the way 
we saw some really splendid specimens of lime trees in flower, with 
their branches hanging to the ground ; and proceeded through an 
alley of lofty and magnificent red beech, not less than 300 years 
old, to an elevated point in the demesne from which there is a 
charming view of the lake, surrounded by richly-wooded hills. 
Near this spot stands the dairy, fitted up not only with admirable 
neatness, but in the most ornamental manner. This small house, 
over-grown with wild roses and adorned with lattices and ornaments 
of white quartz, is very charming. The basement floor contains 
the milk-room, in which the milk and cream, in large and handsome 
pans, are placed in running spring-water, while the upper story 
contains some elegant rooms for breakfast or luncheon. We were 



PROFESSOR BREWSTER. 319 

scarcely returned to the castle when we were conducted to the 
dining-room, where a luncheon awaited us, which might very well 
have served for a splendid dinner. 

I was very happy in having an opportunity of making the per- 
sonal acquaintance of a scholar, to whose works upon natural philo- 
sophy, and especially upon optics, I had been previously indebted 
for much information. This was Professor Brewster of St. Andrews, 
whom, as a friend of the house, the marquis had invited for the 
purpose of meeting and being presented to his majesty. Properly 
speaking, this meeting afforded me double pleasure; first, on account of 
the professor himself, whose knowledge and scientific character have 
gained for him a European reputation, and whose simplicity of 
nature and ability were so very agreeable ; and, secondly, on account 
of the lord of the mansion, to whom it does great honour to main- 
tain such friendly relations with men of eminence and science, and 
who furnishes an example in the high aristocracy of the cultivation 
of the sciences, which is but of rare occurrence either in England 
or Scotland. 

In the afternoon light carriages were ordered, and we made a 
second excursion, partly through the rich woods of the park, and 
partly through the village of Aberfeldy, in order to visit the beau- 
tiful waterfalls of Moness, which lie just above the town. The 
waters in this case are not brown, as is the case in so many of the 
other Scotch waterfalls, but perfectly clear; the rocky ravine, in 
which the falls are formed, is luxuriously wooded; moss-covered, 
decaying stems hang down from the projecting rocks, whilst the 
water rushes down in charming cascades from basin to basin, and 
many very original views, admirably calculated for being made sub- 
jects of the artist's pencil, reward the pedestrian who climbs from 
one ascent to another. On this occasion I kept always close to Dr. 
Brewster, and, ckeniin faisant, we exchanged many interesting com- 
munications. I was much surprised with the account of the disco- 
very of an American, who had found out a process for making every 
description of paper from straw. Dr. Brewster had seen some speci- 
mens of the production, which appeared to him every thing that could 
be desired. A manufactory of this description was about to be 
established in the neighbourhood of London. Might not this power 
of making paper from straw produce this result, that so much written 
and printed paper should no longer be nothing better than coarse 
straw? Another discovery, which Dr. Brewster mentioned to me, 
may also become one of great importance. It relates to the steam- 
engine, and consists in a species of mechanism, by means of which 
the first moving power, caused by the expansion and condensation 
of the steam, produces, not a rising and a sinking motion, as in the 
present piston, but a revolving motion. On my part I communi- 
cated to the Scotch naturalist my observations detailed in my sys- 
tem of physiology, on the effect produced on the retina in seeing 
as closely related to the Daguerreotype process, a